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1 sng 28 Installing on USB
2     ==============================================================================
4     Installation to USB made easy
5     ****************************************
6     Until recently installing Clonezilla-SysRescCD on a USB disk would not
7     be such a great idea, because of its size. But since USB devices become
8     cheaper and cheaper, it is an interesting alternative.
10     Starting with version 3.1.0, Clonezilla-SysRescCD provides an iso
11     file that's ISO-Hybrided. This means (as we read at the isolynux site {{
12     http://syslinux.zytor.com/wiki/index.php/Doc/isolinux#HYBRID_CD-ROM.2FHARD_DISK_MODE
13     }}) that
15     "the iso file can be booted from either CD-ROM or from a device which BIOS
16     considers a hard disk or ZIP disk, e.g. a USB key or similar. This image can
17     then be copied using any raw disk writing tool (on Unix systems, typically
18     "dd" or "cat") to a USB disk, or written to a CD-ROM using standard CD
19     burning tools.
21     The ISO 9660 filesystem is encapsulated in a partition (which starts at
22     offset zero, which may confuse some systems.) This makes it possible for
23     the operating system, once booted, to use the remainder of the device for
24     persistent storage by creating a second partition."
26     [[ important.png ]]
27     Incorrect use of any raw disk writing tool could cause your operating system
28     (GNU/Linux / Windows) not to boot. Confirm the command before you run it.
30     So, from any linux box, assuming Clonezilla-SysRescCD iso file is in
31     your home directory, and your USB device name is sdc4, you just execute
32     the commands:
34     umount /dev/sdc4
35     dd if=~/clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-"myVersion".iso of=/dev/sdc4 bs=512
37     And that's it. Your usb device is ready to boot!!!
39     Installing the "hard" way
40     ****************************************
41     If the "easy" way does not work there is an alternative; you will use
42     the Clonezilla-SysRescCD ISO file (or CD) to copy and modify a couple of
43     files on the USB disk, and finally make it bootable, using syslinux {{
44     http://syslinux.zytor.com }} and its configuration file syslinux.cfg.
46     [[ important.png ]]
47     Incorrect use of syslinux could cause your operating system (GNU/Linux /
48     Windows) not to boot. Confirm the command before you run it.
50     The only thing that's important is that your USB disk must contain a VFAT
51     (Windows 98 or DOS) file system. If this is not the case, refer to the
52     section "Troubleshooting", to find out how you can format it, before
53     copying files to it.
55     The bootable USB disk creation procedure can be performed either from
56     Linux or Windows.
58     [[ info.png ]]
59     If you want to create a bootable USB flash drive for this version
60     or later, remember to use the syslinux command from syslinux
61     3.71 or later. Otherwise the boot menu won't work.
63     Installation from Linux
64     ---------------------
65     There are two ways you can proceed, if you are going to use Linux to
66     perform the USB installation, either using a running linux box, or using
67     Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
69     I will assume that you have saved clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-3.1.0.iso
70     in your home directory (~).
72     Using a linux box
73     ---------------------
74     If you already have a linux box up and running, you can use it to create
75     your Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB, without even having to burn it to CD
76     beforehand. The only thing here is that you have to have syslinux {{
77     http://syslinux.zytor.com }} installed.
79     I will assume that your CD drive is /dev/sr0 and that your USB device
80     is /dev/sdc4. You may have to change any of them to reflect your system
81     configuration.
83     Boot into linux, connect your USB device and execute the following commands:
84     mkdir /mnt/mycd
85     mount ~/clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-3.1.0.iso /mnt/mycd -o loop
86     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
87     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
88     cp -r /mnt/mycd/* /mnt/usbdevice
89     umount /mnt/mycd; rmdir /mnt/mycd
90     cd /mnt/usbdevice
91     rm isolinux/*.cfg
92     mv isolinux/* .
93     rmdir isolinux
94     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
95     rmdir /mnt/usbdevice
97     Finally make your USB device bootable, by executing
98     syslinux /dev/sdc4
99     and you are done.
101     > Using Clonezilla-SysRescCD
102     If you already burnt Clonezilla-SysRescCD to CD, you can use it to create
103     your Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB.
105     I will assume that your CD drive is /dev/sr0 and that your USB device
106     is /dev/sdc4. You may have to change any of them to reflect your system
107     configuration.
109     Boot SystemRescueCD using the option To RAM, and when it is fully loaded,
110     execute the following commands:
111     mkdir /mnt/mycd
112     mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/mycd
113     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
114     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
115     cp -r /mnt/mycd/* /mnt/usbdevice
116     umount /mnt/mycd
117     cd /mnt/usbdevice
118     rm isolinux/*.cfg
119     mv isolinux/* .
120     rmdir isolinux
121     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
123     Finally make your USB device bootable, by executing
124     syslinux /dev/sdc4
125     and you are done.
127     Installation from Windows
128     ---------------------
129     Installing Clonezilla-SysRescCD from Windows is as easy as
130     it is in Linux. You have to burn Clonezilla-SysRescCD to CD
131     or use a CD/DVD ROM emulator software like Daemon Tools {{
132     http://www.daemon-tools.cc/dtcc/announcements.php }} to mount the ISO file.
134     I will assume that your USB device is drive K: and your CD drive or mounted
135     ISO file is drive
136     D:. You may have to change any of them, in order to reflect your system
137     configuration.
139     You will have to
141     * Copy all files from drive D: (CD or mounted ISO file) to drive K:
142     (USB disk)
143     * Delete all cfg files from K:isolinux
144     * Move all files from K:isolinux to K:
145     * Delete folder K:isolinux
147     Now all you have to do is make your USB disk bootable. In order to do
148     that you have to open a DOS window (in Windows XP press "Start / Run "
149     and type cmd). Then type at DOS prompt:
150     K:
151     cd bootprog
152     syslinux -ma K:
154     Booting from USB
155     ---------------------
156     Before trying to boot from your USB device, you have to set your boot device
157     at your BIOS. This means you have to reboot having your USB device connected,
158     get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL) and make the appropriate settings
159     in the BOOT section.
161     Booting Clonezilla Live should not be a problem. Just select the desired
162     option and press ENTER to boot.
164     Booting SystemRescueCD has been made equally simple with SystemRescueCD
165     v 1.0.0, so you shouldn't have any problem (option cdroot is not required
166     any more).
168     If you have any problems here, you may try adding any of these boot
169     parameters:
170     usbstick
171     doscsi
173     Troubleshooting
174     ---------------------
175     Whether you can successfully boot from a USB disk or not, depends mainly on
176     your BIOS. Chances are that you will not be able to boot on an old computer,
177     with an old (and possibly buggy) BIOS. So I would recommend testing your
178     Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB on a new computer.
180     * I can't boot (I don't even see the splash screen)
181     or Clonezilla Live does not boot
183     The first thing you should do is double check your BIOS settings. Reboot
184     having your USB device connected, get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL)
185     and make the appropriate settings in the BOOT section.
187     If you are on linux, check that the partition on the USB disk is active
188     (bootable), executing:
189     fdisk -l /dev/sdc
190     You should get something similar to this:
192     Disk /dev/sdc: 1031 MB, 1031798272 bytes
193     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 983 cylinders
194     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
196     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
197     /dev/sdc4 * 1 983 1006576 6 FAT16
199     If the partition is not active (no astrisk), execute:
200     fdisk /dev/sdc
201     and issue "Command: " a (toggle a bootable flag) and "Partition number:"
202     4 (for /dev/sdc4).
204     If you are on Windows, this is taken care of by syslinux (parameters -ma).
206     If you still have problems booting, you should try to execute
207     syslinux -s /dev/sdc4
208     from Linux, or
209     syslinux -sma K:
210     from Windows (from folder K:syslinux).
212     syslinux man page reads:
214     (Option) -s
215     Install a "safe, slow and stupid" version of syslinux. This version may work
216     on some very buggy BIOSes on which syslinux would otherwise fail. If you find
217     a machine on which the -s option is required to make it boot reliably, please
218     send as much info about your machine as you can, and include the failure
219     mode.
221     * I still can't boot
222     In this case you will have to format your USB disk.
224     If you are using linux to perform the installation, execute the command:
225     mkdosfs -F 16 /dev/sdc4
226     to create a FAT16 file system, or
227     mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdc4
228     to create a FAT32 file system.
230     When you are done go back to section "Installation from Linux".
232     If you are on Windows, you should download the HP-USB Format tool {{
233     http://h50178.www5.hp.com/local_drivers/17550/SP27608.exe }}, install it
234     and format your USB drive using the Fat or Fat32 option. This program can
235     be used to format USB devices that won't boot properly when formatted with
236     Windows format tool.
238     When you are done go back to section "Installation from Windows".
240     * I still can't boot (after formating)
241     Things are getting tough!!! Try to format your USB disk using the option you
242     did not use previously. So, if you have created a FAT32 file system, create
243     a FAT16 file system this time, and recreate Clonezilla-SysRescCD on USB.
245     If nothing works, you are out of luck; you will not be able to use
246     Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB on this computer... If you do manage to boot it,
247     please send me a message.
249     * SystemRescueCD does not boot
250     Ok, you have managed to get to the splash screen and successfully booted
251     Clonezilla Live. But you still can't boot SystemRescueCD.
253     Refer to section Booting from USB to find out the boot parameters you can
254     use with SystemRescueCD.
256     Customizing sysresc.cfg
257     ---------------------
258     As stated previously, Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB is booted by syslinux through
259     its configuration file syslinux.cfg. This file loads sysresc.cfg in order
260     to boot SystemRescueCD.
