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1 sng 28 Installing on USB
2     ==============================================================================
4     Installation to USB made easy
5     ****************************************
6     Until recently installing Clonezilla-SysRescCD on a USB disk would not
7     be such a great idea, because of its size. But since USB devices become
8     cheaper and cheaper, it is an interesting alternative.
10     Starting with version 3.1.0, Clonezilla-SysRescCD provides an iso
11     file that's ISO-Hybrided. This means (as we read at the isolynux site {{
12     http://syslinux.zytor.com/wiki/index.php/Doc/isolinux#HYBRID_CD-ROM.2FHARD_DISK_MODE
13     }}) that
15     "the iso file can be booted from either CD-ROM or from a device which BIOS
16     considers a hard disk or ZIP disk, e.g. a USB key or similar. This image can
17     then be copied using any raw disk writing tool (on Unix systems, typically
18     "dd" or "cat") to a USB disk, or written to a CD-ROM using standard CD
19     burning tools.
21     The ISO 9660 filesystem is encapsulated in a partition (which starts at
22     offset zero, which may confuse some systems.) This makes it possible for
23     the operating system, once booted, to use the remainder of the device for
24     persistent storage by creating a second partition."
26     [[ important.png ]]
27     Incorrect use of any raw disk writing tool could cause your operating system
28     (GNU/Linux / Windows) not to boot. Confirm the command before you run it.
30     So, from any linux box, assuming Clonezilla-SysRescCD iso file is in
31     your home directory, and your USB device name is sdc4, you just execute
32     the commands:
34     umount /dev/sdc4
35     dd if=~/clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-"myVersion".iso of=/dev/sdc4 bs=512
37     And that's it. Your usb device is ready to boot!!!
39     Installing the "hard" way
40     ****************************************
41     If the "easy" way does not work there is an alternative; you will use
42     the Clonezilla-SysRescCD ISO file (or CD) to copy and modify a couple of
43     files on the USB disk, and finally make it bootable, using syslinux {{
44     http://syslinux.zytor.com }} and its configuration file syslinux.cfg.
46     [[ important.png ]]
47     Incorrect use of syslinux could cause your operating system (GNU/Linux /
48     Windows) not to boot. Confirm the command before you run it.
50     The only thing that's important is that your USB disk must contain a VFAT
51     (Windows 98 or DOS) file system. If this is not the case, refer to the
52     section "Troubleshooting", to find out how you can format it, before
53     copying files to it.
55     The bootable USB disk creation procedure can be performed either from
56     Linux or Windows.
58     [[ info.png ]]
59     If you want to create a bootable USB flash drive for this version
60     or later, remember to use the syslinux command from syslinux
61     3.71 or later. Otherwise the boot menu won't work.
63     Installation from Linux
64     ---------------------
65     There are two ways you can proceed, if you are going to use Linux to
66     perform the USB installation, either using a running linux box, or using
67     Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
69     I will assume that you have saved clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-3.1.0.iso
70     in your home directory (~).
72     Using a linux box
73     ---------------------
74     If you already have a linux box up and running, you can use it to create
75     your Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB, without even having to burn it to CD
76     beforehand. The only thing here is that you have to have syslinux {{
77     http://syslinux.zytor.com }} installed.
79     I will assume that your CD drive is /dev/sr0 and that your USB device
80     is /dev/sdc4. You may have to change any of them to reflect your system
81     configuration.
83     Boot into linux, connect your USB device and execute the following commands:
84     mkdir /mnt/mycd
85     mount ~/clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-3.1.0.iso /mnt/mycd -o loop
86     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
87     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
88     cp -r /mnt/mycd/* /mnt/usbdevice
89     umount /mnt/mycd; rmdir /mnt/mycd
90     cd /mnt/usbdevice
91     rm isolinux/*.cfg
92     mv isolinux/* .
93     rmdir isolinux
94     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
95     rmdir /mnt/usbdevice
97     Finally make your USB device bootable, by executing
98     syslinux /dev/sdc4
99     and you are done.
101     > Using Clonezilla-SysRescCD
102     If you already burnt Clonezilla-SysRescCD to CD, you can use it to create
103     your Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB.
105     I will assume that your CD drive is /dev/sr0 and that your USB device
106     is /dev/sdc4. You may have to change any of them to reflect your system
107     configuration.
109     Boot SystemRescueCD using the option To RAM, and when it is fully loaded,
110     execute the following commands:
111     mkdir /mnt/mycd
112     mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/mycd
113     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
114     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
115     cp -r /mnt/mycd/* /mnt/usbdevice
116     umount /mnt/mycd
117     cd /mnt/usbdevice
118     rm isolinux/*.cfg
119     mv isolinux/* .
120     rmdir isolinux
121     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
123     Finally make your USB device bootable, by executing
124     syslinux /dev/sdc4
125     and you are done.
127     Installation from Windows
128     ---------------------
129     Installing Clonezilla-SysRescCD from Windows is as easy as
130     it is in Linux. You have to burn Clonezilla-SysRescCD to CD
131     or use a CD/DVD ROM emulator software like Daemon Tools {{
132     http://www.daemon-tools.cc/dtcc/announcements.php }} to mount the ISO file.
134     I will assume that your USB device is drive K: and your CD drive or mounted
135     ISO file is drive
136     D:. You may have to change any of them, in order to reflect your system
137     configuration.
139     You will have to
141     * Copy all files from drive D: (CD or mounted ISO file) to drive K:
142     (USB disk)
143     * Delete all cfg files from K:isolinux
144     * Move all files from K:isolinux to K:
145     * Delete folder K:isolinux
147     Now all you have to do is make your USB disk bootable. In order to do
148     that you have to open a DOS window (in Windows XP press "Start / Run "
149     and type cmd). Then type at DOS prompt:
150     K:
151     cd bootprog
152     syslinux -ma K:
154     Booting from USB
155     ---------------------
156     Before trying to boot from your USB device, you have to set your boot device
157     at your BIOS. This means you have to reboot having your USB device connected,
158     get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL) and make the appropriate settings
159     in the BOOT section.
161     Booting Clonezilla Live should not be a problem. Just select the desired
162     option and press ENTER to boot.
164     Booting SystemRescueCD has been made equally simple with SystemRescueCD
165     v 1.0.0, so you shouldn't have any problem (option cdroot is not required
166     any more).
168     If you have any problems here, you may try adding any of these boot
169     parameters:
170     usbstick
171     doscsi
173     Troubleshooting
174     ---------------------
175     Whether you can successfully boot from a USB disk or not, depends mainly on
176     your BIOS. Chances are that you will not be able to boot on an old computer,
177     with an old (and possibly buggy) BIOS. So I would recommend testing your
178     Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB on a new computer.
180     * I can't boot (I don't even see the splash screen)
181     or Clonezilla Live does not boot
183     The first thing you should do is double check your BIOS settings. Reboot
184     having your USB device connected, get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL)
185     and make the appropriate settings in the BOOT section.
187     If you are on linux, check that the partition on the USB disk is active
188     (bootable), executing:
189     fdisk -l /dev/sdc
190     You should get something similar to this:
192     Disk /dev/sdc: 1031 MB, 1031798272 bytes
193     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 983 cylinders
194     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
196     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
197     /dev/sdc4 * 1 983 1006576 6 FAT16
199     If the partition is not active (no astrisk), execute:
200     fdisk /dev/sdc
201     and issue "Command: " a (toggle a bootable flag) and "Partition number:"
202     4 (for /dev/sdc4).
204     If you are on Windows, this is taken care of by syslinux (parameters -ma).
206     If you still have problems booting, you should try to execute
207     syslinux -s /dev/sdc4
208     from Linux, or
209     syslinux -sma K:
210     from Windows (from folder K:syslinux).
212     syslinux man page reads:
214     (Option) -s
215     Install a "safe, slow and stupid" version of syslinux. This version may work
216     on some very buggy BIOSes on which syslinux would otherwise fail. If you find
217     a machine on which the -s option is required to make it boot reliably, please
218     send as much info about your machine as you can, and include the failure
219     mode.
221     * I still can't boot
222     In this case you will have to format your USB disk.
224     If you are using linux to perform the installation, execute the command:
225     mkdosfs -F 16 /dev/sdc4
226     to create a FAT16 file system, or
227     mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdc4
228     to create a FAT32 file system.
230     When you are done go back to section "Installation from Linux".
232     If you are on Windows, you should download the HP-USB Format tool {{
233     http://h50178.www5.hp.com/local_drivers/17550/SP27608.exe }}, install it
234     and format your USB drive using the Fat or Fat32 option. This program can
235     be used to format USB devices that won't boot properly when formatted with
236     Windows format tool.
238     When you are done go back to section "Installation from Windows".
240     * I still can't boot (after formating)
241     Things are getting tough!!! Try to format your USB disk using the option you
242     did not use previously. So, if you have created a FAT32 file system, create
243     a FAT16 file system this time, and recreate Clonezilla-SysRescCD on USB.
245     If nothing works, you are out of luck; you will not be able to use
246     Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB on this computer... If you do manage to boot it,
247     please send me a message.
249     * SystemRescueCD does not boot
250     Ok, you have managed to get to the splash screen and successfully booted
251     Clonezilla Live. But you still can't boot SystemRescueCD.
253     Refer to section Booting from USB to find out the boot parameters you can
254     use with SystemRescueCD.
256     Customizing sysresc.cfg
257     ---------------------
258     As stated previously, Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB is booted by syslinux through
259     its configuration file syslinux.cfg. This file loads sysresc.cfg in order
260     to boot SystemRescueCD.
262     If you have to specify any additional boot parameters for SystemRescueCD,
263     you may want to write these changes to the configuration file, so that
264     you don't have to insert them by hand every time.
266     The procedure to do that is the following:
268     Boot SystemRescueCD (or if that's not possible yet, bot Clonezilla Linux
269     and get to the command line) using the option To RAM, and when it is fully
270     loaded, execute the following commands:
271     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
272     mount /dev/[device] /mnt/usbdevice
273     cd /mnt/usbdevice
274     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
275     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=x [additional params]|'
276     sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
277     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
278     cd; umount /dev/[device]
279     syslinux /dev/[device]
280     reboot
282     where x is a number from 1 to 10.
284     After executing these commands, you will have a new sysresc.cfg file,
285     and a backup file called sysresc.bak (in case things go wrong).
287     If, for example, you want to increase the device scan delay to maximum,
288     the above commands would become:
289     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
290     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
291     cd /mnt/usbdevice
292     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
293     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=10|' sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
294     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
295     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
296     syslinux /dev/sdc4
297     reboot
299     If, in addition to that, you had to use the boot parameter usbstick,
300     then it would be:
301     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
302     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
303     cd /mnt/usbdevice
304     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
305     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=10 usbstick|' sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
306     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
307     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
308     syslinux /dev/sdc4
309     reboot
311     In case something goes wrong with your new settings, you can always rename
312     sysresc.bak to sysresc.cfg, either from linux or Windows.
317     Boot parameters
318     ==============================================================================
320     Intro
321     ****************************************
322     Booting a linux system means loading a kernel, which is actually the
323     operating system. Well, this is not exactly true, and it is not the only
324     thing that happens during boot up phase, but it is not my intension to
325     explain it here.
327     The kernel is loaded by Isolinux (the CD boot manager), which is able to pass
328     a number of parameters to it, through its configuration file isolinux.cfg.
330     These parameters, called boot parameters, are documented by the kernel
331     itself, and can differentiate its behavior dramatically. In our case,
332     each CD (SystemRescueCD and Clonezilla Live) accept a different set of
333     parameters, because they are based on gentoo {{ http://www.gentoo.org/ }}
334     and debian, respectively.
336     While in the splash screen of Clonezilla-SysRescCD, you can edit the boot
337     parameters by pressing TAB. They will be presented to you, and you can
338     add or remove what you want. You must be careful not to change or remove
339     the parameters that are dedicated to the CD itself, as altering them will
340     certainty make it unbootable. When you are done, just press ENTER to boot.
342     SystemRescueCD boot parameters
343     ****************************************
344     [[ info.png ]]
345     The following info applies to SystemRescueCD v. 1.3.5. In case
346     you need to get info for a more recent version of SystemRescueCD
347     please see the page "Sysresccd-manual-en Booting the CD-ROM {{
348     http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Booting_the_CD-ROM }}"
350     A typical sysresccd isolinux entry is:
352     kernel rescuecd
353     append initrd=initram.igz video=ofonly
355     The kernel used is rescuecd, and anything after the word append is a
356     boot parameter.
358     Available kernels (boot images):
360     * rescuecd This is the default choice for 32bits systems, with Framebuffer
361     disabled, best choice.
362     * altker32 This is an alternative kernel for 32bits systems. Boot with
363     this kernel in case you have problems with rescuecd. altker32 was named
364     vmlinuz2 in versions prior to SystemRescueCd-1.0.0.
365     * rescue64 This is the default 64 bits kernel. Use it if you want to chroot
366     to a 64bits linux system installed on your hard disk, or if you have to run
367     64 bits programs. This kernel is able to boot SystemRescueCd from the cdrom
368     with 32bits programs, and it required a processor with 64bits instructions
369     (amd64 / em64t).
370     * altker64 This is an alternative kernel for 64bits systems. Boot with
371     this kernel in case you have problems with rescue64. Only available from
372     SystemRescueCd-1.0.0 and newer.
374     The boot parameters you can use are:
376     General boot options
378     * setkmap=xx: if you don't want to be asked for the keymap, you can
379     choose which keymap to load automatically. Replace xx with your keymap
380     (for example: setkmap=de for german keyboards)
381     * docache: this option is very useful if you need to insert another disc
382     in the CD drive after booting. The CD-ROM will be fully loaded into memory,
383     and you will be able to remove the disc from the drive. The docache option
384     requires 400MB of memory if you want to cache everything (including the
385     bootdisks and isolinux directories). You can add the lowmem option if you
386     have less that 400MB of memory of to prevent these directories to be copied
387     into memory.
388     * root=xxx: the root=<device> option {{
389     http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/
390     }} lets you boot an existing linux system. For example, if you have a
391     linux gentoo installed on /dev/sda6, you can type rescuecd root=/dev/sda6
392     and Gentoo Linux will be started instead of the system that is on
393     the CD-ROM. Keep in mind that you must use a 64bits kernel if your
394     system is made of 64bits programs. For instance, you can boot a 64bits
395     linux system installed on /dev/sda6 with rescue64 root=/dev/sda6. From
396     SystemRescueCd-1.0.4, this option works with LVM disks, so you can write
397     something like rescuecd root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00. SystemRescueCd-1.0.4
398     and newer versions also supports root=auto, that will scan all the block
399     devices of the computer to find a linux system. The first linux system found
400     on the disks will be started. So with root=auto let you start the system
401     installed from the CD-ROM in case you have problem with your boot loader or
402     with your kernel for instance. You can have more details about that option.
403     * initscript=service:action: This options allows you to automatically
404     start/stop a service at boot time. For instance if you need the
405     samba service to be started, you can boot with the following option:
406     initscript=samba:start. This does the same thing as /etc/init.d/samba
407     start. You can use this option several times with different services. All
408     the action that are supported by an initscript can be used. This option
409     is available with SystemRescueCd-1.0.2 and newer.
410     * backstore=xxx: SystemRescueCd-1.1.x
411     comes with support for the backing-stores {{
412     http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/
413     }}. Basically, a backing-store is a loopback filesystem which saves all
414     the changes you can make in SystemRescueCd when you use it. In other words
415     it allows you to save all the files which changes in SystemRescueCd while
416     you use it, so that you keep these changes the next time you boot it. By
417     default, sysresccd automatically scan all your removable devices (eg: usb
418     sticks) at boot time and uses the first backing-store it finds if there is
419     one. A backing-store is not mandatory and it the scan fails it will just
420     store the files which change in memory. To disable the disks scan at boot
421     time you can specify backstore=off on the boot command line. If you want
422     to save your backing-store file on an harddisk, you will have to boot
423     with backstore=alldev so that it scans all devices not just removable
424     devices. The default place for backing-stores file is any file named
425     sysrcd.bs located at the root of a disk which is often an USB key. You can
426     change the path by using an option such as backstore=/sysrcd/mybackstore.bs
427     and then sysresccd will try to find a file named mybackstore.bs located
428     in /sysrcd in any block-device (partition, USB-stick, ...). You can find
429     more information about on the page about backing-stores.
431     Hardware, drivers and troubleshooting options
433     * nonet: this will disable the network auto detection at startup
434     * scandelay=x: pauses x seconds during the startup to allow slow devices
435     to initialize. This is required when you boot an usb device. A delay of
436     only few seconds should be enough.
437     * doxdetect: Since version 0.3.5 the auto-configuration is done in X.Org
438     itself, and then mkxf86config is disabled by default. This option forces
439     the system to run the mkxf86config startup script to run the hardware
440     auto-detection from this script. Use this option if you have problems with
441     the graphical environment configuration. This option replaces the option
442     noxdetect that was useful in previous versions.
443     * nodetect: prevents the generic hardware auto-detection. Use this option
444     if you have problems with the hardware auto-detection.
445     * doload=xxx: forces to load one/several modules at startup (example:
446     doload=3c59x)
447     * noload=xxx: prevents the system to load one/several modules at startup
448     (example: noload=3c59x). Use this option if you have a problem when the
449     system loads a particular module at boot time.
450     * dostartx: This option will force the system to load the X.Org graphical
451     environment at boot time. You won't have to type startx by hand to get it.
452     * forcevesa: Forces X.Org to work with the safe vesa driver instead of
453     the best video driver detected for your video card. Use this option if
454     you cannot get the graphical environment working with the default options.
