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79 <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>
80 <H3>Documentation: Fixing boot problems
81 </H3>
82 <div style="margin:0; padding: 3px; width: 980; position relative;">
83 <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>25/02/2010 - v 3.1.0</H4></div>
84 <div style="position: absolute; right: 0px;"><H4>Last update: 16/03/2010</H4></div>
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107
108 <!-- Intro -->
109
110 <H2 style="margin-top: 0;"><a name="sgd-intro"></a>Intro <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
111
112 <p>Boot problems are probably the most feared computer problems. Without an operating system you can't access your data, get the work done or even google for help. That's why it's often a good idea to have an alternative operating system available for searching help if the main OS doesn't work. Also a copy of <b>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</b> can be invaluable help.<br>
113 <br>
114 Actually, the initial reason why I (Jyrki) installed GNU/Linux at all was that I wanted to be able to fix Windows boot problems if they occur. I installed both GNU/Linux and GRUB to my external hard drive, completely separating operating systems. Even if either bootloader stopped working, I'd still be able to boot one of my OSes.<br>
115 <br>
116 But such configuration is not easy to create, and when I installed GNU/Linux, I knew very little about it. If I didn't read the instructions I found here and there very carefully, I probably would have done a common mistake: installing GRUB to my internal hard drive. Such mistake would have caused two problems:<br>
117 <br>
118 <ul>
119 <li>Inability to boot GNU/Linux at any computer expect the one which was used for installing</li>
120 <li>Inability to boot Windows when the external drive isn't connected</li>
121 </ul>
122 <br><br>
123 In this page, I simulate that situation in a virtual machine and fix both problems.</p>
124
125
126
127 <!-- Symptoms -->
128
129 <H2><a name="sgd-symptoms"></a>Symptoms <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
130
131 <p>What happens when I try to boot the external hard drive on another computer depends on the BIOS of the computer. For example, on my computer I see a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Screen_of_Death" target="_blank">Black Screen of Death</a> when I try booting from a disk with empty Master Boot Record. Other BIOSes may boot the local operating system or display an error message (for example "Disk boot failure", "Missing operating system" or "Operating system not found").<br>
132 <br>
133 The other problem is very easy to determine. When external drive is disconnected and I try to boot, I'll see this:<br>
134 <br>
135 <img src="images/error-21.png"></p>
136
137
138
139 <!-- Goals -->
140
141 <H2><a name="sgd-goals"></a>Goals <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
142
143 <p>Because I still want to separate my operating systems completely, I try to restore NTLDR to the Master Boot Record of the internal disk, if possible. If that's not possible, I install there another bootloader that chainloads Windows.<br>
144 <br>
145 I could reinstall GNU/Linux completely and make sure that the GRUB is installed to the right disk this time, but it's not a good idea if I only need to overwrite the first 446 bytes (yes, bytes, not kilo- or megabytes) of the disk. So, I only install GRUB to the external disk, by using <b>Super Grub Disk</b>.<br>
146 <br>
147 Your problem (if you have one at all) most likely is different, but goals are often the same.<br>
148 <br>
149 You need to restore NTLDR if you...<br>
150 <br>
151 <ul>
152 <li>...just installed GNU/Linux, but the boot menu doesn't mention Windows at all. You're not willing to learn how Windows can be added to the boot menu, you just need to make your computer to boot Windows again right now.</li>
153 <li>...cloned your Windows partition to your brand new computer but didn't clone the Master Boot Record.</li>
154 <li>...are about to uninstall GNU/Linux and aren't willing to use GRUB as your bootloader.</li>
155 </ul>
156 <br>
157 <br>
158 You need to install GRUB if you...<br>
159 <br>
160 <ul>
161 <li>...just installed Windows and want to make GNU/Linux bootable again.</li>
162 <li>...cloned your GNU/Linux partition to your brand new computer but didn't clone the Master Boot Record.</li>
163 <li>...just installed GNU/Linux but installed GRUB to a non-first hard drive by accident. (The symptom is that your computer still boots to the operating system you had installed already.)</li></p>