262     If you have to specify any additional boot parameters for SystemRescueCD,
263     you may want to write these changes to the configuration file, so that
264     you don't have to insert them by hand every time.
266     The procedure to do that is the following:
268     Boot SystemRescueCD (or if that's not possible yet, bot Clonezilla Linux
269     and get to the command line) using the option To RAM, and when it is fully
270     loaded, execute the following commands:
271     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
272     mount /dev/[device] /mnt/usbdevice
273     cd /mnt/usbdevice
274     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
275     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=x [additional params]|'
276     sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
277     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
278     cd; umount /dev/[device]
279     syslinux /dev/[device]
280     reboot
282     where x is a number from 1 to 10.
284     After executing these commands, you will have a new sysresc.cfg file,
285     and a backup file called sysresc.bak (in case things go wrong).
287     If, for example, you want to increase the device scan delay to maximum,
288     the above commands would become:
289     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
290     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
291     cd /mnt/usbdevice
292     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
293     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=10|' sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
294     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
295     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
296     syslinux /dev/sdc4
297     reboot
299     If, in addition to that, you had to use the boot parameter usbstick,
300     then it would be:
301     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
302     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
303     cd /mnt/usbdevice
304     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
305     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=10 usbstick|' sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
306     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
307     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
308     syslinux /dev/sdc4
309     reboot
311     In case something goes wrong with your new settings, you can always rename
312     sysresc.bak to sysresc.cfg, either from linux or Windows.
317     Boot parameters
318     ==============================================================================
320     Intro
321     ****************************************
322     Booting a linux system means loading a kernel, which is actually the
323     operating system. Well, this is not exactly true, and it is not the only
324     thing that happens during boot up phase, but it is not my intension to
325     explain it here.
327     The kernel is loaded by Isolinux (the CD boot manager), which is able to pass
328     a number of parameters to it, through its configuration file isolinux.cfg.
330     These parameters, called boot parameters, are documented by the kernel
331     itself, and can differentiate its behavior dramatically. In our case,
332     each CD (SystemRescueCD and Clonezilla Live) accept a different set of
333     parameters, because they are based on gentoo {{ http://www.gentoo.org/ }}
334     and debian, respectively.
336     While in the splash screen of Clonezilla-SysRescCD, you can edit the boot
337     parameters by pressing TAB. They will be presented to you, and you can
338     add or remove what you want. You must be careful not to change or remove
339     the parameters that are dedicated to the CD itself, as altering them will
340     certainty make it unbootable. When you are done, just press ENTER to boot.
342     SystemRescueCD boot parameters
343     ****************************************
344     [[ info.png ]]
345     The following info applies to SystemRescueCD v. 1.3.5. In case
346     you need to get info for a more recent version of SystemRescueCD
347     please see the page "Sysresccd-manual-en Booting the CD-ROM {{
348     http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Booting_the_CD-ROM }}"
350     A typical sysresccd isolinux entry is:
352     kernel rescuecd
353     append initrd=initram.igz video=ofonly
355     The kernel used is rescuecd, and anything after the word append is a
356     boot parameter.
358     Available kernels (boot images):
360     * rescuecd This is the default choice for 32bits systems, with Framebuffer
361     disabled, best choice.
362     * altker32 This is an alternative kernel for 32bits systems. Boot with
363     this kernel in case you have problems with rescuecd. altker32 was named
364     vmlinuz2 in versions prior to SystemRescueCd-1.0.0.
365     * rescue64 This is the default 64 bits kernel. Use it if you want to chroot
366     to a 64bits linux system installed on your hard disk, or if you have to run
367     64 bits programs. This kernel is able to boot SystemRescueCd from the cdrom
368     with 32bits programs, and it required a processor with 64bits instructions
369     (amd64 / em64t).
370     * altker64 This is an alternative kernel for 64bits systems. Boot with
371     this kernel in case you have problems with rescue64. Only available from
372     SystemRescueCd-1.0.0 and newer.
374     The boot parameters you can use are:
376 sng 43 General boot options
377     Press <TAB> to add additional options.
378 sng 28
379 sng 43 * docache: causes the CD-ROM will be fully loaded into memory. A slower
380     start but once complete, programs start faster and the CD drive will be
381     released allowing normal access to other CDs. This requires 400MB of memory
382     to cache everything (including the bootdisks and isolinux directories). Add
383     lowmem if you have less that 400MB of memory of to prevent these directories
384     to be copied.
386     During boot you will be prompted for the keyboard configuration, avoid
387     this by using
389     * setkmap=kk: which defines the keymap to load where kk (example: setkmap=de
390     for German keyboards)
391     * root=/dev/xdnp: the root=<device> option {{
392 sng 28 http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/
393 sng 43 }} boots an existing linux system. For example, if you have linux
394     Gentoo installed on /dev/sda6, use rescuecd root=/dev/sda6 to start
395     it. Keep in mind that you must use a 64bit kernel if your system is
396     made of 64bit programs. This option works with LVM volumes. Use rescuecd
397     root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00. Support is also provided for root=auto,
398     which scans all the block devices tfor a linux system. The first linux
399     system found will be started. So with root=auto let you start the system
400 sng 28 installed from the CD-ROM in case you have problem with your boot loader or
401 sng 43 kernel. It's also possible to specify a partition using its filesystem label
402     or filesystem uuid. If the label of the partition where linux is installed
403     is mylinux, then boot it using rescuecd root=LABEL=mylinux. Similarly
404     root=UUID=b3d3bec5-997a-413e-8449-0d0ec41ccba7. See more details.
405     * initscript=service:action: This options allows start/stop a service
406     at boot time. For instance if you need the samba service to be started,
407     you can boot with: initscript=samba:start. This does the same thing as
408     /etc/init.d/samba start. Use this option multiple times for different
409     services. All the actions that are supported by an initscript can be used.
410     * backstore=xxx: SystemRescueCd comes with support for the backing-stores {{
411 sng 28 http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/
412 sng 43 }}. A backing-store saves all the changes you can make. so that you
413     keep these changes the next time you boot it. By default, sysresccd
414     automatically scan removable devices (eg: USB sticks) at boot time and
415     uses the first backing-store it finds. A backing-store is not mandatory
416     and it the scan fails it will store the files which change in memory. To
417     disable the disks scan at boot time specify backstore=off on the boot command
418     line. If you want to save your backing-store file on an harddisk, boot with
419     backstore=alldev to scan all devices (not just removable devices). The
420     default location for backing-stores file is any file named sysrcd.bs
421     located at the root of a disk which is often an USB stick. Change the path
422     by using backstore=/sysrcd/mybackstore.bs. See backing-stores.
423     * isoloop=xxx: Grub2 (currently in development: grub-1.98) provides a new
424     feature to boot from an ISO image which is stored from the hard disk. If you
425     put a copy of systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso on a partition that Grub2 can read
426     then you can boot SystemRescueCd directly from the ISO image stored on your
427     hard drive. This is very convenient if you frequently update SystemRescueCd
428     and you want to boot it directly from Grub2. Grub2 knows what an ISO image
429     is and it will load the kernel image (rescuecd/rescue64) and the initramfs
430     (initram.igz) from the ISO into memory. It will then do its normal job and
431     execute the kernel. The SystemRescueCd init script must then be aware that
432     its sysrcd.dat file is in an ISO and not directly on the partition. For that
433     reason, this isoloop=xxx boot option is required so you must use it in your
434     grub.cfg. This option is only supported in SystemRescueCd-1.4.0 and more
435     recent. This option specifies the path of the ISO image in the partition
436     that grub considers as its root partition. It's important to understand
437     that the path of the ISO image may be different from the path on your
438     linux system. If you have a separate boot partition mounted on /boot and if
439     you copy this ISO image to /boot/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso then
440     the option has to be isoloop=/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso. This
441     is because the boot partition is what Grub2 will consider as its root
442     partition during the boot process. Please read the section about isoloop {{
443     http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Easy_install_SystemRescueCd_on_harddisk#Boot_the_ISO_image_from_the_disk_using_Grub2
444     }} for more details.
445 sng 28
446 sng 43 Hardware, drivers and troubleshooting options
447     * dodebug: Enables verbose messages in linuxrc
448 sng 28
449 sng 43 * doload=xxx: loads needed modules, multiple occurrences are permitted
450     (example: doload=3c59x)
451     * noload=xxx: prevents loading modules, multiple occurrences are permitted
452     (example: noload=3c59x). Use this option if you have a problem when the
453     system loads a particular module.
454 sng 28 * nonet: this will disable the network auto detection at startup
455 sng 43
456 sng 28 * scandelay=x: pauses x seconds during the startup to allow slow devices
457 sng 43 to initialize. This is required when you boot an USB device. A delay of
458 sng 28 only few seconds should be enough.
459 sng 43
460 sng 28 * doxdetect: Since version 0.3.5 the auto-configuration is done in X.Org
461 sng 43 itself, mkxf86config is disabled by default. This option forces the system to
462     run the mkxf86config startup script and to run the hardware auto-detection
463     from this script. Use this option if you have problems with the graphical
464     environment configuration. This option replaces the option noxdetect that
465     was useful in previous versions.
466     * nodetect: prevents generic hardware auto-detection. Use this option if
467     you have problems with the hardware auto-detection.
469     * dostartx: load the X.Org graphical environment.
470     * forcevesa: Forces X.Org to use the safe VESA driver instead of the best
471     video driver detected for your video card. Use this option if you cannot
472     get the graphical environment working with the default options.
473     * forcevesa=xxx: The startx command will load the Xvesa server instead
474     of Xorg, and use the screen resolution given as parameter (eg: 1024x768,
475     1280x1024x32).