455     * forcevesa=xxx: The startx command will load the Xvesa server instead of
456     Xorg, and Xvesa will use the screen resolution given as parameter (eg:
457     1024x768, 1280x1024x32). The forcevesa option can take a parameter from
458     SystemRescueCd-1.0.0 and more recent.
459     * all-generic-ide: In case of problems related to your hard disk, try to
460     enable this option (eg rescuecd all-generic-ide)
461     * acpi-off / noapic / irqpool: use these options if you have any problem
462     when the kernel boots: if it hangs on a driver or if it crashes, ...
463     * dodebug: Enables verbose messages in the linuxrc script.
464     * lowmem: Prevents non critical things to be loaded into memory (like the
465     sshd and nfsd services)
466     * skipmount=/dev/xxx: The system mounts all the storage devices at boot
467     time to find the sysrcd.dat file. You may not want it to mount a device,
468     for instance if your hard disk is broken because it would crash the
469     system. You can just boot with skipmount=/dev/sda1 skipmount=/dev/sda2 if
470     you want SystemRescueCd to ignore these two partitions. This boot option
471     requires SystemRescueCd-1.0.1 or more recent.
472     * nodmraid: Disable dmraid, which is the program that drives RAID disks
473     based on cheap RAID controller built-in motherboards.
474     * nomdadm: Disable mdadm, which is the program that drives software RAID.
476     Network auto-configuration and remote access
478     * dodhcp: Use dodhcp if you have a DHCP server on your network and you
479     want the system to get a dynamic IP address at boot time.
480     * ethx=ipaddr/cidr: Sets the static IP address of all the ethernet interfaces
481     found on the system. The /cidr extension is optional. For instance, if
482     you use option ethx= on a machine with two ethernet adapters,
483     both eth0 and eth1 will be configured with You can also write
484     something like ethx= (using the cidr notation) if you don't
485     use the default netmask.
486     * eth0=ipaddr/cidr: This option is similar to
487     ethx=ipaddr/cidr but it configures only one interface
488     at a time. Of course, you can use the eth0=ipaddr/cidr option {{
489     http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/04/13/new-boot-options-for-advanced-ethernet-ip-configuration/
490     }} it for all the ethernet interfaces, not just eth0. For instance if you
491     want to configure the network on a server that has two interfaces, you can
492     write something like this: eth0= eth1= This
493     option requires SystemRescueCd-1.0.2 or newer.
494     * dns=ipaddr: Sets the static IP address of the DNS nameserver you want
495     to use to resolve the names. For instance dns= means that
496     you want to use as the DNS server.
497     * gateway=ipaddr: Sets the static IP address of the default route on your
498     network. For instance gateway= means that the computer can
499     connect to a computer outside of the local network via
500     * dhcphostname=myhost: Sets the hostname that the DHCP client will send
501     to the DHCP server. This may be required if the default hostname cannot
502     be used with your DHCP configuration. This option has been introduced
503     in SystemRescueCd-1.3.5.
504     * rootpass=123456: Sets the root password of the system running on the
505     livecd to 1234. That way you can connect from the network and ssh on the
506     livecd and give 123456 password as the root password.
507     * vncserver=x:123456: The vncserver boot option {{
508     http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/04/12/use-systemrescuecd-remotely-with-vnc-server/
509     }} has been introduced in SystemRescueCd-1.0.2. This options forces the
510     system to configure the VNC-server and to start it automatically at boot
511     time. You have to replace x with the number of displays you want, and 123456
512     with your password The password must be between 5 and 8 characters, else the
513     boot option will be ignored. In other words the vncserver=2:MyPaSsWd option
514     will give you access to two displays (display=1 on tcp/5901 and display=2
515     on tcp/5902). Display 0 is reserved for X.Org since SystemRescueCd-1.1.0.
516     * nameif=xxx: You can can specify what interface name to give {{
517     http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/28/option-to-define-the-name-of-a-network-interface-using-the-mac-address/
518     }} to a particular interface using the mac address. You need
519     SystemRescueCd-1.1.0 or newer to do that. Here is how you can specify
520     which interface is using which mac address on a machine with two network
521     interfaces: nameif=eth0!00:0C:29:57:D0:6E,eth1!00:0C:29:57:D0:64. Be
522     careful, you have to respect the separator (comma between the interfaces
523     and exclamation marks between the name and the mac address).
525     Options provided by the autorun
527     * ar_source=xxx: place where the autorun are stored. It may
528     be the root directory of a partition (/dev/sda1), an nfs
529     share (nfs://, a samba share
530     (smb://, or an http directory
531     (
532     * autoruns=[0-9]: comma separated list of the autorun script that have to
533     be run. For instance if you use autoruns=0,2,7 then the following autorun
534     scripts will be executed: autorun0, autorun2, autorun7. Use autoruns=no
535     to disable all the autorun scripts with a number.
536     * ar_ignorefail: continue to execute the scripts chain even if a script
537     failed (returned a non-zero status)
538     * ar_nodel: do not delete the temporary copy of the autorun scripts located
539     in /var/autorun/tmp after execution
540     * ar_disable: completely disable autorun, the simple autorun script will
541     not be executed
542     * ar_nowait: do not wait for a keypress after the autorun script have
543     been executed.
545     Clonezilla Live boot parameters
546     ****************************************
547     [[ info.png ]]
548     The following info applies to Clonezilla Live v. 1.2.3-27
549     In case you need to get info for a more recent version of Clonezilla Live
550     please see the page "The boot parameters for Clonezilla live {{
551     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/fine-print.php?path=./99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc
552     }}"
554     A typical Clonezilla Live isolinux entry is:
556     kernel /live/vmlinuz1
557     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
558     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"
559     ocs_live_extra_param="" ocs_live_keymap="" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang=""
560     vga=791 nolocales
562     The kernel used is vmlinuz, and anything after the word append is a boot
563     parameter.
565     The following info comes from the
566     page titled The boot parameters for Clonezilla live {{
567     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/fine-print.php?path=./99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc
568     }}.
570     Clonezilla live is based on Debian live {{ http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/
571     }} with clonezilla installed. Therefore there are 2 kinds of boot parameters:
573     * Boot parameters from live-initramfs. You can refer to this manual of
574     live-initramfs.
575     * Boot parameters specially for Clonezilla. All of them are named as
576     "ocs_*", e.g. ocs_live_run, ocs_live_extra_param, ocs_live_batch, ocs_lang.
577     * ocs_live_run is the main program to run in Clonezilla live to save
578     or restore. or other command. Available program: ocs-live-general,
579     ocs-live-restore or any command you write. Use the Absolute path in
580     Clonezilla live.
581     e.g. ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"
582     * ocs_live_extra_param will be used only when ocs_live_run=ocs-live-restore
583     (not for ocs-live-general or any other), then it will be passed to
584     ocs-sr. Therefore these parameters are actually those of ocs-sr.
585     e.g. ocs_live_extra_param="-b -c restoredisk sarge-r5 hda"
586     * ocs_live_keymap is for keymap used in Clonezilla live. Man install-keymap
587     for more details.
588     e.g. ocs_live_keymap="NONE" (won't change the default layout)
589     ocs_live_keymap="/usr/share/keymaps/i386/azerty/fr-latin9.kmap.gz"
590     (French keyboard)
591     * batch mode or not (yes/no), if no, will run interactively.
592     e.g. ocs_live_batch="no"
593     * ocs_lang is the language used in Clonezilla live. Available value:
594     en_US.UTF-8, zh_TW.UTF-8... (see $DRBL_SCRIPT_PATH/lang/bash/)
595     e.g. ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8"
596     * ocs_debug (or ocs-debug) is for you to enter command line prompt before
597     any clonezilla-related action is run. This is easier for you to debug.
598     * ocs_daemonon, ocs_daemonoff, ocs_numlk, ocs_capslk.
599     Ex. for the first 2 parameters, ocs_daemonon="ssh", then ssh service will
600     be turned on when booting. For the last 2 parameters, use "on" or "off",
601     e.g. ocs_numlk=on to turn on numberlock when booting.
602     * ocs_prerun, ocs_prerun1, ocs_prerun2... is for you to run a shell script
603     before Clonezilla is started. E.g. ocs_prerun="/live/image/myscript.sh". If
604     you have more commands to run, you can assign them in the order:
605     ocs_prerun=..., ocs_prerun1=..., ocs_prerun2=.... If more than 10
606     parameters, remember to use ocs_prerun01, ocs_prerun02..., ocs_prerun11
607     to make it in order.
608     * ocs_live_run_tty. This option allows you to specify the tty where
609     $ocs_live_run is run. By default $ocs_live_run is run on /dev/tty1
610     only. (It was also on /dev/ttyS0 before, but since Clonezilla live >=
611     1.2.3-22 no more this due to a problem). If you want to use ttyS0, for
612     example, add live-getty and console=ttyS0,38400n81 in the boot parameter.
613     * Besides, "live-netdev" (yes, not ocs_live_netdev) can be used when
614     using PXE booting, you can force to assign the network device to get
615     filesystem.squashfs. This is useful when there are two or more NICs are
616     linked. E.g. live-netdev="eth1" allows you to force the live-initramfs
617     to use eth1 to fetch the root file system filesystem.squashfs.
619     With the above options, we have the following examples:
621     * A PXE config example for you to boot Clonezilla live via PXE, and ssh
622     service is on, the password of account "user" is assigned:
623     ----------------------------------------
624     label Clonezilla Live
625     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live
627     kernel vmlinuz1
628     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788
629     fetch=tftp:// usercrypted=bkuQxLqLRuDW6
630     ocs_numlk="on" ocs_daemonon="ssh"
631     ----------------------------------------
632     The usercrypted password is created by:
633     echo YOUR_PASSWORD | mkpasswd -s
634     ("mkpasswd" is from package "whois" in Debian or Ubuntu. Check your
635     GNU/Linux to see which package provides this command if you are not using
636     Debian or Ubuntu. Replace YOUR_PASSWORD with your plain text password,
637     and remember do not put any " in the boot parameters of live-initramfs
638     (while it's ok for those ocs_* boot parameters), i.e. do NOT use something
639     like usercrypted="bkuQxLqLRuDW6").
640     //NOTE// If you do not assign salt to mkpasswd, the encrypted password
641     will not be the same every time you create it.
642     For more about usercrypted discussion, please check the here.
644     * How to put your own binary driver in Clonezilla live without modifying
645     /live/filesystem.squashfs:
647     * Boot clonezilla live
648     * Become root by running "sudo su -"
649     * Copy the dir lsi, which contains a precompiled kernel module matching
650     the running kernel in Clonezilla live and a script to run it, to a working
651     dir, e.g.:
652     cp -r /live/image/lsi /home/partimag
653     * cd /home/partimag
654     * /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-live-dev -c -s -i lsi -u lsi -x
655     "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
656     * /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-iso -s -i lsi -u lsi -x
657     "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
658     * ///NOTE/// In this example, the 2 files in dir lsi are: megasr.ko (the
659     binary driver) and prep-lsi.sh. The contents of prep-lsi.sh:
661     ------------------------
662     #!/bin/bash
663     cp -f /live/image/lsi/megasr.ko /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/
664     chown root.root /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/megasr.ko
665     depmod -a modprobe megasr
666     sleep 1
667     ------------------------
668     * To put your customized script with a PXE version of Clonezilla live
669     (You have to use Clonezilla live version 1.2.2-2 or later):
670     In this example, we assume (1) The IP address of your PXE server is
671, (2) the customized script (custom-ocs-2) is put on
672     your PXE server's tftpd root dir (E.g. On DRBL server, the path is
673     /tftpboot/nbi_img/. It might be different in your case if you are not use
674     DRBL server as a PXE server).
675     Therefor your pxelinux.cfg/default file is like:
676     ------------------------
677     label Clonezilla Live
679     # MENU HIDE
680     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live
681     # MENU PASSWD
682     kernel vmlinuz1
683     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788
684     ip=frommedia fetch=tftp://
685     ocs_prerun="busybox tftp -g -b 10240 -r custom-ocs-2 -l
686     /tmp/custom-ocs-2" ocs_live_run="bash /tmp/custom-ocs-2"
687     ocs_live_keymap="NONE" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" nolocales
688     TEXT HELP
689     Boot Clonezilla live via network
690     ENDTEXT
691     ------------------------
692     The content of custom-ocs-2 can be like:
694     ------------------------
695     #!/bin/bash
696     . /opt/drbl/sbin/drbl-conf-functions
697     . /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-functions
698     . /etc/ocs/ocs-live.conf
700     # Load language file
701     ask_and_load_lang_set en_US.UTF-8
703     # 1. Mount the clonezilla image home.
704     # Types: local_dev, ssh_server, samba_server, nfs_server
705     prep-ocsroot -t nfs_server
707     # 2. Restore the image
708     if mountpoint /home/partimag/ &>/dev/null; then
709     ocs-sr -l en_US.UTF-8 -c -p choose restoredisk ask_user ask_user
710     else
711     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] & $SETCOLOR_FAILURE
712     echo "Fail to find the Clonezilla image home /home/partimag!"
713     echo "Program terminated!"
714     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] & $SETCOLOR_NORMAL
715     fi
716     ------------------------
717     live-initramfs manual
718     ---------------------
719     This is the manual of live-initramfs {{
720     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/live-initramfs-param.php }}
722     live-initramfs(7)
723     =================
725     Name
726     ----
727     live-initramfs - Debian Live initramfs hook
729     Synopsis
730     --------
731     BOOT=live
733     as kernel parameter at boot prompt.
735     Description
736     -----------
738     live-initramfs is a hook for the initramfs-tools, used to generate
739     a initramfs
740     capable to boot live systems, such as those created by *live-helper*(7).
741     This includes the Debian Live isos, netboot tarballs, and usb stick images.
743     At boot time it will look for a (read-only) media containing a "/live"
744     directory where a root filesystems (often a compressed filesystem image like
745     squashfs) is stored. If found, it will create a writable environment, using
746     aufs, for Debian like systems to boot from.
748     You probably do not want to install this package onto a non-live system,
749     although it will do no harm.
751     live-initramfs is a fork of link:http://packages.ubuntu.com/casper/[casper].
752     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen <tfheen@canonical.com>
753     and Matt Zimmerman <mdz@canonical.com>.
755     Boot options
756     ------------
758     Here is the complete list of recognized boot parameters by live-initramfs.
760     access=*ACCESS*::
762     Set the accessibility level for physically or visually impared users. ACCESS
763     must be one of v1, v2, v3, m1, or m2. v1=lesser visual impairment,
764     v2=moderate
765     visual impairment, v3=blindness, m1=minor motor difficulties, m2=moderate
766     motor
767     difficulties.
769     console=*TTY,SPEED*::
771     Set the default console to be used with the "live-getty" option. Example:
772     "console=ttyS0,115200"
774     debug::
776     Makes initramfs boot process more verbose.
778     fetch=*URL*::
780     Another form of netboot by downloading a squashfs image from a given url,
781     copying to ram and booting it.
783     hostname=*HOSTNAME*, username=*USER*, userfullname=*USERFULLNAME*::
785     Those parameters lets you override values read from the config file.
787     ignore_uuid
789     Do not check that any UUID embedded in the initramfs matches the discovered
790     medium. live-initramfs may be told to generate a UUID by setting
791     LIVE_GENERATE_UUID=1 when building the initramfs.
793     integrity-check::
795     If specified, an MD5 sum is calculated on the live media during boot and
796     compared to the value found in md5sum.txt found in the root directory of the
797     live media.
802     Let you specify the name(s) and the options of the interface(s) that
803     should be
804     configured at boot time. Do not specify this if you want to use dhcp
805     (default).
806     It will be changed in a future release to mimick official kernel boot param
807     specification
808     (e.g. ip=,:::::eth1:dhcp).
810     ip[=**frommedia**]::
812     If this variable is set, dhcp and static configuration are just skipped
813     and the
814     system will use the (must be) media-preconfigured /etc/network/interfaces
815     instead.
817     {keyb|kbd-chooser/method}=**KEYBOARD**,
818     {klayout|console-setup/layoutcode}=**LAYOUT**,
819     {kvariant|console-setup/variantcode}=**VARIANT**,
820     {kmodel|console-setup/modelcode}=**CODE**, koptions=**OPTIONS**::
822     Configure the running keyboard as specified, if this one misses
823     live-initramfs
824     behaves as if "keyb=us" was specified. It will be interfered from
825     "locale=" if
826     locale is only 2 lowecase letters as a special case. You could also specify
827     console layout, variant, code, and options (no defaults).
829     live-getty::
831     This changes the auto-login on virtual terminals to use the (experimental)
832     live-getty code. With this option set the standard kernel argument
833     "console=" is
834     parsed and if a serial console is specified then live-getty is used to
835     autologin
836     on the serial console.
838     {live-media|bootfrom}=**DEVICE**::
840     If you specify one of this two equivalent forms, live-initramfs will
841     first try
842     to find this device for the "/live" directory where the read-only root
843     filesystem should reside. If it did not find something usable, the
844     normal scan
845     for block devices is performed.
847     {live-media-encryption|encryption}=**TYPE**::
849     live-initramfs will mount the encrypted rootfs TYPE, asking the passphrase,
850     useful to build paranoid live systems :-). TYPE supported so far are
851     "aes" for
852     loop-aes encryption type.
854     live-media-offset=**BYTES**::
856     This way you could tell live-initramfs that your image starts at offset
857     BYTES in
858     the above specified or autodiscovered device, this could be useful to
859     hide the
860     Debian Live iso or image inside another iso or image, to create "clean"
861     images.
863     live-media-path=**PATH**::
865     Sets the path to the live filesystem on the medium. By default, it is set to
866     '/live' and you should not change that unless you have customized your media
867     accordingly.