164
165 <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/info.png"></td><td>
166 The following pressentation has been made using<br><b>Super Grub Disk v0.9799</b>
167 </td></tr></table></div>
168
169
170
171 <!-- Restoring NTLDR -->
172
173 <H2><a name="ntldr"></a>Restoring NTLDR <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
174
175 <p>There are a lot of ways to restore NTLDR. However, sometimes there is no legal way to restore it, and I'm NOT telling about the illegal ones. The last resort is using syslinux to chainload Windows; there is usually no way to notice that syslinux is used instead of NTLDR.<br>
176 <br>
177 I've listed here the most important options in order I'd use them.</p>
178 <!--empty line-->
179 <H3><a name="ntldr-backup"></a>Restoring NTLDR from a backup <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
180
181 <p>If you've been smart enough to use <b>Clonezilla Live</b> to create a disk image of your first hard drive, it's very easy to restore NTLDR.<br>
182 <br>
183 Your NTLDR is safe in a file called <b>hda-mbr</b> or <b>sda-mbr</b>. You can use <b>dd</b> to overwrite your existing Master Boot Record.</p>
184 <!--empty line-->
185 <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/important.png"></td><td>
186 Don't restore all 512 bytes of your Master Boot Record.<br><br>The MBR contains your partition table and restoring it after<br>repartitioning your disk <b>erases all the data on the disk</b>.
187 </td></tr></table></div>
188 <!--empty line-->
189 <p>If you normally use GNU/Linux, open terminal and run these commands as root:</p>
190 <!--empty line-->
191 <p class="newcode">mount /dev/<font color="Green">sdc1</font> /mnt/usb<br>
192 dd if=/mnt/usb/<font color="Green">Backup</font>/<font color="Green">sda</font>-mbr of=/dev/<font color="Green">sda</font> bs=446 count=1</p>
193 <!--empty line-->
194 <p><b>Note:</b> In the commands I have assumed that your first hard drive is <b>/dev/<font color="Green">sda</font></b> and that your disk image resides in the folder <b><font color="Green">Backup</font></b> in partition <b>/dev/<font color="Green">sdc1</font></b>. You will have to replace them with the correct pieces of information.</p>
195 <!--empty line-->
196 <p><b>Note:</b> How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "<b>sudo</b>" above the command. For example, the latter of the above commands can be executed by typing "<b>sudo dd if=/mnt/usb/<font color="Green">Backup</font>/<font color="Green">sda</font>-mbr of=/dev/<font color="Green">sda</font> bs=446 count=1</b>"</p>
197 <!--empty line-->
198 <p>If you normally use another operating system, boot into <b>SystemRescueCD</b> and run the above commands. In <b>SystemRescueCD</b> all commands are run as root, so you don't need to add any prefix to the commands.</p>
199 <!--empty line-->
200 <p>If you don't know the name of the partition, run this command as root:</p>
201 <!--empty line-->
202 <p class="newcode">fdisk -l</p>
203 <!--empty line-->
204 <p>It tells how many hard drives you have, how many partitions they contain and what filesystems the partitions use. If you know, for example, that the disk where you've saved the disk image contains only one partition, look for such disks.</p>
205 <!--empty line-->
206 <H3><a name="ntldr-vista"></a>Using Bootrec.exe (Windows Vista/7 only) <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
207
208 <p>You need Windows Vista/7 install disc for this. If you don't have one (for example, if you bought a laptop that was bundled with preinstalled Windows and manufacturer's recovery disc), download a recovery disc from <a href="http://neosmart.net/blog/2008/windows-vista-recovery-disc-download/" target="_blank">here</a>.<br>
209 <br>
210 Then boot from the disc. After selecting language, time, currency and keyboard, click <b>Repair your computer</b>. You'll get a list of operating systems you're able to repair. Choose any of them; that choice doesn't matter.<br>
211 <br>
212 After that, you'll see a dialog box named <b>System Recovery Options</b>. Click <b>Command Prompt</b>. Then you only need to execute one command:</p>
213 <!--empty line-->
214 <p class="newcode">Bootrec /FixMbr</p>
215 <!--empty line-->
216 <p><b>Note:</b> The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example, "<b>bootrec /fixmbr</b>".</p>
217 <!--empty line-->
218 <H3><a name="ntldr-xp"></a>Using FIXMBR (Windows XP only) <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
219