477 sng 28 * all-generic-ide: In case of problems related to your hard disk, try to
478     enable this option (eg rescuecd all-generic-ide)
479 sng 43 * nodmraid: Disable dmraid, for some motherboards with built-in RAID
480     controller.
481     * nomdadm: Disable mdadm, for software RAID.
483     * acpi-off / noapic / irqpool: use these options if you have problem when
484     the kernel boots: if it hangs on a driver or if it crashes, ...
486     * lowmem: For systems with smaller memory, some daemons are not started
487     including sshd and nfsd.
489 sng 28 * skipmount=/dev/xxx: The system mounts all the storage devices at boot
490 sng 43 time to find the sysrcd.dat file. If your hard disk is broken it should
491     be mounted. Boot with skipmount=/dev/sda1 skipmount=/dev/sda2 to ignore
492     these two partitions.
493 sng 28
494 sng 43 Network configuration and remote access
495     * dodhcp: to request a DHCP server provide network attributes including
496     an IP address, gateway... . otherwise,
497     * ethx=ipaddr/cidr: Sets the static IP address of all the ethernet
498     interfaces on the system. The /cidr extension is optional. For instance,
499     if you use option ethx= on a machine with two ethernet adapters,
500     both eth0 and eth1 will be configured with You can use the
501     format ethx= (using the cidr notation) if you don't use the
502     default netmask.
503     * eth0=ipaddr/cidr: This option is similar to ethx=ipaddr/cidr but it
504     configures only one interface at a time. To configure the network on a
505     server that has two interfaces, use: eth0= eth1=
506 sng 28 * dns=ipaddr: Sets the static IP address of the DNS nameserver you want
507     to use to resolve the names. For instance dns= means that
508     you want to use as the DNS server.
509     * gateway=ipaddr: Sets the static IP address of the default route on your
510     network. For instance gateway= means that the computer can
511     connect to a computer outside of the local network via
512     * dhcphostname=myhost: Sets the hostname that the DHCP client will send
513     to the DHCP server. This may be required if the default hostname cannot
514     be used with your DHCP configuration. This option has been introduced
515     in SystemRescueCd-1.3.5.
516     * rootpass=123456: Sets the root password of the system running on the
517     livecd to 1234. That way you can connect from the network and ssh on the
518     livecd and give 123456 password as the root password.
519     * vncserver=x:123456: The vncserver boot option {{
520     http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/04/12/use-systemrescuecd-remotely-with-vnc-server/
521     }} has been introduced in SystemRescueCd-1.0.2. This options forces the
522     system to configure the VNC-server and to start it automatically at boot
523     time. You have to replace x with the number of displays you want, and 123456
524     with your password The password must be between 5 and 8 characters, else the
525     boot option will be ignored. In other words the vncserver=2:MyPaSsWd option
526     will give you access to two displays (display=1 on tcp/5901 and display=2
527     on tcp/5902). Display 0 is reserved for X.Org since SystemRescueCd-1.1.0.
528     * nameif=xxx: You can can specify what interface name to give {{
529     http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/28/option-to-define-the-name-of-a-network-interface-using-the-mac-address/
530     }} to a particular interface using the mac address. You need
531     SystemRescueCd-1.1.0 or newer to do that. Here is how you can specify
532     which interface is using which mac address on a machine with two network
533     interfaces: nameif=eth0!00:0C:29:57:D0:6E,eth1!00:0C:29:57:D0:64. Be
534     careful, you have to respect the separator (comma between the interfaces
535     and exclamation marks between the name and the mac address).
537 sng 43 Network boot using PXE
538     SystemRescueCd provides several options for booting from the network
539     using PXE.
540     These options can be combined with other network boot options
541     such as ethx (cf previous section). See PXE network booting {{
542     http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_PXE_network_booting }} to
543     get a global overview of SystemRescueCd and PXE and Manage remote servers
544     using PXE.
545     The second stage downloads the kernel + initramfs using DHCP/TFTP.
546     The third stage of the PXE boot process acquires the root files system.
547     Several protocols are available.
548 sng 28
549 sng 43 * netboot=tftp://ip/path/sysrcd.dat: from a TFTP server. The filesystem
550     is loaded into memory. As a consequence computers with less than 400MB of
551     memory won't be able to boot this way. The system will continue to work
552     if the network is disconnected after the boot process.
553     * netboot=http://ip:port/path/sysrcd.dat: from a Web server. The file system
554     is loaded into memory. Computers with smaller memory won't be able to boot
555     this way. The the system continues to work if the network is disconnected
556     after the boot process.
557     * netboot=nfs://ip:/path: mount an NFSv3 directory. The NFS url must be
558     the path of the directory that contains sysrcd.dat. Only NFSv3 can be used,
559     NFSv4 is not supported. NFS it allows computers with smaller memory to boot
560     SystemRescueCd from the network. After the boot process, the connection
561     is required or you will loose the access to the root file system.
562     * netboot=nbd://ip:port: connect to an NBD server configured with sysrcd.dat
563     on ip:port. NBD is easier to configure than NFS (only one TCP port involved)
564     and it allows computers with smaller memort to boot SystemRescueCd from
565     the network. After the boot process, the connection is required the access
566     to the root system.
568     For information on activating speakup, see the speakup info page {{
569     http://www.sysresccd.org/Speakup-info }}.
571     Options provided for autorun
572 sng 28 * ar_source=xxx: place where the autorun are stored. It may
573     be the root directory of a partition (/dev/sda1), an nfs
574     share (nfs://, a samba share
575     (smb://, or an http directory
576     (
577 sng 43 * autoruns=[0-9]: comma separated list of the autorun scrip to be run. For
578     example autoruns=0,2,7 the autorun sc autorun0, autorun2, autorun7 are
579     run. Use autoruns=no to disable all the autorun scripts with a number.
580 sng 28 * ar_ignorefail: continue to execute the scripts chain even if a script
581     failed (returned a non-zero status)
582     * ar_nodel: do not delete the temporary copy of the autorun scripts located
583     in /var/autorun/tmp after execution
584     * ar_disable: completely disable autorun, the simple autorun script will
585     not be executed
586     * ar_nowait: do not wait for a keypress after the autorun script have
587     been executed.
589     Clonezilla Live boot parameters
590     ****************************************
591     [[ info.png ]]
592     The following info applies to Clonezilla Live v. 1.2.3-27
593     In case you need to get info for a more recent version of Clonezilla Live
594     please see the page "The boot parameters for Clonezilla live {{
595     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/fine-print.php?path=./99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc
596     }}"
598     A typical Clonezilla Live isolinux entry is:
600     kernel /live/vmlinuz1
601     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
602     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"
603     ocs_live_extra_param="" ocs_live_keymap="" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang=""
604     vga=791 nolocales
606     The kernel used is vmlinuz, and anything after the word append is a boot
607     parameter.
609     The following info comes from the
610     page titled The boot parameters for Clonezilla live {{
611     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/fine-print.php?path=./99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc
612     }}.
614     Clonezilla live is based on Debian live {{ http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/
615     }} with clonezilla installed. Therefore there are 2 kinds of boot parameters:
617     * Boot parameters from live-initramfs. You can refer to this manual of
618     live-initramfs.
619     * Boot parameters specially for Clonezilla. All of them are named as
620     "ocs_*", e.g. ocs_live_run, ocs_live_extra_param, ocs_live_batch, ocs_lang.
621     * ocs_live_run is the main program to run in Clonezilla live to save
622     or restore. or other command. Available program: ocs-live-general,
623     ocs-live-restore or any command you write. Use the Absolute path in
624     Clonezilla live.
625     e.g. ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"
626 sng 43 //NOTE// You might have to use "sudo" command inside your own script,
627     or you can assign it like: ocs_live_run="sudo bash /my-clonezilla"
628 sng 28 * ocs_live_extra_param will be used only when ocs_live_run=ocs-live-restore
629     (not for ocs-live-general or any other), then it will be passed to
630     ocs-sr. Therefore these parameters are actually those of ocs-sr.
631     e.g. ocs_live_extra_param="-b -c restoredisk sarge-r5 hda"
632     * ocs_live_keymap is for keymap used in Clonezilla live. Man install-keymap
633     for more details.
634     e.g. ocs_live_keymap="NONE" (won't change the default layout)
635     ocs_live_keymap="/usr/share/keymaps/i386/azerty/fr-latin9.kmap.gz"
636     (French keyboard)
637     * batch mode or not (yes/no), if no, will run interactively.
638     e.g. ocs_live_batch="no"
639     * ocs_lang is the language used in Clonezilla live. Available value:
640     en_US.UTF-8, zh_TW.UTF-8... (see $DRBL_SCRIPT_PATH/lang/bash/)
641     e.g. ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8"
642     * ocs_debug (or ocs-debug) is for you to enter command line prompt before
643     any clonezilla-related action is run. This is easier for you to debug.
644     * ocs_daemonon, ocs_daemonoff, ocs_numlk, ocs_capslk.
645     Ex. for the first 2 parameters, ocs_daemonon="ssh", then ssh service will
646     be turned on when booting. For the last 2 parameters, use "on" or "off",
647     e.g. ocs_numlk=on to turn on numberlock when booting.
648     * ocs_prerun, ocs_prerun1, ocs_prerun2... is for you to run a shell script
649     before Clonezilla is started. E.g. ocs_prerun="/live/image/myscript.sh". If
650     you have more commands to run, you can assign them in the order:
651     ocs_prerun=..., ocs_prerun1=..., ocs_prerun2=.... If more than 10
652     parameters, remember to use ocs_prerun01, ocs_prerun02..., ocs_prerun11
653     to make it in order.