869     live-media-timeout=**SECONDS**::
871     Set the timeout in seconds for the device specified by "live-media="
872     to become
873     ready before giving up.
875     {locale|debian-installer/locale}=**LOCALE**::
877     Configure the running locale as specified, if not present the live-media
878     rootfs
879     configured locale will be used and if also this one misses live-initramfs
880     behave
881     as "locale=en_US.UTF-8" was specified. If only 2 lowercase letter are
882     specified
883     (like "it"), the "maybe wanted" locale is generated (like en:EN.UTF-8),
884     in this
885     case if also "keyb=" is unspecified is set with those 2 lowercase letters
886     (keyb=us). Beside that facility, only UTF8 locales are supported by
887     live-initramfs.
889     module=**NAME**::
891     Instead of using the default optional file "filesystem.module" (see below)
892     another file could be specified without the extension ".module"; it should be
893     placed on "/live" directory of the live medium.
895     netboot[=**nfs**|**cifs**]::
897     This tells live-initramfs to perform a network mount. The parameter
898     "nfsroot="
899     (with optional "nfsopts="), should specify where is the location of the root
900     filesystem. With no args, will try cifs first, and if it fails nfs.
902     nfsopts=::
904     This lets you specify custom nfs options.
906     noautologin::
908     This parameter disables the automatic terminal login only, not touching
909     gdk/kdm.
911     noxautologin::
913     This parameter disables the automatic login of gdm/kdm only, not touching
914     terminals.
916     nofastboot::
918     This parameter disables the default disabling of filesystem checks in
919     /etc/fstab. If you have static filesystems on your harddisk and you want
920     them to
921     be checked at boot time, use this parameter, otherwise they are skipped.
923     nopersistent::
925     disables the "persistent" feature, useful if the bootloader (like syslinux)
926     has
927     been installed with persistent enabled.
929     noprompt
931     Do not prompt to eject the CD on reboot.
933     nosudo::
935     This parameter disables the automatic configuration of sudo.
937     swapon::
939     This parameter enables usage of local swap partitions.
941     nouser::
943     This parameter disables the creation of the default user completely.
945     noxautoconfig::
947     This parameter disables Xorg auto-reconfiguration at boot time. This
948     is valuable
949     if you either do the detection on your own, or, if you want to ship a custom,
950     premade xorg.conf in your live system.
952     persistent[=nofiles]::
954     live-initramfs will look for persistent and snapshot partitions or files
955     labeled
956     "live-rw", "home-rw", and files called "live-sn*", "home-sn*" and will
957     try to,
958     in order: mount as /cow the first, mount the second in /home, and just
959     copy the
960     contents of the latter in appropriate locations (snapshots). Snapshots
961     will be
962     tried to be updated on reboot/shutdown. Look at live-snapshot(1) for more
963     informations. If "nofiles" is specified, only filesystems with matching
964     labels
965     will be searched; no filesystems will be traversed looking for archives
966     or image
967     files. This results in shorter boot times.
969     {preseed/file|file}=**FILE**::
971     A path to a file present on the rootfs could be used to preseed debconf
972     database.
974     package/question=**VALUE**::
976     All debian installed packages could be preseeded from command-line that way,
977     beware of blanks spaces, they will interfere with parsing, use a preseed
978     file in
979     this case.
981     quickreboot::
983     This option causes live-initramfs to reboot without attempting to eject the
984     media and without asking the user to remove the boot media.
986     showmounts::
988     This parameter will make live-initramfs to show on "/" the ro filesystems
989     (mostly compressed) on "/live". This is not enabled by default because could
990     lead to problems by applications like "mono" which store binary paths on
991     installation.
993     textonly
995     Start up to text-mode shell prompts, disabling the graphical user interface.
997     timezone=**TIMEZONE**::
999     By default, timezone is set to UTC. Using the timezone parameter, you can
1000     set it
1001     to your local zone, e.g. Europe/Zurich.
1003     todisk=**DEVICE**::
1005     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the entire read-only
1006     media to the specified device before mounting the root filesystem. It
1007     probably
1008     needs a lot of free space. Subsequent boots should then skip this step
1009     and just
1010     specify the "live-media=DEVICE" boot parameter with the same DEVICE used this
1011     time.
1013     toram::
1015     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the whole read-only
1016     media
1017     to the computer's RAM before mounting the root filesystem. This could need
1018     a lot
1019     of ram, according to the space used by the read-only media.
1021     union=**aufs**|**unionfs**::
1023     By default, live-initramfs uses aufs. With this parameter, you can switch to
1024     unionfs.
1026     utc=**yes**|**no**::
1028     By default, Debian systems do assume that the hardware clock is set to
1029     UTC. You
1030     can change or explicitly set it with this parameter.
1032     xdebconf::
1034     Uses xdebconfigurator, if present on the rootfs, to configure X instead
1035     of the
1036     standard procedure (experimental).
1038     xvideomode=**RESOLUTION**::
1040     Doesn't do xorg autodetection, but enforces a given resolution.
1042     Files
1043     -----
1045     /etc/live.conf
1047     Some variables can be configured via this config file (inside the live
1048     system).
1050     /live/filesystem.module
1052     This optional file (inside the live media) contains a list of white-space or
1053     carriage-return-separated file names corresponding to disk images in the
1054     "/live"
1055     directory. If this file exists, only images listed here will be merged
1056     into the
1057     root aufs, and they will be loaded in the order listed here. The first entry
1058     in this file will be the "lowest" point in the aufs, and the last file in
1059     this list will be on the "top" of the aufs, directly below /cow. Without
1060     this file, any images in the "/live" directory are loaded in alphanumeric
1061     order.
1063     /etc/live-persistence.binds
1065     This optional file (which resides in the rootfs system, not in the live
1066     media)
1067     is used as a list of directories which not need be persistent: ie. their
1068     content does not need to survive reboots when using the persistence features.
1070     This saves expensive writes and speeds up operations on volatile data such as
1071     web caches and temporary files (like e.g. /tmp and .mozilla) which are
1072     regenerated each time. This is achieved by bind mounting each listed
1073     directory
1074     with a tmpfs on the original path.
1076     See also
1077     --------
1079     live-snapshot(1), initramfs-tools(8), live-helper(7), live-initscripts(7),
1080     live-webhelper(7)
1082     Bugs
1083     ----
1085     Report bugs against live-initramfs
1086     link:http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs[http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs].
1088     Homepage
1089     --------
1091     More information about the Debian Live project can be found at
1092     link:http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/[http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/]
1093     and
1094     link:http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/[http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/].
1096     Authors
1097     -------
1099     live-initramfs is maintained by Daniel Baumann <daniel@debian.org>
1100     for the Debian project.
1102     live-initramfs is a fork of link:http://packages.ubuntu.com/casper/[casper].
1103     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen <tfheen@canonical.com>
1104     and Matt Zimmerman <mdz@canonical.com>.
1109     About Clonezilla Live
1110     ==============================================================================
1112     Intro
1113     ****************************************
1114     The DRBL-based PXEBoot Clonezilla is used to clone many computers
1115     simultaneously. It is an extremely useful tool, however, it does have several
1116     limitations. In order to use it, you must first prepare a DRBL server AND
1117     the machine to be cloned must boot from a network (e.g. PXE/Etherboot).
1119     To address these limitations, the Free Software Lab at the NCHC has combined
1120     Debian Live {{ http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/ }} with Clonezilla
1121     to produce "Clonezilla Live", a new software that can be used to easily
1122     clone individual machines.
1124     Clonezilla Live provides two modes of operation:
1126     * device-image
1127     In this mode of operation, a disk/partition can be saved to an
1128     image file. This image file can be used to restore the original
1129     disk/partition. With Clonezilla-SysRescCD, it can also be used to create an
1130     automated restore CD/DVD. This is the mode of operation we will discuss here.
1132     * device-device (cloning)
1133     This mode of operation creates an exact copy of the original disk/partition
1134     on the fly.
1136     When working in device-image mode, you will always have to specify three
1137     things:
1139     * The location of the image file
1140     * The working parameters for the operation
1141     * The disk/partition that will be saved/restored
1143     Clonezilla Live provides a user friendly interface in order to insert
1144     this data.
1146     When Clonezilla Live is booted up, either normally or copied to RAM, the
1147     contents of the whole CD/DVD can be found in folder /live/image. This
1148     is where you will find any extra files, such as the restorecd and the
1149     doc folders.
1151     Starting and stopping Clonezilla Live
1152     ****************************************
1153     When you boot into Clonezilla Live, the program (actually a script) starts
1154     automatically. There are many places where you can stop it, by selecting
1155     Cancel or answering N(o) to a question. When you do that you will probably
1156     get the following:
1157     Now you can choose to:
1158     (0) Poweroff
1159     (1) Reboot
1160     (2) Enter command line prompt
1161     (3) Start over
1162     [2]
1164     Select Poweroff or Reboot, only if you haven't already mounted a disk
1165     partition. I found out by experience, it is not always safe to let any live
1166     CD automatically unmount my partitions. So if you have already specified
1167     the image partition and/or the partition to save/restore, you should enter
1168     command line prompt and type:
1169     sudo su -
1170     mount | grep /dev/[sh]d
1171     and then unmount the partitions shown by the last command. So if the
1172     results of this command is for example:
1173     /dev/hda1 on /home/partimag type vfat (rw)
1174     just type the command:
1175     umount /dev/hda1
1176     and it's now safe to Poweroff of Reboot.
1178     If, on the other hand, you just want to restart the program, type:
1179     ocs-live
1181     About the Image file
1182     ****************************************
1183     One thing should be made clear about the image file: it is not a file,
1184     it is a folder, containing the actual image file and some data about the
1185     disk/partition it is associated with. So when you insert the image file name,
1186     you actually insert the folder name where the image will be saved/restored.
1188     Before you are able to insert the image file name, a list of partitions
1189     will be presented to you, so that you can choose where it should be
1190     saved/found. When you select one of them, it will be mounted under
1191     /home/partimag.
1193     This folder is very important for Clonezilla Live; the image file must be
1194     located under this directory, which means that the image file must be on
1195     the root directory of the mounted partition. So you can not, for example,
1196     create a folder called all_my_images and move all your image files in there;
1197     Clonezilla Live will not be able to find them!!!
1199     Another thing that should be pointed out is that only unmounted partitions
1200     will be included in the above list. This means that if you have stopped
1201     the program at some point after specifying the partition where the image
1202     file resides, and it has been mounted, it will not be present in the list
1203     the next time it is presented to you, and you will not be able to use it.
1205     There are two things you can do in this case; either unmount the partition,
1206     as stated above, or select
1207     skip Use existing /home/partimag
1209     instead of any other option, when you restart the program. The later of
1210     course means that you still want to use the previously specified partition
1211     as the image file location.
1213     Fianlly I should say that Clonezilla Live is able to use a remote
1214     disk/partition as the location of the image file, mounted through ssh,
1215     samba or nfs. Using any of these options is a more advanced topic, way
1216     beyond the scope of this presentation.
1218     Scripts' options
1219     ****************************************
1220     This section presents the options which are available at the "Clonezilla
1221     advanced extra parameters" screens, if the "Expert" mode is selected. For
1222     other options, see Getting backups and Restoring data.
1224     Backup options
1225     ---------------------
1226     > Imaging program priority
1228     -q2 Priority: partclone > partimage > dd
1229     -q1 Priority: Only dd (supports all filesystem, but inefficient)
1230     -q Priority: ntfsclone > partimage > dd
1231     Priority: partimage > dd (no ntfsclone)
1233     This option chooses which imaging programs are preferred. By default,
1234     Clonezilla Live uses partclone for nearly all filesystems, including
1235     ext2/3/4, NTFS and FAT32. If a filesystem isn't supported by partclone,
1236     but is supported by partimage (spesifically: if the filesystem is HFS,
1237     HPFS or JFS), it is cloned by partimage. If it isn't supported by either
1238     (for example Linux swap, though it doesn't make any sense to clone swap
1239     partitions), it is cloned by dd. Unlike partclone or partimage, dd copies
1240     all blocks of the partition instead of only used, resulting in slower
1241     imaging process and bigger images.
1243     Normally the default option -q2 should be preferred. Try another option
1244     if you have problems and believe they are caused by the imaging program used.
1246     > Various parameters
1248     These options are available at the second "Clonezilla advanced extra
1249     parameters" screen.
1250     -c Client waits for confirmation before cloning
1251     This option causes Clonezilla Live to ask if you really want to clone the
1252     disk/partition just before it starts cloning. It is enabled by default.
1254     -j2 Clone the hidden data between MBR and 1st partition
1255     If this option is set, the 15 hidden sectors between Master Boot Record
1256     and the first partition are copied. This area usually contains some data
1257     necessary for booting. The option is enabled by default and should be kept
1258     enabled if you are cloning a bootable disk.
1260     -nogui Use text output only, no TUI/GUI output
1261     Causes Clonezilla Live to force the used programs to use only command-line
1262     interface even if text-based or graphical user interface is available.
1264     -a Do NOT force to turn on HD DMA
1265     Prevents Clonezilla Live from using DMA for communicating with hard
1266     drives. Slows cloning down but in some conditions cloning without this
1267     option can be impossible.
1269     -rm-win-swap-hib Remove page and hibernation files in Win if exists
1270     This option prevents Clonezilla Live from cloning your page file if you
1271     are cloning a partition containing Windows. Often the page file is big
1272     and unneeded, and skipping it may speed cloning up without causing any
1273     harm. Mind you, this option is disabled by default because sometimes the
1274     page file may be necessary.
1276     -ntfs-ok Skip checking NTFS integrity, even bad sectors (ntfsclone only)
1277     This option works only if you selected the -q option and you're cloning
1278     a NTFS partition. It prevents the integrity check of NTFS partitions and
1279     speeds the cloning process up a little. However, if the check is disabled,
1280     there is a risk that the filesystem is damaged and the image created from
1281     it is useless.
1283     -gm Generate image MD5 checksums
1284     Causes Clonezilla Live to calculate MD5 checksum(s) of image(s) created. If
1285     the image cets corrupted afterwards, the checksum allows to notice the
1286     corruption before the image is restored. Mind you, calculating the checksum
1287     takes some time and slows the process down a little.
1289     -gs Generate image SHA1 checksums
1290     This option is identical to the above, but creates SHA1 checksum(s) instead
1291     of MD5. SHA1 is considered to be more accurate checksum algorithm than MD5,
1292     but MD5 is more popular.
1294     > Compression method
1296     -z1 gzip compression (fast with a smaller image)
1297     -z2 bzip2 compression (slowest but smallest image)
1298     -z3 lzo compression (faster with image size approx. to that of
1299     gzip)(NOTE!!)
1300     -z4 lzma compression (slowest but also small image, faster
1301     decompression than bzip2)
1302     -z0 No compression (fastest but largest image size)
1304     This option chooses the method which is used to compress the image while
1305     creating it.
1307     If no compression is used at all, there won't be any negative speed impact
1308     caused by compression. However, the image file size is the size of all the
1309     data backed up - for example, if you clone a 160 GB hard drive containing
1310     60 gigabytes of data, the resulting disk image will be 60 gigabytes in size.
1312     Gzip and lzop are fast compression methods. Lzop is many times faster than
1313     gzip, but creates slightly larger images. Clonezilla Live warns that lzop
1314     requires good-quality RAM, but I (the contributor who wrote this chapter)
1315     think other compression methods require good RAM too.
1317     Bzip2 and lzma are powerful compression methods. Lzma creates a little
1318     smaller images than bzip2, and decompressing lzma-compressed images is faster
1319     than decompressing bzip2 images. But there is no free lunch: lzma compression
1320     method is very slow compared even to bzip2, which isn't fast method either.
1322     > Splitting
1324     This option (command line: -i [number]) decides if the created image files
1325     are splitted into smaller pieces, and if yes, how large the pieces are. This
1326     setting doesn't usually matter, but some filesystems (most importantly
1327     FAT32) don't allow files larger than four gigabytes. If you're saving the
1328     disk image to a FAT32 partition, enter 4000 or less. (Value 0 disables
1329     splitting, so don't use it in that case.) If the filesystem allows files
1330     big enough, enter any value which isn't too small (you don't want to split
1331     the image into too many pieces, do you?)
1333     > Postaction
1335     -p true Do nothing when the clone finishes
1336     -p reboot Reboot client when the clone finishes
1337     -p poweroff Shutdown client when the clone finishes
1339     In this screen you can decide what Clonezilla Live does when the
1340     disk/partition is cloned.
1342     Spiros told above that he has found out that it's not always safe to allow
1343     Live CDs automatically unmount partitions, and I have lost data when trying
1344     auto-unmount with a script. So, avoid -p reboot and -p poweroff options
1345     if possible. You have been warned.
1347     Restore options (script ocs-sr)
1348     ---------------------
1349     > Various parameters
1351     These options are available at the first "Clonezilla advanced extra
1352     parameters" screen.
1353     -g auto Reinstall grub in client disk MBR (only if grub config exists)
1354     Causes Clonezilla Live to reinstall GRUB into the Master Boot Record
1355     of the disk if at least one partition contains GRUB config file
1356     (/boot/grub/menu.lst). The option is enabled by default and shouldn't
1357     cause any harm. However, it should be disabled if you for example have
1358     another bootloader in MBR and chainload GRUB with it.
1360     -e1 auto Automatically adjust filesystem geometry for a NTFS boot partition
1361     if exists
1362     The NTLDR bootloader used by Windows isn't able to determine automatically
1363     where the files it needs are stored. It only knows their physical locations,
1364     which sometimes change when the disk or partition is copied. If the locations
1365     are changed and this option is selected, the location information of the
1366     files is changed accordingly. This option is enabled by default and if
1367     it's disabled, the cloned Windows will fail to boot.