220 <p>You need Windows XP install disc. Boot from it, and when you see the screen "Windows XP Home Edition Setup" or "Windows XP Professional Setup", press <font color="Red"><b>R</b></font> to enter the Recovery Console. Then choose the Windows installation you want to log onto. If you have only one copy of Windows installed, press <font color="Red"><b>1</b></font> and ENTER. After that, enter the administator password and press ENTER.<br>
221 <br>
222 There is only one command to run:</p>
223 <!--empty line-->
224 <p class="newcode">FIXMBR</p>
225 <!--empty line-->
226 <p><b>Note:</b> The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example, "<b>fixmbr</b>".</p>
227 <!--empty line-->
228 <H3><a name="ntldr-9x"></a>Using FDISK (Windows 95/98/Me only) <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
229
230 <p>For this, you need a floppy drive. You also need to run a Windows-only program, so your first challenge is to boot Windows without NTLDR.<br>
231 <br>
232 Don't worry, <b>Super Grub Disk</b> makes it possible. Boot into it.</p>
233 <!--empty line-->
234 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-01.png"><br>
235 Just choose the option "<font color="Red"><b>!WIN!&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;:(((</b></font>" and press ENTER.<br>
236 <br>
237 When you have Windows up and running, download the boot disk image appropriate to your version of Windows from <a href="http://www.bootdisk.com/bootdisk.htm" target="_blank">Bootdisk.Com</a>. Then put a floppy to your floppy drive.<br>
238 <br>
239 If the floppy isn't already formatted, open <b>My Computer</b>, right-click the floppy drive and select <b>Format...</b>.<br>
240 <br>
241 At the format window, choose the capacity of 1,44 megabytes and <b>Full</b> format type. You can enter any label (it means the name of the floppy you can see next to the floppy drive letter) and disable the summary if you wish. Keep the <b>Copy system files</b> option disabled.<br>
242 <br>
243 When you have a formatted floppy in your drive, double-click the boot disk image you downloaded. When it's done, shut Windows down and check your BIOS settings to be able to boot from the floppy. Some BIOSes contain a boot menu, others require editing settings pernamently. Details can be found on the manual of the motherboard or laptop.<br>
244 <br>
245 Then boot from the floppy. When you're given three boot options, choose the option <b>2. Start computer without CD-ROM support</b>. Wait a moment to enter command line and run this command:</p>
246 <!--empty line-->
247 <p class="newcode">FDISK /MBR</p>
248 <!--empty line-->
249 <p><b>Note:</b> The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example, "<b>fdisk /mbr</b>".</p>
250
251 <!--empty line-->
252 <H3><a name="ntldr-sgd"></a>Installing syslinux using Super Grub Disk <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
253
254 <p>The above four are the only legal ways I know to restore NTLDR to the Master Boot Record. Unfortunately, sometimes none of them can be used. If that's the case, it's time to switch bootloader. GRUB can be configured to chainload Windows, and usually it even does that automatically, but this page isn't intended to help configuring GRUB. I assume that if you're primarily a Windows user and reading this page, you don't want to learn how to use GNU/Linux, you just want to make Windows bootable again.<br>
255 <br>
256 Maybe the easiest way to do so is installing syslinux using <b>Super Grub Disk</b>. <b>Super Grub Disk</b> configures it automatically to chainload the first active partition. The partition should contain Windows, Windows can't boot if its partition isn't active.<br>
257 <br>
258 Boot into <b>Super Grub Disk</b>.</p>
259 <!--empty line-->
260 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-01a.png"><br>
261 Choose the option "<font color="Red"><b>WIN => MBR & !WIN!&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;:(((((((((((((((((((((</b></font>" and press ENTER. Windows will be booted automatically right after installing syslinux.</p>
262
263
264
265 <!-- Installing GRUB -->
266
267 <H2><a name="grub"></a>Installing GRUB <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
268
269 <p>Contrary to various ways to restore NTLDR, there is only one way to install GRUB I recommend. That's <b>Super Grub Disk</b>, because it contains GRUB no matter what has happened to the hard drive(s). First, I boot into it.</p>
270 <!--empty line-->
271 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-01b.png"><br>
272 I select "<font color="Red"><b>Choose Language & HELP&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;:-)))</b></font>" and press ENTER.</p>
273 <!--empty line-->