654     * ocs_live_run_tty. This option allows you to specify the tty where
655     $ocs_live_run is run. By default $ocs_live_run is run on /dev/tty1
656     only. (It was also on /dev/ttyS0 before, but since Clonezilla live >=
657     1.2.3-22 no more this due to a problem). If you want to use ttyS0, for
658     example, add live-getty and console=ttyS0,38400n81 in the boot parameter.
659 sng 43 //NOTE//
660     * This parameter was added in Clonezilla live 1.2.3-22 or later.
661     * If "live-getty console=$tty,38400n81" are assigned in the boot parameters,
662     ocs_live_run_tty will honor $tty, even other value is assigned to
663     ocs_live_run_tty in boot parameter.
664     * It's recommended to assign ocs_lang and ocs_live_keymap in the boot
665     parameters too.
666     * ip, this option allows you to specify the network parameters for
667     network card. In Clonezilla live a patched live-initramfs is used, which
668     is different from the original live-initramfs so that you can assign
669     DNS server, too. Its format is: ip=ethernet port,IP address, netmask,
670     gateway, DNS. E.g. If you want to assing eth0 with IP address,
671     netmask, gateway, DNS server, you can
672     assign the following in the boot parameter:
673     ip=eth0,,,,
674     If more than one network card, you can use ":" to separate them, e.g.:
675     ip=eth0,,,,,,,,,
676 sng 28 * Besides, "live-netdev" (yes, not ocs_live_netdev) can be used when
677     using PXE booting, you can force to assign the network device to get
678     filesystem.squashfs. This is useful when there are two or more NICs are
679     linked. E.g. live-netdev="eth1" allows you to force the live-initramfs
680     to use eth1 to fetch the root file system filesystem.squashfs.
682     With the above options, we have the following examples:
684     * A PXE config example for you to boot Clonezilla live via PXE, and ssh
685     service is on, the password of account "user" is assigned:
686     ----------------------------------------
687     label Clonezilla Live
688     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live
690     kernel vmlinuz1
691     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788
692     fetch=tftp:// usercrypted=bkuQxLqLRuDW6
693     ocs_numlk="on" ocs_daemonon="ssh"
694     ----------------------------------------
695     The usercrypted password is created by:
696     echo YOUR_PASSWORD | mkpasswd -s
697     ("mkpasswd" is from package "whois" in Debian or Ubuntu. Check your
698     GNU/Linux to see which package provides this command if you are not using
699     Debian or Ubuntu. Replace YOUR_PASSWORD with your plain text password,
700     and remember do not put any " in the boot parameters of live-initramfs
701     (while it's ok for those ocs_* boot parameters), i.e. do NOT use something
702     like usercrypted="bkuQxLqLRuDW6").
703     //NOTE// If you do not assign salt to mkpasswd, the encrypted password
704     will not be the same every time you create it.
705     For more about usercrypted discussion, please check the here.
707     * How to put your own binary driver in Clonezilla live without modifying
708     /live/filesystem.squashfs:
710     * Boot clonezilla live
711     * Become root by running "sudo su -"
712     * Copy the dir lsi, which contains a precompiled kernel module matching
713     the running kernel in Clonezilla live and a script to run it, to a working
714     dir, e.g.:
715     cp -r /live/image/lsi /home/partimag
716     * cd /home/partimag
717     * /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-live-dev -c -s -i lsi -u lsi -x
718     "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
719     * /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-iso -s -i lsi -u lsi -x
720     "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
721     * ///NOTE/// In this example, the 2 files in dir lsi are: megasr.ko (the
722     binary driver) and prep-lsi.sh. The contents of prep-lsi.sh:
724     ------------------------
725     #!/bin/bash
726     cp -f /live/image/lsi/megasr.ko /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/
727     chown root.root /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/megasr.ko
728     depmod -a modprobe megasr
729     sleep 1
730     ------------------------
731     * To put your customized script with a PXE version of Clonezilla live
732     (You have to use Clonezilla live version 1.2.2-2 or later):
733     In this example, we assume (1) The IP address of your PXE server is
734, (2) the customized script (custom-ocs-2) is put on
735     your PXE server's tftpd root dir (E.g. On DRBL server, the path is
736     /tftpboot/nbi_img/. It might be different in your case if you are not use
737     DRBL server as a PXE server).
738     Therefor your pxelinux.cfg/default file is like:
739     ------------------------
740     label Clonezilla Live
742     # MENU HIDE
743     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live
744     # MENU PASSWD
745     kernel vmlinuz1
746     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788
747     ip=frommedia fetch=tftp://
748     ocs_prerun="busybox tftp -g -b 10240 -r custom-ocs-2 -l
749     /tmp/custom-ocs-2" ocs_live_run="bash /tmp/custom-ocs-2"
750     ocs_live_keymap="NONE" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" nolocales
751     TEXT HELP
752     Boot Clonezilla live via network
753     ENDTEXT
754     ------------------------
755     The content of custom-ocs-2 can be like:
757     ------------------------
758     #!/bin/bash
759     . /opt/drbl/sbin/drbl-conf-functions
760     . /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-functions
761     . /etc/ocs/ocs-live.conf
763     # Load language file
764     ask_and_load_lang_set en_US.UTF-8
766     # 1. Mount the clonezilla image home.
767     # Types: local_dev, ssh_server, samba_server, nfs_server
768     prep-ocsroot -t nfs_server
770     # 2. Restore the image
771     if mountpoint /home/partimag/ &>/dev/null; then
772     ocs-sr -l en_US.UTF-8 -c -p choose restoredisk ask_user ask_user
773     else
774     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] & $SETCOLOR_FAILURE
775     echo "Fail to find the Clonezilla image home /home/partimag!"
776     echo "Program terminated!"
777     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] & $SETCOLOR_NORMAL
778     fi
779     ------------------------
780     live-initramfs manual
781     ---------------------
782     This is the manual of live-initramfs {{
783     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/live-initramfs-param.php }}
785     live-initramfs(7)
786     =================
788     Name
789     ----
790     live-initramfs - Debian Live initramfs hook
792     Synopsis
793     --------
794     BOOT=live
796     as kernel parameter at boot prompt.
798     Description
799     -----------
801     live-initramfs is a hook for the initramfs-tools, used to generate
802     a initramfs
803     capable to boot live systems, such as those created by *live-helper*(7).
804     This includes the Debian Live isos, netboot tarballs, and usb stick images.
806     At boot time it will look for a (read-only) media containing a "/live"
807     directory where a root filesystems (often a compressed filesystem image like
808     squashfs) is stored. If found, it will create a writable environment, using
809     aufs, for Debian like systems to boot from.
811     You probably do not want to install this package onto a non-live system,
812     although it will do no harm.
814     live-initramfs is a fork of link:http://packages.ubuntu.com/casper/[casper].
815     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen <tfheen@canonical.com>
816     and Matt Zimmerman <mdz@canonical.com>.
818     Boot options
819     ------------
821     Here is the complete list of recognized boot parameters by live-initramfs.
823     access=*ACCESS*::
825     Set the accessibility level for physically or visually impared users. ACCESS
826     must be one of v1, v2, v3, m1, or m2. v1=lesser visual impairment,
827     v2=moderate
828     visual impairment, v3=blindness, m1=minor motor difficulties, m2=moderate
829     motor
830     difficulties.
832     console=*TTY,SPEED*::
834     Set the default console to be used with the "live-getty" option. Example:
835     "console=ttyS0,115200"
837     debug::
839     Makes initramfs boot process more verbose.
841     fetch=*URL*::
843     Another form of netboot by downloading a squashfs image from a given url,
844     copying to ram and booting it.
846     hostname=*HOSTNAME*, username=*USER*, userfullname=*USERFULLNAME*::
848     Those parameters lets you override values read from the config file.
850     ignore_uuid
852     Do not check that any UUID embedded in the initramfs matches the discovered
853     medium. live-initramfs may be told to generate a UUID by setting
854     LIVE_GENERATE_UUID=1 when building the initramfs.
856     integrity-check::
858     If specified, an MD5 sum is calculated on the live media during boot and
859     compared to the value found in md5sum.txt found in the root directory of the
860     live media.
865     Let you specify the name(s) and the options of the interface(s) that
866     should be
867     configured at boot time. Do not specify this if you want to use dhcp
868     (default).
869     It will be changed in a future release to mimick official kernel boot param
870     specification
871     (e.g. ip=,:::::eth1:dhcp).
873     ip[=**frommedia**]::
875     If this variable is set, dhcp and static configuration are just skipped
876     and the
877     system will use the (must be) media-preconfigured /etc/network/interfaces
878     instead.
880     {keyb|kbd-chooser/method}=**KEYBOARD**,
881     {klayout|console-setup/layoutcode}=**LAYOUT**,
882     {kvariant|console-setup/variantcode}=**VARIANT**,
883     {kmodel|console-setup/modelcode}=**CODE**, koptions=**OPTIONS**::
885     Configure the running keyboard as specified, if this one misses
886     live-initramfs
887     behaves as if "keyb=us" was specified. It will be interfered from
888     "locale=" if
889     locale is only 2 lowecase letters as a special case. You could also specify
890     console layout, variant, code, and options (no defaults).
892     live-getty::
894     This changes the auto-login on virtual terminals to use the (experimental)
895     live-getty code. With this option set the standard kernel argument
896     "console=" is
897     parsed and if a serial console is specified then live-getty is used to
898     autologin
899     on the serial console.