1369     -e2 sfdisk uses CHS of hard drive from EDD(for non-grub boot loader)
1370     This option requires that the -e1 auto option is selected. It causes
1371     Clonezilla Live to use disk read interface named EDD for determining the
1372     physical locations of the files when updating the location information
1373     used by NTLDR. The option is enabled by default because it reduces the
1374     risk that Windows doesn't boot.
1376     -hn0 PC Change MS Win hostname (based on IP address) after clone
1377     If this option is selected and a partition containing Microsoft Windows is
1378     cloned, its IP address -based hostname is changed after cloning. Computers
1379     which are on any network simultaneously need to have different hostnames,
1380     so this option is needed if a Windows system is cloned to another computer
1381     and the original computer is still used in addition to the one where the
1382     image was restored to.
1384     -hn1 PC Change MS Win hostname (based on MAC address) after clone
1385     This option causes the MAC address -based hostname of Windows to change. This
1386     option needs also be enabled in the above condition.
1388     -v Prints verbose messages (especially for udpcast)
1389     Causes Clonezilla Live to tell more information of what it does.
1391     -nogui Use text output only, no TUI/GUI output
1392     Causes Clonezilla Live to force the used programs to use only command-line
1393     interface even if text-based or graphical user interface is available.
1395     -b Run clone in batch mode (DANGEROUS!)
1396     Causes Clonezilla Live to run in batch mode. According to Clonezilla
1397     Live reference card, this option is dangerous, though I (the contributor)
1398     don't know why.
1400     -c Client waits for confirmation before cloning
1401     This option causes Clonezilla Live to ask if you really want to clone the
1402     disk/partition just before it starts cloning. It is enabled by default.
1404     -t Client does not restore the MBR (Mater Boot Record)
1405     Do NOT restore the MBR (Mater Boot Record) when restoring image. If this
1406     option is set, you must make sure there is an existing MBR in the current
1407     restored harddisk. Default is Yes.
1409     -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For Windows only)
1410     If this option is set, the MBR is overwritten by prebuilt one which
1411     chainloads Windows. Use this option if you have to restore Windows and
1412     make it bootable, but don't have the original MBR or backup of it.
1414     -r Try to resize the filesystem to fit partition size
1415     This option is useful if you are cloning a small disk to larger one. It
1416     tries to resize the restored filesystem to the size of the partition where
1417     it was restored to. It allows you to use the whole size of your new disk
1418     without resizing the partition afterwards. The option requires that the
1419     disk where the image is copied already contains a partition where the
1420     image is restored or that the option -k1 is enabled.
1422     -e sfdisk uses the CHS value of hard drive from the saved image
1423     Force to use the saved CHS (cylinders, heads, sectors) when using sfdisk. Of
1424     cource, there is no use of it when using any of -j0, -k or -k2 options.
1426     -j1 Write MBR (512 B) again after image is restored. Not OK for partition
1427     table diffe
1428     When a disk image is restored, the partition table must be updated to
1429     reflect the actual partitions in the disk. If you don't want it to happen,
1430     enable this option. Then the Master Boot Record (including the partition
1431     table) is restored again after restoring the image. Note that using this
1432     option can destroy all the data in the target drive.
1434     -j2 Clone the hidden data between MBR and 1st partition
1435     If this option is set, the 15 hidden sectors between Master Boot Record
1436     and the first partition are restored. This area usually contains some data
1437     necessary for booting. The option is enabled by default and should be kept
1438     enabled if you are cloning a bootable disk.
1440     -cm Check image by MD5 checksums
1441     If the image folder contains MD5 checksum(s), this option causes Clonezilla
1442     Live to check if the image has corrupted by calculating its checksum and
1443     comparing it to the precalculated one. Mind you, calculating the checksum
1444     takes some time and slows the process down a little.
1446     -cs Check image by SHA1 checksums
1447     This option is identical to the above, but checks SHA1 checksum(s) instead
1448     of MD5.
1450     -a Do NOT force to turn on HD DMA
1451     Prevents Clonezilla Live from using DMA for communicating with hard
1452     drives. Slows cloning down but in some conditions cloning without this
1453     option can be impossible.
1455     -o0 Run script in $OCS_PRERUN_DIR before clone starts
1456     Run the scripts in the directory $OCS_PRERUN_DIR before clone is
1457     started. The location of the directory can be determined by editing the
1458     file drbl-ocs.conf. By default it is /opt/drbl/share/ocs/prerun.
1460     -o1 Run script in $OCS_POSTRUN_DIR as clone finishes
1461     Run the scripts in the directory $OCS_POSTRUN_DIR when clone is
1462     finished. The location of the directory can be determined by editing the
1463     file drbl-ocs.conf. By default it is /opt/drbl/share/ocs/postrun. The
1464     command will be run before that assigned in -p.
1466     The scripts will be executed by the program "run-parts". run-parts only
1467     accepts that the name of the scripts must consist entirely of upper and
1468     lower case letters, digits and underscores. So if your file name has an
1469     illegal character ".", run-parts won't run it. You can test which files
1470     will be executed by entering the command:
1471     run-parts --test /opt/drbl/share/ocs/postrun
1473     > Partition table
1475     This option decides what is done to the partition table of the target drive.
1476     Use the partition table from the image
1477     This option causes Clonezilla Live to copy the partition table from the
1478     image. Use this option if you are cloning a whole disk or somehow know that
1479     the partition tables are identical (for example, if you are restoring a
1480     partition to the same disk where it was copied from and haven't repartitioned
1481     the drive after creating the backup). This is the default option.
1483     -k Do NOT create a partition table on the target disk
1484     Do NOT create partition in target harddisk. If this option is set,
1485     you must make sure there is an existing partition table in the current
1486     restored harddisk.
1488     -k1 Create partition table proportionally (OK for MRB format, not GPT)
1489     Causes Clonezilla Live to create the partition table automatically using
1490     sfdisk after restoring the images. This option works nearly always, but
1491     sometimes cloned Windows don't boot. Note that this option doesn't work if
1492     you have GUID Partition Table on your disk. (Most likely you don't have one.)
1494     -k2 Enter command line prompt to create partition manually later
1495     Like the -k option, this option doesn't create the partition table
1496     automatically. However, after restoring the image you are led to command
1497     line prompt where you can create the partition table manually. Don't use
1498     this option if you don't know how the partition table can be created.
1500     -j0 Use dd to create partition (NOT OK if logical drives exist)
1501     Use dd to dump the partition table from saved image instead of sfdisk.
1503     We read in DRBL FAQ/Q&A {{
1504     http://drbl.sourceforge.net/faq/fine-print.php?path=./2_System/23_Missing_OS.faq#23_Missing_OS.faq
1505     }}:
1507     When I use clonezilla to clone M$ windows, there is no any problem
1508     when saving an image from template machine. However, after the image
1509     is restored to another machine, it fails to boot, the error message is
1510     "Missing Operating System". What's going on ?
1512     Usually this is because GNU/Linux and M$ windows interpret the CHS (cylinder,
1513     head, sector) value of harddrive differently. Some possible solutions:
1514     1. Maybe you can change the IDE harddrive setting in BIOS, try to use
1515     LBA instead of auto mode.
1516     2. Try to choose
1517     [ ] -j0 Use dd to create partition table instead of sfdisk
1518     and
1519     [ ] -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For Windows only)
1520     when you restore the image.
1521     3. You can try to boot the machine with MS Windows 9x bootable floppy,
1522     and in the DOS command prompt, run: "fdisk /mbr".
1523     4. You can try to boot the machine with MS Windows XP installation
1524     CD, enter recovery mode (by pressing F10 key in MS XP, for example),
1525     then in the console, run "fixmbr" to fix it. Maybe another command
1526     "fixboot" will help, too. For more info, refer to this doc {{
1527     http://support.microsoft.com/?scid=kb%3Ben-us%3B314058&x=7&y=14 }}
1528     5. Use ntfsreloc to adjust FS geometry on NTFS partitions. For more info,
1529     refer to http://www.linux-ntfs.org/doku.php?id=contrib:ntfsreloc
1531     It has been confirmed that activating the -j0 option, fixes the problem.
1533     This option doesn't work if you use LVM (Logical Volume Manager).
1535     exit Exit
1536     This option ends the restore process and enters command line prompt.
1538     > Postaction
1540     -p true Do nothing when the clone finishes
1541     -p reboot Reboot client when the clone finishes
1542     -p poweroff Shutdown client when the clone finishes
1544     When image restoration finishes, do one of the following: choose action
1545     (default), poweroff or reboot.
1547     Saving image files in NTFS partitions
1548     ****************************************
1549     Although not recomended, you may find yourself having to save your image
1550     file in a NTFS (Windows XP) partition. You may never have a problem doing
1551     this, but you may get a message like the following one, when the partition
1552     gets mounted:
1553     Volume is scheduled for check
1554     Please boot into Windows TWICE, or use 'force' mount option"
1555     and the backup procedure fails. There are two things you can do here:
1557     * Exit the program, reboot and use Windows XP Recovery Console to fix the
1558     NTFS file system. From Recovery Console
1559     prompt, execute the command:
1560     chkdsk /f X:
1562     where X: is the drive letter of the disk. When done, boot back into
1563     Clonezilla Live and repeat the backup procedure.
1565     If the Windows version you use is not XP, boot into SystemRescueCD
1566     (graphical mode is not needed) and run the following command:
1567     ntfsfix /dev/hda1
1569     where /dev/hda1 is the partition name in GNU/Linux. When done, boot back
1570     into Clonezilla Live and repeat the backup procedure.
1572     If the disk/partition you are trying to backup is not the Windows System
1573     disk (usually C:), you can boot Windows, and execute the command in a DOS
1574     window. To open a DOS window click Start / Run... and at the prompt Open:
1575     type cmd.
1577     * If Windows XP Recovery Console is not available, you don't have the time
1578     to execute the procedure described above, or even if you have executed it
1579     but you still get the same message, and you are absolutely sure that you
1580     get this message because the NTFS partition is really scheduled for check,
1581     and it's not because Windows crushed or have become corrupt, you can mount
1582     the patririon by hand and tell Clonezilla Live to use it. Assuming the
1583     partition is /dev/hda1, exit the program and execute the commands:
1584     sudo su -
1585     ntfs-3g -o force /dev/hda1 /home/partimag
1586     ocs-live
1588     and when you get to the screen "Mount clonezilla image directory", select
1589     skip Use existing /home/partimag
1594     Getting backups
1595     ==============================================================================
1597     Intro
1598     ****************************************
1599     In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting
1600     a backup of a virtual partition (/dev/hdb1). The image file will be saved
1601     in another virtual partition (/dev/hda1).
1603     The first thing you do when you want to get a backup of a disk/partition,
1604     is make sure both the souce (to be backed up) and target (to hold the
1605     image file) partitions are in excellent condition (error free). This is the
1606     logical thing to do, cause I wouldn't want to backup a corrupt partition,
1607     or end up with a corrupt image file.
1609     There is one more step I would want to take: I should check that my BIOS
1610     boot settings are correct, in order to boot from my CD/DVD drive.
1612     Having done all of the above, I am ready to boot from Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
1614     [[ info.png ]]
1615     The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.3-27
1617     Getting the backup
1618     ****************************************
1619     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
1620     ---------------------
1621     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
1622     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
1623     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
1624     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
1625     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
1626     that continue from this step.
1628     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
1629     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
1630     displayed.
1632     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
1633     are the following:
1635     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
1636     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1637     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1638     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
1640     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
1641     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
1642     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
1644     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
1645     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1646     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1647     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
1649     Screen "Choose Language"
1650     ---------------------
1651     [[ backup-00.png ]]
1652     I select "en_US.UTF-8 English" and press ENTER.
1654     Screen "Configuring console-data"
1655     ---------------------
1656     [[ backup-01.png ]]
1657     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
1658     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
1660     Screen "Configuring console-data"
1661     ---------------------
1662     [[ backup-02.png ]]
1663     As I (the contributor who wrote a great deal of this page) use Finnish
1664     keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish / Standard / Standard". Because
1665     you most likely use a different keyboard, choose the one you use.
1667     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
1668     ---------------------
1669     [[ backup-03.png ]]
1670     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
1672     Screen "Clonezilla"
1673     ---------------------
1674     [[ backup-04.png ]]
1675     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
1677     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
1678     ---------------------
1679     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory will be saved.
1680     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
1681     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
1682     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
1684     [[ backup-05.png ]]
1685     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
1687     Next screen
1688     ---------------------
1689     This is where I choose the location of the image file. It will be saved
1690     at the root directory of the selected partition.
1692     [[ backup-06.png ]]
1693     I select partition hda1 and press ENTER.
1695     [[ backup-07.png ]]
1696     and then ENTER again.
1698     [[ backup-08.png ]]
1699     This screen displays the mounting result.
1700     As we can see, /dev/hda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
1702     Next Screen
1703     ---------------------
1704     [[ backup-09.png ]]
1705     I select Beginer mode to accept the default backup options. If you select
1706     Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
1707     found here.
1709     Screen "Select mode"
1710     ---------------------
1711     Here I can select the desired operation.
1713     [[ backup-10.png ]]
1714     I select "savedisk" and press ENTER.
1716     Next Screen
1717     ---------------------
1718     [[ backup-11.png ]]
1719     In this screen I select the image name.
1720     I type "Backup_5-2010_hdb", which in my opinion is more informative name
1721     than the default.
1723     Next Screen
1724     ---------------------
1725     [[ backup-12.png ]]
1726     Finally I am asked to select the partition to save.
1727     I just press ENTER again.
1729     Starting the backup
1730     ---------------------
1731     [[ backup-13.png ]]
1732     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
1733     ask me to press ENTER.
1734     Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
1736     [[ backup-14.png ]]
1737     After that, the backup begins
1739     [[ backup-15.png ]]
1740     and when it's successfully completed, I will be able to reboot the system
1741     by pressing 1 and ENTER.
1746     Getting backups on Samba
1747     ==============================================================================
1749     Intro
1750     ****************************************
1751     What if you don't have a spare local disk or partition or a USB disk? How
1752     will you be able to get a backup of your system? Well, if your PC is on
1753     the same LAN with another PC running Windows (or linux), you can use Samba
1754     to save your image file on that remote PC (which we will call Samba server
1755     from now on).
1757     Using Samba you will be able to mount a Windows share resource (or
1758     Samba share resource), from within Clonezilla Live, and save the image
1759     file there. Then you can boot that PC using SystemRescueCD and create a
1760     restore DVD.
1762     In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting a
1763     backup of my Windows partition (/dev/hda1). The image file will be save in
1764     my Samba server which is my laptop (ip:, Windows share resource
1765     name: data).
1767     What is Samba?
1768     ---------------------
1769     We read at http://us1.samba.org/samba/:
1771     Samba is an Open Source/Free Software suite that provides seamless file
1772     and print services to SMB/CIFS clients. Samba is freely available, unlike
1773     other SMB/CIFS implementations, and allows for interoperability between
1774     Linux/Unix servers and Windows-based clients.
1776     Samba is software that can be run on a platform other than Microsoft
1777     Windows, for example, UNIX, Linux, IBM System 390, OpenVMS, and other
1778     operating systems. Samba uses the TCP/IP protocol that is installed on the
1779     host server. When correctly configured, it allows that host to interact
1780     with a Microsoft Windows client or server as if it is a Windows file and
1781     print server.
1783     Gathering info
1784     ****************************************
1785     Before you can use this approach to get a backup, you have to get some
1786     info about the Samba server.
1788     The Samba server I have used for this example was my laptop, so I already
1789     knew most of the info required. If this is not the case for you, just ask
1790     the owner, user or system admin.
1792     The info required is:
1794     * The IP address of the Samba server
1795     * The domain on the Samba server
1796     This may exist if your PC is connected to a larger LAN (a corporation
1797     network, for example). In my case this is empty.
1798     * The user name and password you can use
1799     * The directory on the Samba server you can use to save your backup
1800     This is the name of the Windows share resource (Samba share resource)
1801     as it is known in the network, which is not necessarily the same as the
1802     local directory name. The user whose account will be used to login to the
1803     Samba server, must have write permission to this directory.
1805     Getting the backup
1806     ****************************************
1807     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
1808     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
1809     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
1810     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
1811     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup.
1813     If you need to change these settings, go to the Getting backups page for
1814     instructions .
1816     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
1817     ---------------------
1818     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
1820     Screen "Clonezilla"
1821     ---------------------
1822     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
1824     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory" [^
1825     ---------------------
1826     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory will be saved.
1827     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
1828     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
1829     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
1831     I select "samba server" and press ENTER.
1833     Screen "Mount Samba Server"
1834     ---------------------
1835     This is where I have to enter the IP address of my Samba server. I type
1836     "" and press ENTER.
1838     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (second time)
1839     ---------------------
1840     This is where I have to enter the account (user) name on my Samba server. I
1841     type "spiros" and press ENTER.
1843     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (third time)
1844     ---------------------
1845     This is where I have to enter the domain name on my Samba server. I select
1846     "Cancel" and press ENTER, as there is no domain in my LAN. If there
1847     is a domain in your network, you have to type its name (something like
1848     my_company.com) and press ENTER.
1850     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (fourth time)
1851     ---------------------
1852     This is where I have to enter the directory name on my Samba server,
1853     in which the image file will be saved. I type "/data" and press ENTER.
1855     At this point I will be asked for the password for user spiros. I will be
1856     able to continue only after entering it correctly.
1858     Screen "Clonezilla - Opensource Clone System (OCS)"
1859     ---------------------
1860     I select Beginner mode to accept the default backup options. If you select
1861     Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
1862     found here.