274 <H3><a name="grub-1"></a>Screen "S.G.D. Language Selection." [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
275
276 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-02.png"><br>
277 I select "<font color="Red"><b>English Super Grub Disk</b></font>" and press ENTER.</p>
278 <!--empty line-->
279 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-03.png"><br>
280 I press ENTER...</p>
281 <!--empty line-->
282 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-04.png"><br>
283 ...and then ENTER again...</p>
284 <!--empty line-->
285 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-05.png"><br>
286 ...and then ENTER once again...</p>
287 <!--empty line-->
288 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-06.png"><br>
289 ...and finally ENTER one more time.</p>
290 <!--empty line-->
291 <H3><a name="grub-2"></a>Screen "English Super Grub Disk (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
292
293 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-07.png"><br>
294 I select "<font color="Red"><b>Advanced</b></font>".</p>
295 <!--empty line-->
296 <H3><a name="grub-3"></a>Screen "Advanced (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
297
298 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-08.png"><br>
299 I select "<font color="Red"><b>GRUB</b></font>" and press ENTER.</p>
300 <!--empty line-->
301 <H3><a name="grub-4"></a>Screen "GRUB (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
302
303 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-09.png"><br>
304 I select "<font color="Red"><b>Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)</b></font>" and press ENTER...</p>
305 <!--empty line-->
306 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-10.png"><br>
307 ...and ENTER.</p>
308 <!--empty line-->
309 <H3><a name="grub-5"></a>Screen "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
310
311 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-11.png"><br>
312 I select "<font color="Red"><b>Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)</b></font>" and press ENTER. If you want to install GRUB to the Master Boot Record of the first hard drive, "<font color="Red"><b>Automatically Install</b></font>" is a better choice. If you don't know if you want GRUB to the first or some other disk, you most likely want it to the first disk.</p>
313 <!--empty line-->
314 <H3><a name="grub-6"></a>Screen "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
315
316 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-12.png"><br>
317 I confirm my decision by selecting "<font color="Red"><b>Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)</b></font>" again and pressing ENTER.</p>
318 <!--empty line-->
319 <H3><a name="grub-7"></a>Screen "Partition of GRUB" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
320
321 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-13.png"><br>
322 In this screen I can select the disk that contains the partition that contains the files needed by GRUB. In this case, that disk is the external hard drive. As you can see, the disk is only three megabytes in size - because the computer used for screenshots is still virtual. Actually, the "disk" where I'm installing GRUB is just a file.</p>
323 <!--empty line-->
324 <H3><a name="grub-8"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
325
326 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-14.png"><br>
327 This is where I choose the partition where GRUB files reside. This disk contains only one partition.</p>
328 <!--empty line-->
329 <H3><a name="grub-9"></a>Screen "Restore to MBR of Hard Disk" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
330
331 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-15.png"><br>
332 I select the external hard drive to install GRUB to its Master Boot Record.</p>
333 <!--empty line-->
334 <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-12.png"><br>
335 Some text scrolled in the screen (too fast to read or take a screenshot) and I was back at this screen. I rebooted the computer. (In this situation, you can safely do a "hard reboot" by pressing reset button once or power button twice.)</p>
336 <!--empty line-->
337 <p><img src="images/grub-loading.png"><br>
338 GRUB booted successfully.</p>
339
340
341 </div>
342
343
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348 <p>Copyright: &#169; <a href="mailto:&#115;&#110;&#103;&#064;&#104;&#101;&#108;&#108;&#117;&#103;&#046;&#103;&#114;?subject=About Clonezilla-SysRescCD v 3.1.0">Spiros Georgaras</a>, 2007-2010<br /><br/>
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