901     {live-media|bootfrom}=**DEVICE**::
903     If you specify one of this two equivalent forms, live-initramfs will
904     first try
905     to find this device for the "/live" directory where the read-only root
906     filesystem should reside. If it did not find something usable, the
907     normal scan
908     for block devices is performed.
910     {live-media-encryption|encryption}=**TYPE**::
912     live-initramfs will mount the encrypted rootfs TYPE, asking the passphrase,
913     useful to build paranoid live systems :-). TYPE supported so far are
914     "aes" for
915     loop-aes encryption type.
917     live-media-offset=**BYTES**::
919     This way you could tell live-initramfs that your image starts at offset
920     BYTES in
921     the above specified or autodiscovered device, this could be useful to
922     hide the
923     Debian Live iso or image inside another iso or image, to create "clean"
924     images.
926     live-media-path=**PATH**::
928     Sets the path to the live filesystem on the medium. By default, it is set to
929     '/live' and you should not change that unless you have customized your media
930     accordingly.
932     live-media-timeout=**SECONDS**::
934     Set the timeout in seconds for the device specified by "live-media="
935     to become
936     ready before giving up.
938     {locale|debian-installer/locale}=**LOCALE**::
940     Configure the running locale as specified, if not present the live-media
941     rootfs
942     configured locale will be used and if also this one misses live-initramfs
943     behave
944     as "locale=en_US.UTF-8" was specified. If only 2 lowercase letter are
945     specified
946     (like "it"), the "maybe wanted" locale is generated (like en:EN.UTF-8),
947     in this
948     case if also "keyb=" is unspecified is set with those 2 lowercase letters
949     (keyb=us). Beside that facility, only UTF8 locales are supported by
950     live-initramfs.
952     module=**NAME**::
954     Instead of using the default optional file "filesystem.module" (see below)
955     another file could be specified without the extension ".module"; it should be
956     placed on "/live" directory of the live medium.
958     netboot[=**nfs**|**cifs**]::
960     This tells live-initramfs to perform a network mount. The parameter
961     "nfsroot="
962     (with optional "nfsopts="), should specify where is the location of the root
963     filesystem. With no args, will try cifs first, and if it fails nfs.
965     nfsopts=::
967     This lets you specify custom nfs options.
969     noautologin::
971     This parameter disables the automatic terminal login only, not touching
972     gdk/kdm.
974     noxautologin::
976     This parameter disables the automatic login of gdm/kdm only, not touching
977     terminals.
979     nofastboot::
981     This parameter disables the default disabling of filesystem checks in
982     /etc/fstab. If you have static filesystems on your harddisk and you want
983     them to
984     be checked at boot time, use this parameter, otherwise they are skipped.
986     nopersistent::
988     disables the "persistent" feature, useful if the bootloader (like syslinux)
989     has
990     been installed with persistent enabled.
992     noprompt
994     Do not prompt to eject the CD on reboot.
996     nosudo::
998     This parameter disables the automatic configuration of sudo.
1000     swapon::
1002     This parameter enables usage of local swap partitions.
1004     nouser::
1006     This parameter disables the creation of the default user completely.
1008     noxautoconfig::
1010     This parameter disables Xorg auto-reconfiguration at boot time. This
1011     is valuable
1012     if you either do the detection on your own, or, if you want to ship a custom,
1013     premade xorg.conf in your live system.
1015     persistent[=nofiles]::
1017     live-initramfs will look for persistent and snapshot partitions or files
1018     labeled
1019     "live-rw", "home-rw", and files called "live-sn*", "home-sn*" and will
1020     try to,
1021     in order: mount as /cow the first, mount the second in /home, and just
1022     copy the
1023     contents of the latter in appropriate locations (snapshots). Snapshots
1024     will be
1025     tried to be updated on reboot/shutdown. Look at live-snapshot(1) for more
1026     informations. If "nofiles" is specified, only filesystems with matching
1027     labels
1028     will be searched; no filesystems will be traversed looking for archives
1029     or image
1030     files. This results in shorter boot times.
1032     {preseed/file|file}=**FILE**::
1034     A path to a file present on the rootfs could be used to preseed debconf
1035     database.
1037     package/question=**VALUE**::
1039     All debian installed packages could be preseeded from command-line that way,
1040     beware of blanks spaces, they will interfere with parsing, use a preseed
1041     file in
1042     this case.
1044     quickreboot::
1046     This option causes live-initramfs to reboot without attempting to eject the
1047     media and without asking the user to remove the boot media.
1049     showmounts::
1051     This parameter will make live-initramfs to show on "/" the ro filesystems
1052     (mostly compressed) on "/live". This is not enabled by default because could
1053     lead to problems by applications like "mono" which store binary paths on
1054     installation.
1056     textonly
1058     Start up to text-mode shell prompts, disabling the graphical user interface.
1060     timezone=**TIMEZONE**::
1062     By default, timezone is set to UTC. Using the timezone parameter, you can
1063     set it
1064     to your local zone, e.g. Europe/Zurich.
1066     todisk=**DEVICE**::
1068     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the entire read-only
1069     media to the specified device before mounting the root filesystem. It
1070     probably
1071     needs a lot of free space. Subsequent boots should then skip this step
1072     and just
1073     specify the "live-media=DEVICE" boot parameter with the same DEVICE used this
1074     time.
1076     toram::
1078     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the whole read-only
1079     media
1080     to the computer's RAM before mounting the root filesystem. This could need
1081     a lot
1082     of ram, according to the space used by the read-only media.
1084     union=**aufs**|**unionfs**::
1086     By default, live-initramfs uses aufs. With this parameter, you can switch to
1087     unionfs.
1089     utc=**yes**|**no**::
1091     By default, Debian systems do assume that the hardware clock is set to
1092     UTC. You
1093     can change or explicitly set it with this parameter.
1095     xdebconf::
1097     Uses xdebconfigurator, if present on the rootfs, to configure X instead
1098     of the
1099     standard procedure (experimental).
1101     xvideomode=**RESOLUTION**::
1103     Doesn't do xorg autodetection, but enforces a given resolution.
1105     Files
1106     -----
1108     /etc/live.conf
1110     Some variables can be configured via this config file (inside the live
1111     system).
1113     /live/filesystem.module
1115     This optional file (inside the live media) contains a list of white-space or
1116     carriage-return-separated file names corresponding to disk images in the
1117     "/live"
1118     directory. If this file exists, only images listed here will be merged
1119     into the
1120     root aufs, and they will be loaded in the order listed here. The first entry
1121     in this file will be the "lowest" point in the aufs, and the last file in
1122     this list will be on the "top" of the aufs, directly below /cow. Without
1123     this file, any images in the "/live" directory are loaded in alphanumeric
1124     order.
1126     /etc/live-persistence.binds
1128     This optional file (which resides in the rootfs system, not in the live
1129     media)
1130     is used as a list of directories which not need be persistent: ie. their
1131     content does not need to survive reboots when using the persistence features.
1133     This saves expensive writes and speeds up operations on volatile data such as
1134     web caches and temporary files (like e.g. /tmp and .mozilla) which are
1135     regenerated each time. This is achieved by bind mounting each listed
1136     directory
1137     with a tmpfs on the original path.
1139     See also
1140     --------
1142     live-snapshot(1), initramfs-tools(8), live-helper(7), live-initscripts(7),
1143     live-webhelper(7)
1145     Bugs
1146     ----
1148     Report bugs against live-initramfs
1149     link:http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs[http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs].
1151     Homepage
1152     --------
1154     More information about the Debian Live project can be found at
1155     link:http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/[http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/]
1156     and
1157     link:http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/[http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/].
1159     Authors
1160     -------
1162     live-initramfs is maintained by Daniel Baumann <daniel@debian.org>
1163     for the Debian project.
1165     live-initramfs is a fork of link:http://packages.ubuntu.com/casper/[casper].
1166     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen <tfheen@canonical.com>
1167     and Matt Zimmerman <mdz@canonical.com>.
1172     About Clonezilla Live
1173     ==============================================================================
1175     Intro
1176     ****************************************
1177     The DRBL-based PXEBoot Clonezilla is used to clone many computers
1178     simultaneously. It is an extremely useful tool, however, it does have several
1179     limitations. In order to use it, you must first prepare a DRBL server AND
1180     the machine to be cloned must boot from a network (e.g. PXE/Etherboot).
1182     To address these limitations, the Free Software Lab at the NCHC has combined
1183     Debian Live {{ http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/ }} with Clonezilla
1184     to produce "Clonezilla Live", a new software that can be used to easily
1185     clone individual machines.
1187     Clonezilla Live provides two modes of operation:
1189     * device-image
1190     In this mode of operation, a disk/partition can be saved to an
1191     image file. This image file can be used to restore the original
1192     disk/partition. With Clonezilla-SysRescCD, it can also be used to create an
1193     automated restore CD/DVD. This is the mode of operation we will discuss here.
1195     * device-device (cloning)
1196     This mode of operation creates an exact copy of the original disk/partition
1197     on the fly.
1199     When working in device-image mode, you will always have to specify three
1200     things:
1202     * The location of the image file
1203     * The working parameters for the operation
1204     * The disk/partition that will be saved/restored
1206     Clonezilla Live provides a user friendly interface in order to insert
1207     this data.
1209     When Clonezilla Live is booted up, either normally or copied to RAM, the
1210     contents of the whole CD/DVD can be found in folder /live/image. This
1211     is where you will find any extra files, such as the restorecd and the
1212     doc folders.