1864     Screen "Clonezilla: Select mode"
1865     ---------------------
1866     Here I can select the desired operation. Available options are:
1868     savedisk
1869     Save entire disk to image
1871     restoredisk
1872     Restore entire disk from image
1874     saveparts
1875     Save partition to image
1877     restoreparts
1878     Restore partition from image
1880     recovery-iso-zip
1881     Create an automated restore CD/DVD/USB drive
1883     I select "saveparts" and press ENTER.
1885     Screen "Clonezilla - Opensource Clone System (OCS) | Mode: saveparts"
1886     ---------------------
1887     This is the name of the image file. You can insert anything you like,
1888     as long as it makes sence to you, so that you can distinguish the image
1889     file afterwards.
1891     I insert "win_img" and press ENTER.
1893     Next screen
1894     ---------------------
1895     Here I can select the partition that will be backed up. I select "( )
1896     hda1 ntfs" by pressing SPACE and press ENTER, and ENTER again.
1898     Then a message is displayed asking for confirmation in order to continue. I
1899     just press y, and the backup procedure begins.
1901     Rebooting the system
1902     ****************************************
1903     When the backup is done, I get the following:
1904     (0) Poweroff
1905     (1) Reboot
1906     (2) Enter command line prompt
1907     (3) Start over
1908     [2]
1909     Then I press ENTER and get to the shell. I execute the commands:
1910     sudo su -
1911     cd
1912     umount -a
1913     reboot
1918     Restoring data
1919     ==============================================================================
1921     Intro
1922     ****************************************
1923     Image files are always created for one purpose: restoring the data they
1924     contain. Images can be, for example, a backup solution: as long as hardware
1925     works, the computer can be restored to the state it was when creating the
1926     image. Another usage scenario is changing the hard drive: files can be
1927     copy-pasted from the old drive to the new, but that method doesn't make
1928     the new drive bootable. Disk images do.
1930     This page contains a demonstration of the latter case. On the Getting backups
1931     page, a 500 MB virtual disk containing 160 megabytes of data was copied
1932     to a 2 GB virtual disk which was empty. Now the 500 MB disk is changed to
1933     an empty 2 GB disk (still virtual) and I'll restore the data to that disk.
1935     When creating a disk image, one needs to check that both the source and
1936     target partitions are error free. That's not required when the image is
1937     restored, because restoration process can't damage the disk image. Note,
1938     however, that restoring an image erases all the data in the target
1939     disk/partition.
1941     You also need to check the BIOS settings to be able to boot from
1942     Clonezilla-SysRescCD. Some BIOSes contain a boot menu, others require
1943     editing settings pernamently. Details can be found on the manual of the
1944     motherboard or laptop.
1946     Now let's boot.
1948     [[ important.png ]]
1949     Restore process erases all the data on the target disk/partition.Before
1950     restoring make sure you have backup of all the data on the target
1951     disk/partition, even if the filesystem is corrupted.
1953     [[ info.png ]]
1954     The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.3-27
1956     Restoring data
1957     ****************************************
1958     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
1959     ---------------------
1960     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
1961     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
1962     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
1963     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
1964     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
1965     that continue from this step.
1967     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
1968     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
1969     displayed.
1971     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
1972     are the following:
1974     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
1975     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1976     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1977     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
1979     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
1980     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
1981     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
1983     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
1984     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1985     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1986     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
1988     Screen "Choose Language"
1989     ---------------------
1990     [[ backup-00.png ]]
1991     This is where the language can be selected. I select "en_US.UTF-8 English"
1992     and press ENTER.
1994     Screen "Configuring console-data"
1995     ---------------------
1996     [[ backup-01.png ]]
1997     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
1998     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
2000     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2001     ---------------------
2002     [[ backup-02.png ]]
2003     Because I haven't changed my keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish /
2004     Standard / Standard". Because you most likely use a different keyboard,
2005     choose the one you use.
2007     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2008     ---------------------
2009     [[ backup-03.png ]]
2010     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2012     Screen "Clonezilla"
2013     ---------------------
2014     [[ backup-04.png ]]
2015     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2017     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2018     ---------------------
2019     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory has been saved.
2020     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2021     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2022     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2024     [[ backup-05.png ]]
2025     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
2027     Next screen
2028     ---------------------
2029     This is where I choose the location of the image file.
2030     [[ restoration-06.png ]]
2031     I select partition hda1 and press ENTER.
2033     [[ backup-07.png ]]
2035     [[ restoration-08.png ]]
2036     This screen displays the mounting result.
2037     As we can see, /dev/hda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
2039     Next Screen
2040     ---------------------
2041     [[ backup-09.png ]]
2042     I select Beginer mode to accept the default restore options. If you select
2043     Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
2044     found here.
2046     Screen "Select mode"
2047     ---------------------
2048     Here I can select the desired operation.
2050     [[ restoration-10.png ]]
2051     I select "restoredisk" and press ENTER.
2053     Next Screen
2054     ---------------------
2055     [[ restoration-11.png ]]
2056     In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only
2057     one image.
2059     Next Screen
2060     ---------------------
2061     [[ restoration-12.png ]]
2062     Finally I am asked to select which partition the image will be restored
2063     to. After double-checking the disk doesn't contain anything important,
2064     I press ENTER.
2066     Starting the restoration
2067     ---------------------
2068     [[ restoration-13.png ]]
2069     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2070     ask me to press ENTER.
2071     Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
2073     [[ restoration-14.png ]]
2075     [[ important.png ]]
2076     This is the last confirmation Clonezilla Live asks.After this step there
2077     is no coming back.
2078     Then my confirmation is asked one last time. After checking one more time
2079     the disk doesn't contain any important data, I press y and ENTER.
2081     [[ restoration-15.png ]]
2082     After that, the restore process begins
2084     [[ restoration-16.png ]]
2085     and when it's successfully completed, I will be able to reboot the system
2086     by pressing 1 and ENTER.
2091     Creating a Restore DVD - Part 1
2092     ==============================================================================
2094     Intro
2095     ****************************************
2096     Assuming you have used Clonezilla Live to make a backup of your Windows XP
2097     system (partition /dev/hda1), which you have saved as win_img, you will
2098     probably be wondering what to do with it now. Well, one option would be
2099     to keep it to the disk you used to save it in, store the disk, and use it
2100     whenever you need it. Another option would be to create a DVD you can use
2101     to restore this image.
2103     Before, up to Clonezilla-SysRescCD 2.6.0, the process to create an automated
2104     restore DVD required entering command line prompt and writing some commands,
2105     that can be uncomfortable or even difficult for many people.
2107     Later, a TUI option to create an automated recovery disc was added to
2108     Clonezilla Live, and ocs-iso script included in Clonezilla-SysRescCD
2109     3.1.0 and newer has a TUI too. Old command-line options are no longer
2110     supported. This page walks you through the creation of an automated restore
2111     DVD via TUI.
2113     Assuming you have saved your image file win_img in partition hdb4, you
2114     have to boot Clonezilla Live, using Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
2116     [[ info.png ]]
2117     The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.3-27
2119     Creating the disk image
2120     ****************************************
2121     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
2122     ---------------------
2123     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2124     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2125     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2126     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2127     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
2128     that continue from this step.
2130     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
2131     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
2132     displayed.
2134     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
2135     are the following:
2137     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2138     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2139     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2140     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
2142     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
2143     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
2144     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
2146     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2147     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2148     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2149     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
2151     Screen "Choose Language"
2152     ---------------------
2153     [[ backup-00.png ]]
2154     I select "en_US.UTF-8 English" and press ENTER.
2156     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2157     ---------------------
2158     [[ backup-01.png ]]
2159     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
2160     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
2162     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2163     ---------------------
2164     [[ backup-02.png ]]
2165     Because I haven't changed my keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish /
2166     Standard / Standard". Because you most likely use a different keyboard,
2167     choose the one you use.
2169     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2170     ---------------------
2171     [[ backup-03.png ]]
2172     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2174     Screen "Clonezilla"
2175     ---------------------
2176     [[ backup-04.png ]]
2177     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2179     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2180     ---------------------
2181     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory has been saved.
2182     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2183     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2184     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2186     [[ backup-05.png ]]
2187     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
2189     Next screen
2190     ---------------------
2191     This is where I choose the location of the image file.
2192     [[ restore-06.png ]]
2193     I select partition hda1 and press ENTER.
2195     [[ backup-07.png ]]
2196     and then ENTER again.
2198     [[ restore-08.png ]]
2199     This screen displays the mounting result.
2200     As we can see, /dev/hda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
2202     Next Screen
2203     ---------------------
2204     [[ backup-09.png ]]
2205     I select Beginer mode to accept the default restore options, which are
2206     used if the recovery disk is ever used. If you select Expert mode, you
2207     can choose the options yourself. More details can be found here.
2209     Screen "Clonezilla: Select mode"
2210     ---------------------
2211     Here I can select the desired operation.
2213     [[ restore-10.png ]]
2214     I select "recovery-iso-zip" and press ENTER.
2216     Next Screen
2217     ---------------------
2218     [[ restore-11.png ]]
2219     In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only
2220     one image.
2222     Next Screen
2223     ---------------------
2224     [[ restore-12.png ]]
2225     Now I am asked to select which disk the image will be restored to, if the
2226     recovery disc is used. Because this image is a backup, I choose the same
2227     disk where the original data resides. If you're upgrading your hard drive,
2228     choose the new drive.
2230     Next Screen
2231     ---------------------
2232     [[ restore-13.png ]]
2233     In this screen I can select the language that the recovery disc uses. I
2234     choose "en_US.UTF-8".
2236     Next Screen
2237     ---------------------
2238     [[ restore-14.png ]]
2239     This screen allows me to select the keymap that the recovery disc
2240     uses. Unfortunately, changing the keymap requires knowing where the keymap
2241     file resides in Debian GNU/Linux. Because I don't know it, I just press
2242     ENTER to accept US keymap.
2244     Next Screen
2245     ---------------------
2246     [[ restore-15.png ]]
2247     I select "iso" to create a CD/DVD disk image which I can burn to a recordable
2248     CD/DVD disc. The good thing about recordable discs is that overwriting
2249     the backup by accident is impossible. The "zip" option creates a ZIP file
2250     which can be used to create a bootable pendrive or external hard drive.
2252     [[ restore-16.png ]]
2253     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2254     ask me to press ENTER.
2256     [[ cust-menu-01.png ]]
2257     Due to limitations of mkisofs, the script can't create a ISO file which
2258     is over 4,5 gigabytes in size. It causes problems if the size of your
2259     image is over 4,4 gigabytes. Clonezilla-SysRescCD contains a workaround
2260     that creates a ISO file that contains no image, so you can add the image
2261     manually later. This dialog asks if you want to do so. Note that if you
2262     see this dialog, you most likely need a dual layer DVD+R or Blu-ray disc
2263     to burn the image. Growisofs doesn't support multisession burning on dual
2264     layer DVD-R discs, so such disc can't be used either.
2266     Screen "Customization section"
2267     ---------------------
2268     [[ cust-menu-02.png ]]
2269     Now I am asked if I want to customize the boot menu of the disc. I answer
2270     "Yes". If you don't want to customize the menu, continue from this step.
2272     Screen "DVD Title"
2273     ---------------------
2274     [[ cust-menu-03.png ]]
2275     In this screen I select the title of the boot menu. I type "Home PC
2276     Restore DVD".
2278     Screen "Menu Items Caption"
2279     ---------------------
2280     [[ cust-menu-04.png ]]
2281     This screen allows me to select the caption for all menu items. I enter
2282     "Restore Win XP".
2284     Screen "Boot delay"
2285     ---------------------
2286     [[ cust-menu-05.png ]]
2287     I press ENTER to accept the default delay of 30 seconds. It means that
2288     when a computer is booted from the restore disc, it waits 30 seconds
2289     before choosing the default option automatically. You may want to reduce
2290     this delay if, for example, your keyboard doesn't work in boot menu and
2291     you must wait until the delay ends.
2293     Screen "Default Boot Item"
2294     ---------------------
2295     [[ cust-menu-06.png ]]
2296     In this screen I can select the default option of the menu. Selecting one
2297     of the options that restore the image makes using the disc even easier,
2298     but also raises the risk that the image is restored accidentally. Another
2299     reason to select such option may be that your keyboard doesn't work in
2300     boot menu, preventing you from choosing any non-default option. I select
2301     the first option that restores the image using pixel dimensions of 1024*768.
2303     Screen "Boot Screen Image"
2304     ---------------------
2305     [[ cust-menu-07.png ]]
2306     This screen allows me to select the background picture of the menu. Note
2307     that the picture must be in the same partition that contains the disk
2308     image, if you don't mind entering command line and mounting the right
2309     partition manually. I choose picture mysplash.png in the root of the
2310     partition. Because the partition has been mounted in /home/partimag,
2311     the full path of the picture is /home/partimag/mysplash.png.
2313     Screen "ISO Label"
2314     ---------------------
2315     [[ cust-menu-08.png ]]
2316     In this screen I can select the volume label of the disc. Volume label is
2317     the name of the disc you may see in various situations, for example in the
2318     notification you see when you insert the disc into your DVD writer. I type
2319     "Backup_52-2009_hdb".
2321     Screen "Publisher ID"
2322     ---------------------
2323     [[ cust-menu-09.png ]]
2324     This is where I choose the publisher ID of the ISO file
2325     and the disc. Publisher ID means the person or company who
2326     created the disc. However, at least in GNU/Linux reading
2327     the publisher ID is, strictly speaking, a challenge. Here {{
2328     http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/getting-volume-information-from-cds-iso- }}
2329     are instructions to read the publisher ID of a ISO file. I didn't find
2330     any working instructions to read the ID from the disc.
2332     Starting the creation of the disk image
2333     ---------------------
2334     [[ restore-17.png ]]
2335     After that, creation of the disk image begins. Note that no confirmation
2336     is asked it the disk image is small enough to fit to a CD.
2338     [[ cust-menu-10.png ]]
2340     If you have above enabled the workaround to create a ISO file without any
2341     image, you get the info screen, which explains the actions to be taken
2342     in order to burn the ISO file and add the iamge file to the DVD. A script
2343     file is also saved as /tmp/burnISO.
2345     [[ restore-18.png ]]
2346     When the disk image is successfully created, I must reboot in order to
2347     burn the disc because my DVD burner is still in use. Clonezilla Live can
2348     be loaded into computer memory during boot in order to be able to burn
2349     disc(s) within it. However, due to a known bug, the disk image can't
2350     be created if Clonezilla Live has been loaded into memory. (source {{
2351     http://free.nchc.org.tw/clonezilla-live/stable/Known-issues-Clonezilla-live.txt
2352     }}) Thus, I press 1 and ENTER to reboot to another operating system and
2353     burn the image using graphical burning program. For instructions, follow
2354     one of these links:
2356     If the ISO file contains the disk image
2357     If the ISO file contains no image
2358     If you've created a ZIP file
2363     Creating a Restore DVD - Part 2
2364     ==============================================================================
2366     What to do with the disk image
2367     ****************************************
2368     The previous page contains partial instructions to create an automated
2369     recovery DVD. They're partial because they only tell how the disk image
2370     can be created, not what one should do with the image. Of course, partial
2371     instructions are not enough, but don't worry - this page is the other part.
2373     Earlier versions of Clonezilla Live allowed creating the DVD without
2374     reboot, but it's no longer possible due to a known bug. The disk image
2375     can't be created if Clonezilla Live has been loaded into memory (source {{
2376     http://free.nchc.org.tw/clonezilla-live/stable/Known-issues-Clonezilla-live.txt
2377     }}) and the image can't be burned to disc if Clonezilla Live isn't in
2378     memory. And if the computer must be rebooted anyway, it's a good idea to
2379     use one's favorite operating system and a graphical burning program for
2380     burning the disc. Doing so also allows reading these instructions while
2381     burning the disc.
2383     This page walks through burning the disc by using ImgBurn and K3b. The
2384     instructions can be adapted for many other burning programs as well. If
2385     your burning program is too different, download either of the programs
2386     mentioned - they both can be downloaded for free.
2388     In addition to a DVD, bootable pendrive or external hard drive can be
2389     created as well. If you want to do so, follow instructions below.
2391     Before following these instructions, insert a writable DVD or Blu-ray disc
2392     to your burner.
2394     Burning the disc
2395     ****************************************
2396     If the ISO file contains the disk image
2397     ---------------------
2398     > Using ImgBurn
2400     ImgBurn {{ http://www.imgburn.com/ }} is a lightweight but very feature-rich
2401     disc burning program. It only requires about two megabytes disk space
2402     and contains a lot of settings. ImgBurn is closed-source freeware and -
2403     unfortunately - Windows-only software. I (Jyrki) personally use ImgBurn
2404     when burning discs within Windows.
2406     Launch ImgBurn and press Write image file to disc. Select the disk image
2407     you just created.
2409     At the settings window, keep Test Mode disabled. I also recommend
2410     keeping the Verify option enabled. Verifying the integrity of the disc
2411     after burning requires time and doesn't prevent the disc from becoming a
2412     so-called coaster, but it allows you to know immediately if the burning
2413     attempt failed, so you can try burning the disc again.
2415     Keep the number of copies as 1 (or increase it, if you really
2416     want multiple copies of the disc). Use your best judgment while
2417     choosing the burning speed: according to this forum thread {{
2418     http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/ }} lowering
2419     the burning speed gives very mixed results in quality. I personally use
2420     ¾ of the maximum speed of the disc, for example 12x on a disc rated 16x.
2422     After choosing the settings, press the big picture at the bottom-left of
2423     the window. Don't do anything that requires much computer resources while
2424     burning, because doing so increases the likelihood of burning failure.