1214     Starting and stopping Clonezilla Live
1215     ****************************************
1216     When you boot into Clonezilla Live, the program (actually a script) starts
1217     automatically. There are many places where you can stop it, by selecting
1218     Cancel or answering N(o) to a question. When you do that you will probably
1219     get the following:
1220     Now you can choose to:
1221     (0) Poweroff
1222     (1) Reboot
1223     (2) Enter command line prompt
1224     (3) Start over
1225     [2]
1227     Select Poweroff or Reboot, only if you haven't already mounted a disk
1228     partition. I found out by experience, it is not always safe to let any live
1229     CD automatically unmount my partitions. So if you have already specified
1230     the image partition and/or the partition to save/restore, you should enter
1231     command line prompt and type:
1232     sudo su -
1233     mount | grep /dev/[sh]d
1234     and then unmount the partitions shown by the last command. So if the
1235     results of this command is for example:
1236     /dev/hda1 on /home/partimag type vfat (rw)
1237     just type the command:
1238     umount /dev/hda1
1239     and it's now safe to Poweroff of Reboot.
1241     If, on the other hand, you just want to restart the program, type:
1242     ocs-live
1244     About the Image file
1245     ****************************************
1246     One thing should be made clear about the image file: it is not a file,
1247     it is a folder, containing the actual image file and some data about the
1248     disk/partition it is associated with. So when you insert the image file name,
1249     you actually insert the folder name where the image will be saved/restored.
1251     Before you are able to insert the image file name, a list of partitions
1252     will be presented to you, so that you can choose where it should be
1253     saved/found. When you select one of them, it will be mounted under
1254     /home/partimag.
1256     This folder is very important for Clonezilla Live; the image file must be
1257     located under this directory, which means that the image file must be on
1258     the root directory of the mounted partition. So you can not, for example,
1259     create a folder called all_my_images and move all your image files in there;
1260     Clonezilla Live will not be able to find them!!!
1262     Another thing that should be pointed out is that only unmounted partitions
1263     will be included in the above list. This means that if you have stopped
1264     the program at some point after specifying the partition where the image
1265     file resides, and it has been mounted, it will not be present in the list
1266     the next time it is presented to you, and you will not be able to use it.
1268     There are two things you can do in this case; either unmount the partition,
1269     as stated above, or select
1270     skip Use existing /home/partimag
1272     instead of any other option, when you restart the program. The later of
1273     course means that you still want to use the previously specified partition
1274     as the image file location.
1276     Fianlly I should say that Clonezilla Live is able to use a remote
1277     disk/partition as the location of the image file, mounted through ssh,
1278     samba or nfs. Using any of these options is a more advanced topic, way
1279     beyond the scope of this presentation.
1281     Scripts' options
1282     ****************************************
1283     This section presents the options which are available at the "Clonezilla
1284     advanced extra parameters" screens, if the "Expert" mode is selected. For
1285     other options, see Getting backups and Restoring data.
1287     Backup options
1288     ---------------------
1289     > Imaging program priority
1291     -q2 Priority: partclone > partimage > dd
1292     -q1 Priority: Only dd (supports all filesystem, but inefficient)
1293     -q Priority: ntfsclone > partimage > dd
1294     Priority: partimage > dd (no ntfsclone)
1296     This option chooses which imaging programs are preferred. By default,
1297     Clonezilla Live uses partclone for nearly all filesystems, including
1298     ext2/3/4, NTFS and FAT32. If a filesystem isn't supported by partclone,
1299     but is supported by partimage (spesifically: if the filesystem is HFS,
1300     HPFS or JFS), it is cloned by partimage. If it isn't supported by either
1301     (for example Linux swap, though it doesn't make any sense to clone swap
1302     partitions), it is cloned by dd. Unlike partclone or partimage, dd copies
1303     all blocks of the partition instead of only used, resulting in slower
1304     imaging process and bigger images.
1306     Normally the default option -q2 should be preferred. Try another option
1307     if you have problems and believe they are caused by the imaging program used.
1309     > Various parameters
1311     These options are available at the second "Clonezilla advanced extra
1312     parameters" screen.
1313     -c Client waits for confirmation before cloning
1314     This option causes Clonezilla Live to ask if you really want to clone the
1315     disk/partition just before it starts cloning. It is enabled by default.
1317     -j2 Clone the hidden data between MBR and 1st partition
1318     If this option is set, the 15 hidden sectors between Master Boot Record
1319     and the first partition are copied. This area usually contains some data
1320     necessary for booting. The option is enabled by default and should be kept
1321     enabled if you are cloning a bootable disk.
1323     -nogui Use text output only, no TUI/GUI output
1324     Causes Clonezilla Live to force the used programs to use only command-line
1325     interface even if text-based or graphical user interface is available.
1327     -a Do NOT force to turn on HD DMA
1328     Prevents Clonezilla Live from using DMA for communicating with hard
1329     drives. Slows cloning down but in some conditions cloning without this
1330     option can be impossible.
1332     -rm-win-swap-hib Remove page and hibernation files in Win if exists
1333     This option prevents Clonezilla Live from cloning your page file if you
1334     are cloning a partition containing Windows. Often the page file is big
1335     and unneeded, and skipping it may speed cloning up without causing any
1336     harm. Mind you, this option is disabled by default because sometimes the
1337     page file may be necessary.
1339     -ntfs-ok Skip checking NTFS integrity, even bad sectors (ntfsclone only)
1340     This option works only if you selected the -q option and you're cloning
1341     a NTFS partition. It prevents the integrity check of NTFS partitions and
1342     speeds the cloning process up a little. However, if the check is disabled,
1343     there is a risk that the filesystem is damaged and the image created from
1344     it is useless.
1346     -gm Generate image MD5 checksums
1347     Causes Clonezilla Live to calculate MD5 checksum(s) of image(s) created. If
1348     the image cets corrupted afterwards, the checksum allows to notice the
1349     corruption before the image is restored. Mind you, calculating the checksum
1350     takes some time and slows the process down a little.
1352     -gs Generate image SHA1 checksums
1353     This option is identical to the above, but creates SHA1 checksum(s) instead
1354     of MD5. SHA1 is considered to be more accurate checksum algorithm than MD5,
1355     but MD5 is more popular.
1357     > Compression method
1359     -z1 gzip compression (fast with a smaller image)
1360     -z2 bzip2 compression (slowest but smallest image)
1361     -z3 lzo compression (faster with image size approx. to that of
1362     gzip)(NOTE!!)
1363     -z4 lzma compression (slowest but also small image, faster
1364     decompression than bzip2)
1365     -z0 No compression (fastest but largest image size)
1367     This option chooses the method which is used to compress the image while
1368     creating it.
1370     If no compression is used at all, there won't be any negative speed impact
1371     caused by compression. However, the image file size is the size of all the
1372     data backed up - for example, if you clone a 160 GB hard drive containing
1373     60 gigabytes of data, the resulting disk image will be 60 gigabytes in size.
1375     Gzip and lzop are fast compression methods. Lzop is many times faster than
1376     gzip, but creates slightly larger images. Clonezilla Live warns that lzop
1377     requires good-quality RAM, but I (the contributor who wrote this chapter)
1378     think other compression methods require good RAM too.
1380     Bzip2 and lzma are powerful compression methods. Lzma creates a little
1381     smaller images than bzip2, and decompressing lzma-compressed images is faster
1382     than decompressing bzip2 images. But there is no free lunch: lzma compression
1383     method is very slow compared even to bzip2, which isn't fast method either.
1385     > Splitting
1387     This option (command line: -i [number]) decides if the created image files
1388     are splitted into smaller pieces, and if yes, how large the pieces are. This
1389     setting doesn't usually matter, but some filesystems (most importantly
1390     FAT32) don't allow files larger than four gigabytes. If you're saving the
1391     disk image to a FAT32 partition, enter 4000 or less. (Value 0 disables
1392     splitting, so don't use it in that case.) If the filesystem allows files
1393     big enough, enter any value which isn't too small (you don't want to split
1394     the image into too many pieces, do you?)
1396     > Postaction
1398     -p true Do nothing when the clone finishes
1399     -p reboot Reboot client when the clone finishes
1400     -p poweroff Shutdown client when the clone finishes
1402     In this screen you can decide what Clonezilla Live does when the
1403     disk/partition is cloned.
1405     Spiros told above that he has found out that it's not always safe to allow
1406     Live CDs automatically unmount partitions, and I have lost data when trying
1407     auto-unmount with a script. So, avoid -p reboot and -p poweroff options
1408     if possible. You have been warned.
1410     Restore options (script ocs-sr)
1411     ---------------------
1412     > Various parameters
1414     These options are available at the first "Clonezilla advanced extra
1415     parameters" screen.
1416     -g auto Reinstall grub in client disk MBR (only if grub config exists)
1417     Causes Clonezilla Live to reinstall GRUB into the Master Boot Record
1418     of the disk if at least one partition contains GRUB config file
1419     (/boot/grub/menu.lst). The option is enabled by default and shouldn't
1420     cause any harm. However, it should be disabled if you for example have
1421     another bootloader in MBR and chainload GRUB with it.
1423     -e1 auto Automatically adjust filesystem geometry for a NTFS boot partition
1424     if exists
1425     The NTLDR bootloader used by Windows isn't able to determine automatically
1426     where the files it needs are stored. It only knows their physical locations,
1427     which sometimes change when the disk or partition is copied. If the locations
1428     are changed and this option is selected, the location information of the
1429     files is changed accordingly. This option is enabled by default and if
1430     it's disabled, the cloned Windows will fail to boot.
1432     -e2 sfdisk uses CHS of hard drive from EDD(for non-grub boot loader)
1433     This option requires that the -e1 auto option is selected. It causes
1434     Clonezilla Live to use disk read interface named EDD for determining the
1435     physical locations of the files when updating the location information
1436     used by NTLDR. The option is enabled by default because it reduces the
1437     risk that Windows doesn't boot.
1439     -hn0 PC Change MS Win hostname (based on IP address) after clone
1440     If this option is selected and a partition containing Microsoft Windows is
1441     cloned, its IP address -based hostname is changed after cloning. Computers
1442     which are on any network simultaneously need to have different hostnames,
1443     so this option is needed if a Windows system is cloned to another computer
1444     and the original computer is still used in addition to the one where the
1445     image was restored to.
1447     -hn1 PC Change MS Win hostname (based on MAC address) after clone
1448     This option causes the MAC address -based hostname of Windows to change. This
1449     option needs also be enabled in the above condition.
1451     -v Prints verbose messages (especially for udpcast)
1452     Causes Clonezilla Live to tell more information of what it does.
1454     -nogui Use text output only, no TUI/GUI output
1455     Causes Clonezilla Live to force the used programs to use only command-line
1456     interface even if text-based or graphical user interface is available.
1458     -b Run clone in batch mode (DANGEROUS!)
1459     Causes Clonezilla Live to run in batch mode. According to Clonezilla
1460     Live reference card, this option is dangerous, though I (the contributor)
1461     don't know why.
1463     -c Client waits for confirmation before cloning
1464     This option causes Clonezilla Live to ask if you really want to clone the
1465     disk/partition just before it starts cloning. It is enabled by default.
1467     -t Client does not restore the MBR (Mater Boot Record)
1468     Do NOT restore the MBR (Mater Boot Record) when restoring image. If this
1469     option is set, you must make sure there is an existing MBR in the current
1470     restored harddisk. Default is Yes.
1472     -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For Windows only)
1473     If this option is set, the MBR is overwritten by prebuilt one which
1474     chainloads Windows. Use this option if you have to restore Windows and
1475     make it bootable, but don't have the original MBR or backup of it.
1477     -r Try to resize the filesystem to fit partition size
1478     This option is useful if you are cloning a small disk to larger one. It
1479     tries to resize the restored filesystem to the size of the partition where
1480     it was restored to. It allows you to use the whole size of your new disk
1481     without resizing the partition afterwards. The option requires that the
1482     disk where the image is copied already contains a partition where the
1483     image is restored or that the option -k1 is enabled.
1485     -e sfdisk uses the CHS value of hard drive from the saved image
1486     Force to use the saved CHS (cylinders, heads, sectors) when using sfdisk. Of
1487     cource, there is no use of it when using any of -j0, -k or -k2 options.
1489     -j1 Write MBR (512 B) again after image is restored. Not OK for partition
1490     table diffe
1491     When a disk image is restored, the partition table must be updated to
1492     reflect the actual partitions in the disk. If you don't want it to happen,
1493     enable this option. Then the Master Boot Record (including the partition
1494     table) is restored again after restoring the image. Note that using this
1495     option can destroy all the data in the target drive.
1497     -j2 Clone the hidden data between MBR and 1st partition
1498     If this option is set, the 15 hidden sectors between Master Boot Record
1499     and the first partition are restored. This area usually contains some data
1500     necessary for booting. The option is enabled by default and should be kept
1501     enabled if you are cloning a bootable disk.
1503     -cm Check image by MD5 checksums
1504     If the image folder contains MD5 checksum(s), this option causes Clonezilla
1505     Live to check if the image has corrupted by calculating its checksum and
1506     comparing it to the precalculated one. Mind you, calculating the checksum
1507     takes some time and slows the process down a little.
1509     -cs Check image by SHA1 checksums
1510     This option is identical to the above, but checks SHA1 checksum(s) instead
1511     of MD5.
1513     -a Do NOT force to turn on HD DMA
1514     Prevents Clonezilla Live from using DMA for communicating with hard
1515     drives. Slows cloning down but in some conditions cloning without this
1516     option can be impossible.
1518     -o0 Run script in $OCS_PRERUN_DIR before clone starts
1519     Run the scripts in the directory $OCS_PRERUN_DIR before clone is
1520     started. The location of the directory can be determined by editing the
1521     file drbl-ocs.conf. By default it is /opt/drbl/share/ocs/prerun.
1523     -o1 Run script in $OCS_POSTRUN_DIR as clone finishes
1524     Run the scripts in the directory $OCS_POSTRUN_DIR when clone is
1525     finished. The location of the directory can be determined by editing the
1526     file drbl-ocs.conf. By default it is /opt/drbl/share/ocs/postrun. The
1527     command will be run before that assigned in -p.
1529     The scripts will be executed by the program "run-parts". run-parts only
1530     accepts that the name of the scripts must consist entirely of upper and
1531     lower case letters, digits and underscores. So if your file name has an
1532     illegal character ".", run-parts won't run it. You can test which files
1533     will be executed by entering the command:
1534     run-parts --test /opt/drbl/share/ocs/postrun
1536     > Partition table
1538     This option decides what is done to the partition table of the target drive.
1539     Use the partition table from the image
1540     This option causes Clonezilla Live to copy the partition table from the
1541     image. Use this option if you are cloning a whole disk or somehow know that
1542     the partition tables are identical (for example, if you are restoring a
1543     partition to the same disk where it was copied from and haven't repartitioned
1544     the drive after creating the backup). This is the default option.
1546     -k Do NOT create a partition table on the target disk
1547     Do NOT create partition in target harddisk. If this option is set,
1548     you must make sure there is an existing partition table in the current
1549     restored harddisk.
1551     -k1 Create partition table proportionally (OK for MRB format, not GPT)
1552     Causes Clonezilla Live to create the partition table automatically using
1553     sfdisk after restoring the images. This option works nearly always, but
1554     sometimes cloned Windows don't boot. Note that this option doesn't work if
1555     you have GUID Partition Table on your disk. (Most likely you don't have one.)
1557     -k2 Enter command line prompt to create partition manually later
1558     Like the -k option, this option doesn't create the partition table
1559     automatically. However, after restoring the image you are led to command
1560     line prompt where you can create the partition table manually. Don't use
1561     this option if you don't know how the partition table can be created.
1563     -j0 Use dd to create partition (NOT OK if logical drives exist)
1564     Use dd to dump the partition table from saved image instead of sfdisk.
1566     We read in DRBL FAQ/Q&A {{
1567     http://drbl.sourceforge.net/faq/fine-print.php?path=./2_System/23_Missing_OS.faq#23_Missing_OS.faq
1568     }}:
1570     When I use clonezilla to clone M$ windows, there is no any problem
1571     when saving an image from template machine. However, after the image
1572     is restored to another machine, it fails to boot, the error message is
1573     "Missing Operating System". What's going on ?
1575     Usually this is because GNU/Linux and M$ windows interpret the CHS (cylinder,
1576     head, sector) value of harddrive differently. Some possible solutions:
1577     1. Maybe you can change the IDE harddrive setting in BIOS, try to use
1578     LBA instead of auto mode.
1579     2. Try to choose
1580     [ ] -j0 Use dd to create partition table instead of sfdisk
1581     and
1582     [ ] -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For Windows only)
1583     when you restore the image.
1584     3. You can try to boot the machine with MS Windows 9x bootable floppy,
1585     and in the DOS command prompt, run: "fdisk /mbr".
1586     4. You can try to boot the machine with MS Windows XP installation
1587     CD, enter recovery mode (by pressing F10 key in MS XP, for example),
1588     then in the console, run "fixmbr" to fix it. Maybe another command
1589     "fixboot" will help, too. For more info, refer to this doc {{
1590     http://support.microsoft.com/?scid=kb%3Ben-us%3B314058&x=7&y=14 }}
1591     5. Use ntfsreloc to adjust FS geometry on NTFS partitions. For more info,
1592     refer to http://www.linux-ntfs.org/doku.php?id=contrib:ntfsreloc
1594     It has been confirmed that activating the -j0 option, fixes the problem.
1596     This option doesn't work if you use LVM (Logical Volume Manager).
1598     exit Exit
1599     This option ends the restore process and enters command line prompt.
1601     > Postaction
1603     -p true Do nothing when the clone finishes
1604     -p reboot Reboot client when the clone finishes
1605     -p poweroff Shutdown client when the clone finishes
1607     When image restoration finishes, do one of the following: choose action
1608     (default), poweroff or reboot.
1610     Saving image files in NTFS partitions
1611     ****************************************
1612     Although not recomended, you may find yourself having to save your image
1613     file in a NTFS (Windows XP) partition. You may never have a problem doing
1614     this, but you may get a message like the following one, when the partition
1615     gets mounted:
1616     Volume is scheduled for check
1617     Please boot into Windows TWICE, or use 'force' mount option"
1618     and the backup procedure fails. There are two things you can do here:
1620     * Exit the program, reboot and use Windows XP Recovery Console to fix the
1621     NTFS file system. From Recovery Console
1622     prompt, execute the command:
1623     chkdsk /f X:
1625     where X: is the drive letter of the disk. When done, boot back into
1626     Clonezilla Live and repeat the backup procedure.
1628     If the Windows version you use is not XP, boot into SystemRescueCD
1629     (graphical mode is not needed) and run the following command:
1630     ntfsfix /dev/hda1
1632     where /dev/hda1 is the partition name in GNU/Linux. When done, boot back
1633     into Clonezilla Live and repeat the backup procedure.
1635     If the disk/partition you are trying to backup is not the Windows System
1636     disk (usually C:), you can boot Windows, and execute the command in a DOS
1637     window. To open a DOS window click Start / Run... and at the prompt Open:
1638     type cmd.