2426     That's it. You own now an automated recovery disc.
2428     > Using K3b
2430     K3b (KDE Burn Baby Burn) is the disc burning program included in KDE
2431     Software Compilation. It comes with most, if not all, KDE-based GNU/Linux
2432     distributions. It can also be installed on other distributions, but I
2433     recommend against doing so - K3b requires KDE base packages to be installed,
2434     and it doesn't make much sense to install KDE base only for K3b.
2436     [[ k3b-00.png ]]
2437     I launch K3b and navigate to the folder where the disk image resides.
2439     [[ k3b-01.png ]]
2440     I double-click the file clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hda.iso.
2442     [[ k3b-02.png ]]
2443     This window allows me to choose burning settings. I don't touch Image Type or
2444     Burn Medium, because they're auto-detected anyway. The maximum burning speed
2445     allowed by the disc is 16x, so I choose speed 12x. According to this forum
2446     thread {{ http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/
2447     }} low burning speed can decrease burning quality, so I always use speed
2448     near the maximum speed of the disc.
2450     I keep Writing Mode as Auto and number of copies as 1. I also keep the
2451     Simulate option disabled and enable the Verify written data option. The
2452     latter allows me to notice immediately if the burning attempt failed, so
2453     I can try burning the disc again, rather than owning a so-called coaster
2454     and relying on it if something happens to my data...
2456     [[ k3b-03.png ]]
2457     I click Start and the burning process begins.
2459     [[ k3b-04.png ]]
2460     Because I enabled the Verify written data option, K3b starts verifying
2461     the integrity of the disc right after burning.
2463     [[ k3b-05.png ]]
2464     The burning attempt succeeded.
2466     If the ISO file contains no image
2467     ---------------------
2468     If you have enabled the workaround to create a ISO file that contains
2469     no disk image (required if the size of the image is over 4,4 gigabytes),
2470     things become much more problematic. The ISO file and the image can't be
2471     burned to the disc simultaneously, they must be written one-by-one. That
2472     requires two burning sessions: the first for writing the ISO file to the
2473     disc and the second for adding the disk image. Many burning programs don't
2474     even support multisession burning at all. About the programs I've mentioned
2475     in this page: K3b supports multisession burning, ImgBurn doesn't.
2477     I didn't find any instructions for adding an additional file to a
2478     spesific directory by using K3b. Actually, I don't even know if that's
2479     possible at all. Thus, I recommend using growisofs for burning the disc
2480     if the workaround has been enabled, because growisofs allows adding
2481     any file to any directory. However, there's one more limitation:
2482     growisofs doesn't support multisession burning on dual layer DVD-R
2483     discs, so you must use dual layer DVD+R or Blu-ray disc. (source {{
2484     http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/-RW/#nomultisess }})
2486     Growisofs is a command-line program and a part of dvd+rw-tools that is
2487     installed on most GNU/Linux distributions. Dvd+rw-tools is Linux-only
2488     software, so if you use a competing operating system, you must boot into
2489     SystemRescueCD (graphical mode is not needed) in order to burn the disc.
2491     Open terminal and mount the partition that contains the image. The commands
2492     below must be run as root.
2494     mkdir /media/usb
2495     mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb
2497     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
2498     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above the
2499     command. For example, the latter of the above commands can be executed by
2500     typing "sudo mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb". If you're using SystemRescueCD,
2501     all commands are run as root, so you don't need to add any prefix to
2502     the commands.
2504     Note: In the command replace /dev/sdc1 with the partition where the disk
2505     image resides. It's the same partition you mounted as /home/partimag when
2506     creating the image.
2508     Go to root of the partition:
2510     cd /media/usb
2512     Burn the ISO file to the disc:
2514     growisofs -Z /dev/dvd=clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.iso
2516     Note: In the last command I have assumed your ISO file is
2517     clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.iso. You will have to replace this with
2518     the actual name of the file.
2520     Note: If your computer has multiple DVD drives, replace /dev/dvd with the
2521     name of your DVD writer.
2523     The disc must be ejected because it's the only known way to force the
2524     drive to reread the disc. Do it:
2526     eject /dev/dvd
2528     Note: If your drive can't reload the disc, insert the disc back right
2529     after ejecting it.
2531     Finally, add the image file to the disc:
2533     growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J -V "Backup_5-2010_hdb" --publisher "Your Name"
2534     -graft-points /Backup_5-2010_hdb/=/media/usb/Backup_5-2010_hdb
2536     Note: In the command replace Your Name with anything you want to be the
2537     publisher ID of the disc. If you don't want the disc to have any publisher
2538     ID, run this command instead:
2540     growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J -V "Backup_5-2010_hdb" -graft-points
2541     /Backup_5-2010_hdb/=/media/usb/Backup_5-2010_hdb
2543     [[ restore-20.png ]]
2545     ZIP file instructions
2546     ****************************************
2547     Often the image file is way too big to fit to even 8 GB DVD. Some people may
2548     also want to be able to overwrite the backup when it becomes outdated. In
2549     addition, netbooks don't have optical drives at all.
2551     One option is using recovery thumb drive or external hard drive instead
2552     of DVD. If the external HD is big enough, the disk image can be even over
2553     a terabyte in size. Recovery USB drive can also be used on netbooks and
2554     overwritten at will.
2556     Clonezilla Live allows creating a ZIP file instead of disk image. If you
2557     want to do so, follow this step-by-step guide.
2559     Before creating the disk image, make sure it is split to pieces of four
2560     gigabytes or less. It is split automatically if you use Beginner mode,
2561     and if you use Expert mode, you should already know how the splitting
2562     setting can be changed.
2564     Using GNU/Linux
2565     ---------------------
2566     After creating the disk image and booting into GNU/Linux, make sure that the
2567     filesystem of the partition where you plan to put the disk image is FAT32. If
2568     you don't know the filesystem, open terminal and run this command as root:
2570     fdisk -l /dev/sdc
2572     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
2573     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above
2574     the command. For example, the above command can be executed by typing
2575     "sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdc"
2577     Note: In the command replace /dev/sdc with the name of your USB disk.
2579     Note: The l in parameter -l is lowercase L, not number 1.
2581     If your disk doesn't contain any FAT32 partition, but it contains a
2582     partition which is big enough and doesn't contain any important data,
2583     format the partition as FAT32. The command below needs root access too.
2585     [[ important.png ]]
2586     The command below erases all the data on the target partition.Make sure
2587     you don't format a wrong partition by accident.
2589     mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sdc1
2591     After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32,
2592     extract the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Also these commands
2593     need root rights.
2595     mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb
2596     unzip clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.zip -d /media/usb/
2598     Note: In the last command I have assumed your image file is
2599     clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.zip. You will have to replace this with
2600     the actual name of the file.
2602     ZIP package contains a script to make the USB drive bootable. Let's run
2603     it. The latter of these commands needs root access.
2605     [[ important.png ]]
2606     The latter of the commands below replaces theexisting bootloader of the
2607     target disk, if there is one.Make sure you don't select a wrong disk
2608     by accident.
2610     cd /media/usb/utils/linux
2611     ./makeboot.sh /dev/sdc1
2613     That's all. Your thumb drive or external hard drive should be now an
2614     automatic recovery disk.
2616     Using Windows
2617     ---------------------
2618     If the Windows version you use is not Vista or 7, you need to be logged in
2619     as administrator. If you're not, but you have access to an admin account,
2620     log out and then log again in as admin.
2622     If you don't have admin rights at all, boot into SystemRescueCD (you don't
2623     need graphical mode this time) and follow the instructions for GNU/Linux. In
2624     SystemRescueCD all commands are run as root, so you don't need to add any
2625     prefix to the commands.
2627     If you normally use Windows, you maybe don't know the name of your USB
2628     disk in GNU/Linux. If that's the case, don't specify any disk in the first
2629     command. It causes fdisk to tell about all disks in the computer and you
2630     should be able to identify both the right disk and the right partition.
2632     After creating the disk image and booting into Windows, make sure that
2633     the filesystem of the partition where you plan to put the disk image is
2634     FAT32. If you don't know the filesystem, open My Computer, right-click the
2635     partition and select Properties. Then read the "File system" column. If
2636     there reads anything but FAT32, check other partitions of the disk too,
2637     if the disk contains multiple partitions. If you have a suitable FAT32
2638     partition, continue from this step.
2640     If your disk doesn't contain any FAT32 partition, but it contains a
2641     partition which is big enough and doesn't contain any important data,
2642     format the partition as FAT32.
2644     [[ important.png ]]
2645     Formatting erases all the data on the target partition.Make sure the
2646     partition contains nothing important.
2648     Right-click the partition and select Format.... If the Windows version
2649     you use is Vista or 7, an UAC prompt asks for admin password. Enter it.
2651     At the format window, choose the FAT32 filesystem. You can enter any volume
2652     label (it means the name of the partition you can see next to the partition
2653     letter) and enable Quick Format if you're in a hurry. If Quick Format is
2654     disabled, Windows checks if the partition is physically OK after formatting
2655     it. Enabling Quick Format makes the formatting process many times faster
2656     and, contrary to popular belief, hardly ever causes any harm.
2658     After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32, extract
2659     the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Navigate to the folder where
2660     you've saved the ZIP file and right-click it. Choose Extract all..., and when
2661     you're asked for location where the archive is extracted, enter the letter
2662     of the partition, for example H:\. Do NOT choose any folder in the partition!
2664     After that, browse to the folder X:\utils\win32, where X: is the letter
2665     of the partition. Then, double-click makeboot.bat. If the Windows version
2666     you use is Vista or 7, another UAC prompt appears. Enter the password
2667     again. Then just follow the prompts to make the USB drive bootable.
2669     Now you're done. Your thumb drive or external hard drive should be an
2670     automatic recovery disk.
2675     Restoring to a different location
2676     ==============================================================================
2678     Intro
2679     ****************************************
2680     In the past restoring to a different location was not supported by
2681     Clonezilla Live at all. Because of that, a script called reloc-img was
2682     added to Clonezilla-SysRescCD, which would help the user perform this task.
2684     Recent versions of Clonezilla Live partly support restoring to a
2685     different location, so the reloc-img script is obsolete, and has been
2686     removed. Clonezilla Live now supports:
2688     * Relocation of a disk image (restoring a whole disk)
2689     * Relocation of a partition image (restoring a partition)
2691     Clonezilla Live does not support:
2693     * Relocation of a single partition contained into a disk image.
2695     Imagine you have a disk backup image named hda-2009-02-02. The image
2696     contains three partitions, hda1 (operating system), hda2 (user data)
2697     and hda3 (other data).
2699     You want to restore your other data partition (hda3), to a different system
2700     (partition sdb2) but there is no way to restore (extract) a single partition
2701     from a disk image - you can only restore the whole disk.
2703     In order to address this situation, two new scripts have been written for
2704     Clonezilla-SysRescCD: imginfo and imgconvert
2706     Script imginfo
2707     ****************************************
2708     The script will be used to print info about existing image files.
2710     Its help screen is:
2712     # imginfo -h
2713     Clonezilla Live Image Information
2714     imginfo v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
2716     Usage: imginfo <options> <directory>
2718     Available options:
2719     s Search in sub-directories too
2720     i [name] Pring info for image [name]
2721     v Print version info and exit
2722     h Print this screen and exit
2724     Script imgconvert
2725     ****************************************
2726     The script will be used to convert an existing disk image file to a new
2727     partition image file.
2729     imgconvert can create two type of images:
2731     * Temporary image
2732     This type of image is created by linking the data files of the existing
2733     disk image to the new partition image. This means that the original image
2734     must be present for the new image to be used. This is the default image
2735     type created by imgconvert.
2737     * Permanent image
2738     This type of image is created by copying the data files from the existing
2739     disk image to the new partition image. This means that the original image is
2740     not needed in order to use the new one. Permenant image files are created
2741     using the command line parameter -p.
2743     Its help screen is:
2745     # imgconvert -h
2746     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2747     imgconvert v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
2749     Usage: imgconvert <options> [image] [partition] <new partition>
2751     Parameters are:
2752     [image] Disk image to be converted to partition image
2753     [partition] Partition name to convert. It must be a valid device name
2755     Available options:
2756     o [image] Save new imag as [image]
2757     p Save new partition instead of making a link to the old one
2758     v Print version info and exit
2759     h Print this screen and exit
2761     Using the scripts
2762     ****************************************
2763     Restoring to a partition
2764     ---------------------
2765     After booting into Clonezilla Live, I select
2767     Enter_shell Enter command line prompt
2769     when the menu is displayed and then I press 2 to exit to the shell.
2771     At this point I will mount my images partition (in this example /dev/sdc4),
2772     and use script imginfo to get info about my image files.
2774     $ sudo su -
2775     # mount /dev/sdc4 /home/partimag
2776     # cd /home/partimag
2777     # imginfo
2778     Image files found in: /home/partimag
2779     Image: usb250-img, disk: sda, size: 259MB, parts: 1
2780     part: sda4, size: 247.00MB, type: FAT16
2781     Image: sys-bck, disk: hda, size: 320.0GB, parts: 3
2782     part: hda1, size: 22.36GB, type: Linux
2783     part: hda2, size: 39.06GB, type: Linux
2784     part: hda3, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
2786     As you can see there are two disk images under /home/partimag: usb250-img
2787     and sys-bck.
2789     sys-bck is a backup of my old system, which had three partitions. What
2790     I need to do now is "copy" the hda3 partition to my current system, by
2791     transfering its data to partition sdb2.
2793     The way to proceed is:
2795     * Create a new partition image (containing hda3's data) based on the
2796     existing disk image file, by executing the command:
2798     # imgconvert sys-bck hda3 sdb2
2799     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2800     imgconvert v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras
2802     Determining input image
2803     Input image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck"
2804     Validating image... ok
2805     Determining input partition
2806     Input partition: "hda3"
2807     Validating input partition... ok
2808     Determining output image
2809     Output image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck-cnv"
2810     Validating output image... ok
2811     Checking permissions... ok
2812     Determining output partition
2813     Output partition: "sda2"
2814     Validating output partition... ok
2815     Creating output image: /home/partimag/sys-bck-cnv
2816     Linking files... done
2817     Fixing info files... done
2819     This command will create a temporary partition image file (automatically
2820     named sys-bck-cnv), which contains sdb2 only, as you can see by executing:
2822     # imginfo -i sys-bck-cnv
2823     Image: sys-bck-cnv, part: sdb2, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
2825     * Restart Clonezilla Live by pressing Control-D twice.
2827     * Restore the new image file into sdb2, by selecting
2829     Screen 1: Start_Clonezilla Start Clonezilla
2831     Screen 2: device-image disk/partition to/from image
2833     Screen 3: skip use existing /home/partimag
2835     Screen 4: Beginer / Expert
2837     Screen 5: restoreparts
2838     Restore_an_image_to_local_partition
2840     and continue as usual to restore the partition.
2842     Converting image files
2843     ---------------------
2844     # imgconvert -p -o other_data sys-bck hda3 sdb2
2845     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2846     imgconvert v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras
2848     Determining input image
2849     Input image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck"
2850     Validating image... ok
2851     Determining input partition
2852     Input partition: "hda3"
2853     Validating input partition... ok
2854     Determining output image
2855     Output image: "/home/partimag/other_data"
2856     Validating output image... ok
2857     Checking permissions... ok
2858     Determining output partition
2859     Output partition: "sda2"
2860     Validating output partition... ok
2861     Creating output image: /home/partimag/other_data
2862     Copying files... done
2863     Fixing info files... done
2865     # imginfo -i other_data
2866     Image: other_data, part: sdb2, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
2868     # ls -la sys-bck
2869     total 1111972
2870     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-11-22 03:21 .
2871     drwxr-xr-x. 34 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:28 ..
2872     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4 2007-11-20 20:33 disk
2873     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1081716736 2007-11-20 20:32 hda1.aa
2874     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 45453312 2007-11-20 20:33 hda2.aa
2875     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10317824 2007-11-20 20:33 hda3.aa
2876     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2007-11-21 18:56 hda-chs.sf
2877     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2007-11-21 18:50 hda-chs.sf.orig
2878     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 512 2007-11-20 20:31 hda-mbr
2879     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 259 2007-11-21 18:59 hda-pt.sf
2880     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 259 2007-11-21 18:50 hda-pt.sf.orig
2881     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 15 2007-11-20 20:33 parts
2882     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17 2007-11-20 20:33 swappt-hda4.info
2883     #
2884     #
2885     # ls -la other_data
2886     total 24
2887     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:27 .
2888     drwxr-xr-x. 35 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:27 ..
2889     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5 2009-04-06 21:27 parts
2890     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10317824 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb2.aa
2891     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb-chs.sf
2892     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 106 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb-pt.sf
2894     Booting a restored Linux system
2895     ****************************************
2896     A Linux system that has been restored to a new disk/partition, is usually
2897     not ready to be booted right after the restoration procedure is finished.
2899     There are two more steps that you may have to take:
2901     * Fix /etc/fstab
2902     * Reinstall GRUB.
2903     I will assume GRUB is your boot manager, as it is the usual case nowadays.
2905     For this example I will assume that you have restored a Linux system
2906     (that used to be in sdb), to a new disk (hda), and that it contains three
2907     partitions, / (the root partition), /home (user's partition) and a swap
2908     partition. You must be really careful here, as the name of the new disk
2909     depends on the system to be booted. If it uses one of the newest Linux
2910     kernels (using the libata disk driver), ALL your disks will be recognised
2911     as SCSI. More info: "Identifying devices in Linux" section "SCSI disks
2912     when there are none!!!".
2914     This is what we have:
2916     root partition home partition swap partition
2917     Old system /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdb3
2918     New system /dev/hda1 /dev/hda2 /dev/hda3
2920     Fixing /etc/fstab
2921     ---------------------
2922     Since we are still in Clonezilla Live, right after the restore procedure
2923     has finished, we will use it to mount our restored root partition, and
2924     edit its /etc/fstab. We issue the commands:
2926     mkdir /new-root
2927     mount /dev/hda1 /new-root
2928     vi /new-root/etc/fstab
2930     The contents of /etc/fstab could be something like
2932     /dev/sdb1 / reiserfs acl,user_xattr 1 1
2933     /dev/sdb2 /home reiserfs defaults 1 2
2934     /dev/sdb3 swap swap defaults 0 0
2936     and we have to change ti to
2938     /dev/hda1 / reiserfs acl,user_xattr 1 1
2939     /dev/hda2 /home reiserfs defaults 1 2
2940     /dev/hda3 swap swap defaults 0 0
2942     Finally, we unmount the partition, and we are ready to reboot
2944     umount /new-root
2945     reboot
2947     Reinstalling GRUB
2948     ---------------------
2949     When Clonezilla-SysRescCD menu appears, we select Tools > Super Grub Disk
2951     Then we select Super Grub Disk > Super Grub Disk (WITH HELP) > English
2952     Super Grub Disk > Gnu/Linux > Fix Boot of Gnu/Linux (GRUB). From this
2953     entry we will be able to reinstall GRUB to our hard disk.
2955     You may also want to have a look at Super Grub Disk "documentation {{
2956     http://www.supergrubdisk.org/wiki/SuperGrubDiskDocumentation }}".
2961     Fixing boot problems
2962     ==============================================================================
2964     Intro
2965     ****************************************
2966     Boot problems are probably the most feared computer problems. Without an
2967     operating system you can't access your data, get the work done or even
2968     google for help. That's why it's often a good idea to have an alternative
2969     operating system available for searching help if the main OS doesn't
2970     work. Also a copy of Clonezilla-SysRescCD can be invaluable help.
2972     Actually, the initial reason why I (Jyrki) installed GNU/Linux at all was
2973     that I wanted to be able to fix Windows boot problems if they occur. I
2974     installed both GNU/Linux and GRUB to my external hard drive, completely
2975     separating operating systems. Even if either bootloader stopped working,
2976     I'd still be able to boot one of my OSes.
2978     But such configuration is not easy to create, and when I installed GNU/Linux,
2979     I knew very little about it. If I didn't read the instructions I found
2980     here and there very carefully, I probably would have done a common mistake:
2981     installing GRUB to my internal hard drive. Such mistake would have caused
2982     two problems:
2984     * Inability to boot GNU/Linux at any computer expect the one which was
2985     used for installing
2986     * Inability to boot Windows when the external drive isn't connected
2988     In this page, I simulate that situation in a virtual machine and fix
2989     both problems.
2991     Symptoms
2992     ****************************************
2993     What happens when I try to boot the external hard drive on another computer
2994     depends on the BIOS of the computer. For example, on my computer I see a
2995     Black Screen of Death {{ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Screen_of_Death
2996     }} when I try booting from a disk with empty Master Boot Record. Other
2997     BIOSes may boot the local operating system or display an error message
2998     (for example "Disk boot failure", "Missing operating system" or "Operating
2999     system not found").
3001     The other problem is very easy to determine. When external drive is
3002     disconnected and I try to boot, I'll see this:
3004     [[ error-21.png ]]
3006     Goals
3007     ****************************************
3008     Because I still want to separate my operating systems completely,
3009     I try to restore NTLDR to the Master Boot Record of the internal disk,
3010     if possible. If that's not possible, I install there another bootloader
3011     that chainloads Windows.
3013     I could reinstall GNU/Linux completely and make sure that the GRUB is
3014     installed to the right disk this time, but it's not a good idea if I only
3015     need to overwrite the first 446 bytes (yes, bytes, not kilo- or megabytes)
3016     of the disk. So, I only install GRUB to the external disk, by using Super
3017     Grub Disk.
3019     Your problem (if you have one at all) most likely is different, but goals
3020     are often the same.
3022     You need to restore NTLDR if you...
3024     * ...just installed GNU/Linux, but the boot menu doesn't mention Windows
3025     at all. You're not willing to learn how Windows can be added to the boot
3026     menu, you just need to make your computer to boot Windows again right now.
3027     * ...cloned your Windows partition to your brand new computer but didn't
3028     clone the Master Boot Record.
3029     * ...are about to uninstall GNU/Linux and aren't willing to use GRUB as
3030     your bootloader.
3032     You need to install GRUB if you...
3034     * ...just installed Windows and want to make GNU/Linux bootable again.
3035     * ...cloned your GNU/Linux partition to your brand new computer but didn't
3036     clone the Master Boot Record.
3037     * ...just installed GNU/Linux but installed GRUB to a non-first hard drive
3038     by accident. (The symptom is that your computer still boots to the operating
3039     system you had installed already.)
3041     [[ info.png ]]
3042     The following pressentation has been made usingSuper Grub Disk v0.9799
3044     Restoring NTLDR
3045     ****************************************
3046     There are a lot of ways to restore NTLDR. However, sometimes there is no
3047     legal way to restore it, and I'm NOT telling about the illegal ones. The
3048     last resort is using syslinux to chainload Windows; there is usually no
3049     way to notice that syslinux is used instead of NTLDR.
3051     I've listed here the most important options in order I'd use them.
3053     Restoring NTLDR from a backup
3054     ---------------------
3055     If you've been smart enough to use Clonezilla Live to create a disk image
3056     of your first hard drive, it's very easy to restore NTLDR.
3058     Your NTLDR is safe in a file called hda-mbr or sda-mbr. You can use dd to
3059     overwrite your existing Master Boot Record.
3061     [[ important.png ]]
3062     Don't restore all 512 bytes of your Master Boot Record.The MBR contains
3063     your partition table and restoring it afterrepartitioning your disk erases
3064     all the data on the disk.
3066     If you normally use GNU/Linux, open terminal and run these commands as root:
3068     mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/usb
3069     dd if=/mnt/usb/Backup/sda-mbr of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1
3071     Note: In the commands I have assumed that your first hard drive is /dev/sda
3072     and that your disk image resides in the folder Backup in partition
3073     /dev/sdc1. You will have to replace them with the correct pieces of
3074     information.
3076     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
3077     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above
3078     the command. For example, the latter of the above commands can be executed
3079     by typing "sudo dd if=/mnt/usb/Backup/sda-mbr of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1"
3081     If you normally use another operating system, boot into SystemRescueCD and
3082     run the above commands. In SystemRescueCD all commands are run as root,
3083     so you don't need to add any prefix to the commands.
3085     If you don't know the name of the partition, run this command as root:
3087     fdisk -l
3089     It tells how many hard drives you have, how many partitions they contain
3090     and what filesystems the partitions use. If you know, for example, that
3091     the disk where you've saved the disk image contains only one partition,
3092     look for such disks.
3094     Using Bootrec.exe (Windows Vista/7 only)
3095     ---------------------
3096     You need Windows Vista/7 install disc for this. If you don't have one (for
3097     example, if you bought a laptop that was bundled with preinstalled Windows
3098     and manufacturer's recovery disc), download a recovery disc from here.
3100     Then boot from the disc. After selecting language, time, currency and
3101     keyboard, click Repair your computer. You'll get a list of operating systems
3102     you're able to repair. Choose any of them; that choice doesn't matter.
3104     After that, you'll see a dialog box named System Recovery Options. Click
3105     Command Prompt. Then you only need to execute one command:
3107     Bootrec /FixMbr
3109     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example,
3110     "bootrec /fixmbr".
3112     Using FIXMBR (Windows XP only)
3113     ---------------------
3114     You need Windows XP install disc. Boot from it, and when you see the screen
3115     "Windows XP Home Edition Setup" or "Windows XP Professional Setup", press
3116     R to enter the Recovery Console. Then choose the Windows installation you
3117     want to log onto. If you have only one copy of Windows installed, press
3118     1 and ENTER. After that, enter the administator password and press ENTER.
3120     There is only one command to run:
3122     FIXMBR
3124     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example, "fixmbr".
3126     Using FDISK (Windows 95/98/Me only)
3127     ---------------------
3128     For this, you need a floppy drive. You also need to run a Windows-only
3129     program, so your first challenge is to boot Windows without NTLDR.
3131     Don't worry, Super Grub Disk makes it possible. Boot into it.
3133     [[ supergrubdisk-01.png ]]
3134     Just choose the option "!WIN! :(((" and press ENTER.
3136     When you have Windows up and running, download the boot disk
3137     image appropriate to your version of Windows from Bootdisk.Com {{
3138     http://www.bootdisk.com/bootdisk.htm }}. Then put a floppy to your floppy
3139     drive.
3141     If the floppy isn't already formatted, open My Computer, right-click the
3142     floppy drive and select Format....
3144     At the format window, choose the capacity of 1,44 megabytes and Full format
3145     type. You can enter any label (it means the name of the floppy you can see
3146     next to the floppy drive letter) and disable the summary if you wish. Keep
3147     the Copy system files option disabled.
3149     When you have a formatted floppy in your drive, double-click the boot disk
3150     image you downloaded. When it's done, shut Windows down and check your
3151     BIOS settings to be able to boot from the floppy. Some BIOSes contain a
3152     boot menu, others require editing settings pernamently. Details can be
3153     found on the manual of the motherboard or laptop.
3155     Then boot from the floppy. When you're given three boot options, choose
3156     the option 2. Start computer without CD-ROM support. Wait a moment to
3157     enter command line and run this command:
3159     FDISK /MBR
3161     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example,
3162     "fdisk /mbr".
3164     Installing syslinux using Super Grub Disk
3165     ---------------------
3166     The above four are the only legal ways I know to restore NTLDR to the
3167     Master Boot Record. Unfortunately, sometimes none of them can be used. If
3168     that's the case, it's time to switch bootloader. GRUB can be configured to
3169     chainload Windows, and usually it even does that automatically, but this
3170     page isn't intended to help configuring GRUB. I assume that if you're
3171     primarily a Windows user and reading this page, you don't want to learn
3172     how to use GNU/Linux, you just want to make Windows bootable again.
3174     Maybe the easiest way to do so is installing syslinux using Super Grub
3175     Disk. Super Grub Disk configures it automatically to chainload the first
3176     active partition. The partition should contain Windows, Windows can't boot
3177     if its partition isn't active.
3179     Boot into Super Grub Disk.
3181     [[ supergrubdisk-01a.png ]]
3182     Choose the option "WIN => MBR & !WIN! :(((((((((((((((((((((" and
3183     press ENTER. Windows will be booted automatically right after installing
3184     syslinux.
3186     Installing GRUB
3187     ****************************************
3188     Contrary to various ways to restore NTLDR, there is only one way to install
3189     GRUB I recommend. That's Super Grub Disk, because it contains GRUB no
3190     matter what has happened to the hard drive(s). First, I boot into it.
3192     [[ supergrubdisk-01b.png ]]
3193     I select "Choose Language & HELP :-)))" and press ENTER.
3195     Screen "S.G.D. Language Selection."
3196     ---------------------
3197     [[ supergrubdisk-02.png ]]
3198     I select "English Super Grub Disk" and press ENTER.
3200     [[ supergrubdisk-03.png ]]
3201     I press ENTER...
3203     [[ supergrubdisk-04.png ]]
3204     ...and then ENTER again...
3206     [[ supergrubdisk-05.png ]]
3207     ...and then ENTER once again...
3209     [[ supergrubdisk-06.png ]]
3210     ...and finally ENTER one more time.
3212     Screen "English Super Grub Disk (Help)"
3213     ---------------------
3214     [[ supergrubdisk-07.png ]]
3215     I select "Advanced".
3217     Screen "Advanced (Help)"
3218     ---------------------
3219     [[ supergrubdisk-08.png ]]
3220     I select "GRUB" and press ENTER.
3222     Screen "GRUB (Help)"
3223     ---------------------
3224     [[ supergrubdisk-09.png ]]
3225     I select "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)" and press ENTER...
3227     [[ supergrubdisk-10.png ]]
3228     ...and ENTER.
3230     Screen "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)"
3231     ---------------------
3232     [[ supergrubdisk-11.png ]]
3233     I select "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)" and press ENTER. If you
3234     want to install GRUB to the Master Boot Record of the first hard drive,
3235     "Automatically Install" is a better choice. If you don't know if you
3236     want GRUB to the first or some other disk, you most likely want it to the
3237     first disk.
3239     Screen "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)"
3240     ---------------------
3241     [[ supergrubdisk-12.png ]]
3242     I confirm my decision by selecting "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)"
3243     again and pressing ENTER.
3245     Screen "Partition of GRUB"
3246     ---------------------
3247     [[ supergrubdisk-13.png ]]
3248     In this screen I can select the disk that contains the partition that
3249     contains the files needed by GRUB. In this case, that disk is the external
3250     hard drive. As you can see, the disk is only three megabytes in size -
3251     because the computer used for screenshots is still virtual. Actually, the
3252     "disk" where I'm installing GRUB is just a file.
3254     Next Screen
3255     ---------------------
3256     [[ supergrubdisk-14.png ]]
3257     This is where I choose the partition where GRUB files reside. This disk
3258     contains only one partition.
3260     Screen "Restore to MBR of Hard Disk"
3261     ---------------------
3262     [[ supergrubdisk-15.png ]]
3263     I select the external hard drive to install GRUB to its Master Boot Record.
3265     [[ supergrubdisk-12.png ]]
3266     Some text scrolled in the screen (too fast to read or take a screenshot)
3267     and I was back at this screen. I rebooted the computer. (In this situation,
3268     you can safely do a "hard reboot" by pressing reset button once or power
3269     button twice.)
3271     [[ grub-loading.png ]]
3272     GRUB booted successfully.
3277     Booting an old PC
3278     ==============================================================================
3280     Intro
3281     ****************************************
3282     Have you ever tried to boot an old PC off a CD-ROM, and found out it
3283     wouldn't, because its BIOS does not support it, or it's faulty or for any
3284     other reason? Well, I have. So this page is an effort to solve this problem.
3286     The only way to do it, is to boot of a floppy disk which will help me
3287     "load" whatever operation system I want from a CD. This means that I will
3288     have to write a boot loader to the floppy disk.
3290     The software I will use is Smart Boot Manager {{
3291     http://sourceforge.net/projects/btmgr/ }}, a small boot manager with a
3292     nice TUI (Text User Interface). Its floppy image, already accessible from
3293     the "Tools" menu, can be found in the bootdisk folder of the CD under the
3294     name sbm.img.
3296     Writing the image to a floppy disk
3297     ****************************************
3298     All you have to do is get to a PC equipped with a floppy drive, get a
3299     floppy disk which is in excellent condition (no bad sectors/blocks),
3300     and copy the image file to it.
3302     1. From Linux
3303     ---------------------
3304     You can either boot Clonezilla Live or SystemRescueCD, and when the system
3305     is fully up, execute the command:
3307     dd if=/path/to/sbm.img of=/dev/fd0
3309     where /path/to is
3310     /live/image/bootdisk for Clonezilla Live
3311     /mnt/livecd/bootdisk for SystemRescueCD
3313     2. From DOS
3314     ---------------------
3315     You can get into any DOS (boot FreeDOS from the CD, for example), and use
3316     any of the following programs found in the rawrite folder of the CD:
3318     * rawrite.exe: is just here for completeness, as it may be needed for someone
3319     * rawrite2.exe: should be the fastest
3320     * rawrite3.com: should work if rawrite2 fails for some reason
3321     * fdimage.exe: rawrite alternative
3323     I found these programms at the FreeDOS web site {{
3324     http://www.fdos.org/ripcord/rawrite/ }}, where the following info is
3325     included:
3327     Basic Usage (Rawrite):
3328     Depending on the exact version, the output and command line support may
3329     vary, i.e. not work
3330     Usage:
3331     MS-DOS prompt> RAWRITE
3332     and follow the prompts, -or-
3334     MS-DOS prompt> RAWRITE [-f ] [-d ] [-n(owait)] [-h(elp)]
3335     where: -f - name of disk image file
3336     -d - diskette drive to use, must be A or B
3337     -n - don't prompt for user to insert diskette
3338     -h - print usage information to stdout
3340     The diskette must be formatted or rawrite will not work.
3341     The contents of the disk do not matter and will be overwritten.
3342     When ran interactively (without command line options) you will be prompted
3343     for the disk image filename (you must remember this as there is no file
3344     chooser).
3345     You will also be prompted for the target/destination drive, either A or
3346     B for A: or B: respectively.
3347     Basic Usage (FDImage):
3348     fdimage is an updated DOS program meant to replace rawrite. It does not
3349     require a pre-formatted floppy diskette.
3351     FDIMAGE - Write disk image to floppy disk
3352     Version 1.5 Copyright (c) 1996-7 Robert Nordier
3354     Usage: fdimage [-dqsv] [-f size] [-r count] file drive
3356     -d Debug mode
3357     -f size Specify the floppy disk format by capacity, eg:
3358     160K, 180K, 320K, 360K, 720K, 1.2M, 1.44M, 2.88M
3359     -q Quick mode: don't format the disk
3360     -r count Retry count for format/write operations
3361     -s Single-sector I/O
3362     -v Verbose
3364     In order to write the image file to a pre-formatted diskette, execute
3365     the commands:
3367     X:
3368     cd rawrite
3369     rawrite2 -f X:bootdisksbm.img -d b:
3371     In order to write the image file and format the diskette at the same time,
3372     execute the commands:
3374     X:
3375     cd rawrite
3376     fdimage -f 1.44M X:bootdisksbm.img b:
3378     where X: is the drive name in DOS
3380     3. From Windows
3381     ---------------------
3382     The final alternative is to use Windows program rawwritewin.exe (found in
3383     the utils\rawrite folder of the CD), as shown in the following image:
3385     [[ rawwritewin.png ]]
3390     Using SystemRescueCD
3391     ==============================================================================
3393     Intro
3394     ****************************************
3395     SystemRescueCD is an excellent Live CD. It contains cloning software too
3396     (FSArchiver {{ http://www.fsarchiver.org/Main_Page }} and partimage,
3397     to be spesific), but is unable to clone a whole disk, instead of only
3398     individual partitions.
3400     Clonezilla Live is a great cloning solution, but it is unable to do anything
3401     but clone. For general system administration, you need a lot more functions
3402     - like these offered by SystemRescueCD.
3404     Clonezilla-SysRescCD has all of the functions of both discs. It's a
3405     multi boot CD, so switching between CDs requires a reboot, but using
3406     both individual discs requires switching the physical disc - in addition
3407     to rebooting.
3409     But, of course, to be able to use SystemRescueCD's functions, you need to
3410     know how to use them. We don't have permission to redistribute SystemRescueCD
3411     documentation, so this page contains only just enough information to allow
3412     you to look for more help in SystemRescueCD documentation.
3414     Which boot option to pick?
3415     ****************************************
3416     You may be confused because of the number of boot options you have. After
3417     choosing "CD 2: System Rescue CD" you have a total of 15 options to boot
3418     SystemRescueCD. Here is a table of them.
3420     kernel Normal To RAM Graphical Environment VESA Mini Shell
3421     32-bit xxx +++
3422     32-bit (alt)
3423     64-bit xxx +++
3425     In the table, I have marked the options you most likely need. You should
3426     choose either of the options marked with a '+++' if you have no idea and/or
3427     time to read the next sections.
3429     Choosing the column
3430     ---------------------
3431     If you're accustomed to graphical environment, choose Graphical
3432     Environment. In Graphical Environment you're able to use graphical programs,
3433     like GParted and Mozilla Firefox. Terminals are also available, so using
3434     Graphical Environment doesn't prevent using command line. The only negative
3435     thing of Graphical Environment is that it slows booting process down a bit -
3436     and it's often just plain unneeded.
3438     Try VESA, if normal Graphical Environment doesn't work. VESA uses Xvesa
3439     graphical environment instead of X.Org that sometimes doesn't work. The
3440     drawbacks of Xvesa compared to X.Org are that Xvesa isn't optimized to
3441     any hardware (which means poorer performance) and Xvesa requires 32-bit
3442     kernel. Thus, if you use this option, do NOT choose 64-bit kernel, the
3443     combination leaves you at command line.
3445     If you're accustomed to command line and know already that you're not going
3446     to use any graphical program, choose one of the normal options (just below
3447     "System Rescue CD Menu"). Booting to command line is a bit faster process
3448     than booting to graphical environment, and you can start X manually later.
3450     You need the option To RAM if you plan to burn discs while using
3451     SystemRescueCD. The option copies the whole SystemRescueCD to the memory of
3452     the computer during the boot process, allowing you to put another disc to
3453     your CD/DVD writer while using SystemRescueCD. The negative thing is that
3454     reading all the contents of the disc slows boot process down a lot. There
3455     is no option which copies the disc to the memory and starts graphical
3456     environment automatically, but you can easily start it manually.
3458     Mini Shell is probably the least used option. It enters BusyBox
3459     shell after booting. BusyBox is an application that "combines
3460     tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a single small
3461     executable." However, SystemRescueCD contains most of these utilities
3462     anyway, so there is not much need to use this option. some information {{
3463     http://www.busybox.net/about.html }} about BusyBox
3465     Choosing the row (kernel)
3466     ---------------------
3467     After having chosen the column of the above table, you still have three
3468     options. Now you need to choose the kernel.
3470     The optimal kernel depends on the processor of your computer. If it's an
3471     IA-32 processor, like Intel Pentium 4 or AMD Athlon XP, you should choose
3472     32-bit kernel, because 64-bit kernel doesn't work at all. If you have
3473     a x86-64 processor, like AMD Athlon 64 or Intel Core 2, you can choose
3474     any kernel - the processor can run all of them. 64-bit kernel should be
3475     preferred, because it allows chrooting on an existing GNU/Linux partition
3476     containing 64-bit programs. Note, though, that you can't use 64-bit kernel
3477     with VESA option.
3479     If you don't know your processor architecture, try 64-bit kernel. If your
3480     processor architecture is IA-32, you'll see the following error message:
3482     This kernel requires an x86-64 CPU, but only detected an i686 CPU. Unable
3483     to boot - please use a kernel appropriate for your CPU.
3485     At this stage, simply press Ctrl-Alt-Del to reboot and use always 32-bit
3486     kernel on the machine.
3488     There is one more kernel - 32-bit kernel (alternative). It's designed to
3489     support more recent hardware than the regular kernel. Try it if standard
3490     32-bit kernel doesn't work.
3492     After booting
3493     ****************************************
3494     HELP!!! Where are the desktop and Start menu?
3495     ---------------------
3496     You should have read this section if you're looking for them. However,
3497     you don't need to reboot in order to enter graphical environment. Simply
3498     type this command and press ENTER:
3500     wizard
3502     The command asks you to choose a graphical environment. Try first X.Org,
3503     and if it fails, run the command again and choose Xvesa.
3505     Connecting to the Internet
3506     ---------------------
3507     The CD doesn't contain any SystemRescueCD documentation, because we don't
3508     have permission to redistribute it. In addition, our time is limited and
3509     we can't rewrite it all. So, you need to connect to the Internet to be
3510     able to read SystemRescueCD's official online documentation.
3512     Luckily, establishing Internet connection should be easy, if you're in a
3513     network using DHCP. Nowadays, most people are. If you're using graphical
3514     mode and terminal isn't already open, open it via the menu that opens when
3515     you click the leftmost icon in the bottom pane.
3517     Then, type this command and press ENTER:
3519     dhcpcd eth0
3521     If the network doesn't use DHCP, you can also configure Internet settings
3522     by hand. You should be able to do so if you've previously configured your
3523     settings in the operating system you normally use. The command to run is
3525     net-setup
3527     When you're done
3528     ****************************************
3529     When you're done, you naturally want to either shut the computer down or
3530     reboot. Wait! Don't do it yet!
3532     Both I and Spiros have found out that letting a live CD to automatically
3533     unmount partitions is often a bad idea. It can damage the filesystems
3534     of the partitions which were mounted when the computer was shut down and
3535     destroy any files in the partitions, even them you didn't use within the CD.
3537     So, I recommend unmounting them refore shutdown or reboot. Just run these
3538     commands when you're done.
3540     If you want to reboot:
3542     cd
3543     umount -a
3544     reboot
3546     If you want to shut down:
3547     cd
3548     umount -a
3549     poweroff
3551     More info
3552     ****************************************
3553     Here are some links to the official SystemRescueCD resources.
3555     SystemRescueCD - http://www.sysresccd.org/Main_Page
3556     Detailed packages list- http://www.sysresccd.org/Detailed-packages-list
3557     Manual - http://www.sysresccd.org/Online-Manual-EN
3558     FAQ - http://www.sysresccd.org/FAQ
3559     Howto - http://www.sysresccd.org/Howto
3560     Forum - http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/
3565     Managing partitions
3566     ==============================================================================
3568     Intro
3569     ****************************************
3570     One of the most important maintenance tasks that can only be done by using
3571     a live CD is partitioning. No operating system allows partitioning the
3572     same disk where the OS itself resides. Trying to do so is like attempting
3573     to repair a car while its engine is turned on.
3575     Of course, SystemRescueCD contains multiple programs that are related to
3576     partitioning. Most important are GParted (graphical partitioning program),
3577     GNU Parted (text-based partitioning program), fdisk and sfdisk (partition
3578     table editors) and various filesystem tools (like ntfsprogs and e2fsprogs).
3580     This page contains some theory about partitions and filesystems, advice for
3581     choosing the right filesystem and a partitioning example by using GParted.
3583     [[ important.png ]]
3584     While partitioning, an user error or a bug can damage your
3585     partitions.Creating a disk image of the disk to bepartitioned beforehand
3586     is highly recommended.
3588     [[ info.png ]]
3589     The following pressentation has been made usingSystemRescueCD v 1.4.0
3591     Some theory
3592     ****************************************
3593     What is a partition?
3594     ---------------------
3595     A partition is a logical division of a hard disk created so that you can
3596     have different operating systems on the same hard disk or to create the
3597     appearance of having separate hard drives for file management, multiple
3598     users, or other purposes.
3600     In Windows, a one-partition hard disk is labelled the "C:" drive ("A:" and
3601     "B:" are typically reserved for diskette drives). A two-partition hard drive
3602     would typically contain "C:" and "D:" drives. (CD-ROM drives typically are
3603     assigned the last letter in whatever sequence of letters have been used
3604     as a result of hard disk formatting, or typically with a two-partition,
3605     the "E:" drive.).
3607     In UNIX-based systems, a partition is used to host the / (root) file system,
3608     and optionally the /opt, /usr and /home file systems. There may also be
3609     a swap partition, which doesn't host any file system.
3611     Each operatin system provides some kind of tool to create and manage
3612     partitions. Examples of such tools are fdisk in DOS/Windows, fdisk, sfdisk
3613     and parted in Linux, etc.
3615     What is the difference between primary, extended and logical partitions?
3616     ---------------------
3617     Information about partitions is saved in so-called partition table
3618     in Master Boot Record. MBR itself is only 512 bytes in size,
3619     and only 64 bytes are reserved for partition table. That's not
3620     enough, and there are many workarounds to bypass limitations
3621     caused by the size, for example logical block addressing {{
3622     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_block_addressing#LBA.2C_ATA_devices_and_Enhanced_BIOS
3623     }}. Extended partitions are another workaround.
3625     Partition table can only store information about four partitions. If one
3626     has, for example, two GNU/Linux distributions on the same disk, both of
3627     them having separate root partitions, shared /home and shared swap, the
3628     partition number limit has been hit already.
3630     A partition that is mentioned in the partition table is called primary
3631     partition. Because of the limit, one disk can only contain 1-4 primary
3632     partitions.
3634     An extended partition fixes the problem simply by containing more boot
3635     records, called Extended Boot Records (EBR). Each EBR contains information
3636     about one logical partition and, if the extended partition contains multiple
3637     logical partitions, link to the next EBR. Thus, an extended partition can
3638     contain unlimited amount of logical partitions.
3640     Extended partition contains only EBRs and logical partitions (and maybe
3641     unallocated space). Extended partition doesn't contain any filesystem and
3642     files can't be stored in it. Of course, logical partition can contain any
3643     filesystem (or be unformatted).
3645     Extended partition itself must be primary partition: an extended partition
3646     can't be within another extended partition. In addition, a disk can contain
3647     only one extended partition.
3649     Logical partitions can always be used for storing data: any operating system
3650     can see logical partitions. GNU/Linux distributions can be installed to
3651     logical partitions as well, but Windows requires a lot of tweaking. See
3652     this outdated guide {{ http://www.goodells.net/multiboot/index.htm }}.
3654     What is LVM?
3655     ---------------------
3656     LVM means "Logical Volume Manager". It allows creating volume groups on top
3657     of hard drives and logical volumes within volume groups. Logical volumes
3658     are NOT the same thing as logical partitions!
3660     Volume groups can be created very flexibly: a volume group can allocate,
3661     for example, the first half of the first hard drive and the second half
3662     of the third drive. One can even create a massive volume group containing
3663     all storage he/she has.
3665     The computer sees a logical volume as a partition: logical volume can be
3666     left unformatted or contain any filesystem.
3668     LVM has many benefits: for example, if one has three hard drives 60 gigabytes
3669     each, he/she can create a 160-gigabyte partition for storing massive files
3670     and/or saving some disk space. In addition, logical volumes can be resized
3671     even when they're in use, so when creating logical volumes one doesn't need
3672     to worry if they're too small or big - if they are, he/she can resize them
3673     at any time.
3675     However, resizing a logical volume doesn't resize the filesystem in
3676     it, so using a filesystem that can be resized in use (online resizing)
3677     is recommended. Very few filesystems can be shrinked online, but most
3678     GNU/Linux filesystems (including ext3/4, ReiserFS, XFS and btrfs) can be
3679     grown online. It's generally a good idea to leave unallocated space within
3680     volume group, so logical volumes can later be grown without shrinking any
3681     other logical volume.
3683     Here come bad news for people who dualboot: Windows doesn't support LVM, it
3684     sees volume groups as unformatted partitions. If you try to access volume
3685     group within Windows, you're just prompted to format the partition. That
3686     prompt is annoying at best and dangerous at worst.
3688     More information about LVM can be found here (almost everything about LVM
3689     in a single page) and here (official SystemRescueCD documentation about LVM).
3691     What is a file system?
3692     ---------------------
3693     A file system is the way in which files are named and where they are placed
3694     logically for storage and retrieval. The DOS, Windows, OS/2, Macintosh,
3695     and UNIX-based operating systems all have file systems in which files are
3696     placed somewhere in a hierarchical (tree) structure. A file is placed in
3697     a directory (folder in Windows) or subdirectory at the desired place in
3698     the tree structure.
3700     The most important difference between filesystems is operating system
3701     support. Some filesystems are supported by all modern operating systems,
3702     but especially the newest filesystems are very rarely supported. Other
3703     important limits are maximum file size, journaling support and file
3704     permission metadata support.
3706     The reason that file size limits exist is that all filesystems reserve a
3707     fixed number of bits for storing the file size. If the size of the file,
3708     in bytes, is bigger than the biggest number that can be stored in file
3709     size bits, the operating system must refuse to store the file at all in
3710     order to prevent data corruption.
3712     File permission metadata means that the filesystem stores in the metadata
3713     of the file, among other things, information about who owns the file and
3714     what different users are allowed to do with the file. That metadata is
3715     especially useful in multi-user environment because it mostly prevents
3716     users from reading each other's files. Permissions can be bypassed, however.
3718     What is journaling?
3719     ---------------------
3720     Ideally, data in a partition never corrupts. But, in the real world,
3721     there are power failures and operating system freezes. And if a computer
3722     is forcefully shut down while something is written to the drive, the write
3723     operation can't be finished. That can damage the filesystem and destroy
3724     any files in the partition.
3726     Journaling partially fixes that problem by writing most changes to the
3727     disk twice: first to a special area called journal and, after that, to
3728     the filesystem itself. If power is lost while writing to the journal was
3729     in progress, the partial change is just ignored and never committed to the
3730     filesystem itself. If power failure or OS freeze happened while writing to
3731     filesystem itself, the write operation is finished by using the information
3732     in journal.
3734     Journaling helps most of the time when the computer has been forcefully
3735     shut down, but not always. Due to performance reasons, only some
3736     write operations are written to the journal, mostly the biggest
3737     operations. Of course, journaling doesn't help if that particular
3738     operation that was in progress while power was lost didn't go
3739     through the journal. Journaling also doesn't protect from everything:
3740     for example, using ext4 filesystem in conjuction with programs that
3741     write a lot of files in a short time can result in massive data loss {{
3742     http://www.h-online.com/open/news/item/Possible-data-loss-in-Ext4-740467.html
3743     }}, regardless if journaling is enabled or not.
3745     In addition, journaling reduces performance. It causes more writes to
3746     the disk. That's not a big problem on mechanical hard drives, but on SSDs
3747     (Solid State Drives) and thumb drives write speed is much slower than read
3748     speed. They also have a limited number of writing cycles, so journaling
3749     reduces their lifetime. I (Jyrki) actually use ext2 and FAT32 filesystems
3750     on my external SSD drive because they do NOT support journaling at all.
3752     What are the differences between most popular filesystems?
3753     ---------------------
3754     The following table quickly describes the most important differences
3755     between them.
3757     Operating system support
3758     #############################################################################
3759     Under Under Maximum Journaling Permissions
3760     Windows GNU/Linux file size
3761     #############################################################################
3762     FAT32 Native Built-in 4 GB No No
3763     NTFS Native Included 16 EB Yes Yes
3764     ext2 3rd party driver Native 16 GB-2 TB* No Yes
3765     ext3 3rd party driver Native 16 GB-2 TB* Yes Yes
3766     ext4 No Native 16 GB-16 TB* Yes Yes
3767     exFAT Native (Vista/7)** No 64 ZB No Yes
3769     * Depends on cluster size
3770     ** This update {{ http://support.microsoft.com/kb/955704 }} adds exFAT
3771     support to Windows XP
3773     Operating system support:
3775     * "Native" means that the kernel supports the filesystem and the OS can
3776     boot from a partition using that FS.
3777     * "Built-in" means that the kernel supports the filesystem, but booting
3778     from a partition containing such FS is very difficult.
3779     * "Driver included" means that ntfs-3g (the driver that adds NTFS support
3780     to Linux) comes with most GNU/Linux distributions.
3781     * "3rd party driver" means that drivers to add filesystem support are
3782     available, but must be downloaded and installed separately. The drivers
3783     are Ext2 IFS and Ext2fsd.
3784     * "No" means that there is no way to use the filesystem within the
3785     operating system.
3787     Filesystems
3788     ****************************************
3789     This section contains more information about most popular filesystems.
3791     FAT32
3792     ---------------------
3793     The initial version of FAT (File Allocation Table), now referred as
3794     FAT12, was designed for floppy disks. A FAT12 partition can only be up
3795     to 32 megabytes in size. After that, PCs equipped with hard drives were