1640     * If Windows XP Recovery Console is not available, you don't have the time
1641     to execute the procedure described above, or even if you have executed it
1642     but you still get the same message, and you are absolutely sure that you
1643     get this message because the NTFS partition is really scheduled for check,
1644     and it's not because Windows crushed or have become corrupt, you can mount
1645     the patririon by hand and tell Clonezilla Live to use it. Assuming the
1646     partition is /dev/hda1, exit the program and execute the commands:
1647     sudo su -
1648     ntfs-3g -o force /dev/hda1 /home/partimag
1649     ocs-live
1651     and when you get to the screen "Mount clonezilla image directory", select
1652     skip Use existing /home/partimag
1657     Getting backups
1658     ==============================================================================
1660     Intro
1661     ****************************************
1662     In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting
1663     a backup of a virtual partition (/dev/hdb1). The image file will be saved
1664     in another virtual partition (/dev/hda1).
1666     The first thing you do when you want to get a backup of a disk/partition,
1667     is make sure both the souce (to be backed up) and target (to hold the
1668     image file) partitions are in excellent condition (error free). This is the
1669     logical thing to do, cause I wouldn't want to backup a corrupt partition,
1670     or end up with a corrupt image file.
1672     There is one more step I would want to take: I should check that my BIOS
1673     boot settings are correct, in order to boot from my CD/DVD drive.
1675     Having done all of the above, I am ready to boot from Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
1677     [[ info.png ]]
1678     The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.3-27
1680     Getting the backup
1681     ****************************************
1682     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
1683     ---------------------
1684     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
1685     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
1686     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
1687     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
1688     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
1689     that continue from this step.
1691     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
1692     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
1693     displayed.
1695     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
1696     are the following:
1698     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
1699     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1700     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1701     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
1703     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
1704     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
1705     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
1707     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
1708     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1709     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1710     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
1712     Screen "Choose Language"
1713     ---------------------
1714     [[ backup-00.png ]]
1715     I select "en_US.UTF-8 English" and press ENTER.
1717     Screen "Configuring console-data"
1718     ---------------------
1719     [[ backup-01.png ]]
1720     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
1721     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
1723     Screen "Configuring console-data"
1724     ---------------------
1725     [[ backup-02.png ]]
1726     As I (the contributor who wrote a great deal of this page) use Finnish
1727     keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish / Standard / Standard". Because
1728     you most likely use a different keyboard, choose the one you use.
1730     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
1731     ---------------------
1732     [[ backup-03.png ]]
1733     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
1735     Screen "Clonezilla"
1736     ---------------------
1737     [[ backup-04.png ]]
1738     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
1740     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
1741     ---------------------
1742     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory will be saved.
1743     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
1744     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
1745     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
1747     [[ backup-05.png ]]
1748     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
1750     Next screen
1751     ---------------------
1752     This is where I choose the location of the image file. It will be saved
1753     at the root directory of the selected partition.
1755     [[ backup-06.png ]]
1756     I select partition hda1 and press ENTER.
1758     [[ backup-07.png ]]
1759     and then ENTER again.
1761     [[ backup-08.png ]]
1762     This screen displays the mounting result.
1763     As we can see, /dev/hda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
1765     Next Screen
1766     ---------------------
1767     [[ backup-09.png ]]
1768     I select Beginer mode to accept the default backup options. If you select
1769     Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
1770     found here.
1772     Screen "Select mode"
1773     ---------------------
1774     Here I can select the desired operation.
1776     [[ backup-10.png ]]
1777     I select "savedisk" and press ENTER.
1779     Next Screen
1780     ---------------------
1781     [[ backup-11.png ]]
1782     In this screen I select the image name.
1783     I type "Backup_5-2010_hdb", which in my opinion is more informative name
1784     than the default.
1786     Next Screen
1787     ---------------------
1788     [[ backup-12.png ]]
1789     Finally I am asked to select the partition to save.
1790     I just press ENTER again.
1792     Starting the backup
1793     ---------------------
1794     [[ backup-13.png ]]
1795     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
1796     ask me to press ENTER.
1797     Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
1799     [[ backup-14.png ]]
1800     After that, the backup begins
1802     [[ backup-15.png ]]
1803     and when it's successfully completed, I will be able to reboot the system
1804     by pressing 1 and ENTER.
1809     Getting backups on Samba
1810     ==============================================================================
1812     Intro
1813     ****************************************
1814     What if you don't have a spare local disk or partition or a USB disk? How
1815     will you be able to get a backup of your system? Well, if your PC is on
1816     the same LAN with another PC running Windows (or linux), you can use Samba
1817     to save your image file on that remote PC (which we will call Samba server
1818     from now on).
1820     Using Samba you will be able to mount a Windows share resource (or
1821     Samba share resource), from within Clonezilla Live, and save the image
1822     file there. Then you can boot that PC using SystemRescueCD and create a
1823     restore DVD.
1825     In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting a
1826     backup of my Windows partition (/dev/hda1). The image file will be save in
1827     my Samba server which is my laptop (ip:, Windows share resource
1828     name: data).
1830     What is Samba?
1831     ---------------------
1832     We read at http://us1.samba.org/samba/:
1834     Samba is an Open Source/Free Software suite that provides seamless file
1835     and print services to SMB/CIFS clients. Samba is freely available, unlike
1836     other SMB/CIFS implementations, and allows for interoperability between
1837     Linux/Unix servers and Windows-based clients.
1839     Samba is software that can be run on a platform other than Microsoft
1840     Windows, for example, UNIX, Linux, IBM System 390, OpenVMS, and other
1841     operating systems. Samba uses the TCP/IP protocol that is installed on the
1842     host server. When correctly configured, it allows that host to interact
1843     with a Microsoft Windows client or server as if it is a Windows file and
1844     print server.
1846     Gathering info
1847     ****************************************
1848     Before you can use this approach to get a backup, you have to get some
1849     info about the Samba server.
1851     The Samba server I have used for this example was my laptop, so I already
1852     knew most of the info required. If this is not the case for you, just ask
1853     the owner, user or system admin.
1855     The info required is:
1857     * The IP address of the Samba server
1858     * The domain on the Samba server
1859     This may exist if your PC is connected to a larger LAN (a corporation
1860     network, for example). In my case this is empty.
1861     * The user name and password you can use
1862     * The directory on the Samba server you can use to save your backup
1863     This is the name of the Windows share resource (Samba share resource)
1864     as it is known in the network, which is not necessarily the same as the
1865     local directory name. The user whose account will be used to login to the
1866     Samba server, must have write permission to this directory.
1868     Getting the backup
1869     ****************************************
1870     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
1871     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
1872     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
1873     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
1874     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup.
1876     If you need to change these settings, go to the Getting backups page for
1877     instructions .
1879     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
1880     ---------------------
1881     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
1883     Screen "Clonezilla"
1884     ---------------------
1885     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
1887     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory" [^
1888     ---------------------
1889     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory will be saved.
1890     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
1891     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
1892     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
1894     I select "samba server" and press ENTER.
1896     Screen "Mount Samba Server"
1897     ---------------------
1898     This is where I have to enter the IP address of my Samba server. I type
1899     "" and press ENTER.
1901     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (second time)
1902     ---------------------
1903     This is where I have to enter the account (user) name on my Samba server. I
1904     type "spiros" and press ENTER.
1906     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (third time)
1907     ---------------------
1908     This is where I have to enter the domain name on my Samba server. I select
1909     "Cancel" and press ENTER, as there is no domain in my LAN. If there
1910     is a domain in your network, you have to type its name (something like
1911     my_company.com) and press ENTER.
1913     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (fourth time)
1914     ---------------------
1915     This is where I have to enter the directory name on my Samba server,
1916     in which the image file will be saved. I type "/data" and press ENTER.
1918     At this point I will be asked for the password for user spiros. I will be
1919     able to continue only after entering it correctly.
1921     Screen "Clonezilla - Opensource Clone System (OCS)"
1922     ---------------------
1923     I select Beginner mode to accept the default backup options. If you select
1924     Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
1925     found here.
1927     Screen "Clonezilla: Select mode"
1928     ---------------------
1929     Here I can select the desired operation. Available options are:
1931     savedisk
1932     Save entire disk to image
1934     restoredisk
1935     Restore entire disk from image
1937     saveparts
1938     Save partition to image
1940     restoreparts
1941     Restore partition from image
1943     recovery-iso-zip
1944     Create an automated restore CD/DVD/USB drive
1946     I select "saveparts" and press ENTER.
1948     Screen "Clonezilla - Opensource Clone System (OCS) | Mode: saveparts"
1949     ---------------------
1950     This is the name of the image file. You can insert anything you like,
1951     as long as it makes sence to you, so that you can distinguish the image
1952     file afterwards.
1954     I insert "win_img" and press ENTER.
1956     Next screen
1957     ---------------------
1958     Here I can select the partition that will be backed up. I select "( )
1959     hda1 ntfs" by pressing SPACE and press ENTER, and ENTER again.
1961     Then a message is displayed asking for confirmation in order to continue. I
1962     just press y, and the backup procedure begins.
1964     Rebooting the system
1965     ****************************************
1966     When the backup is done, I get the following:
1967     (0) Poweroff
1968     (1) Reboot
1969     (2) Enter command line prompt
1970     (3) Start over
1971     [2]
1972     Then I press ENTER and get to the shell. I execute the commands:
1973     sudo su -
1974     cd
1975     umount -a
1976     reboot
1981     Restoring data
1982     ==============================================================================
1984     Intro
1985     ****************************************
1986     Image files are always created for one purpose: restoring the data they
1987     contain. Images can be, for example, a backup solution: as long as hardware
1988     works, the computer can be restored to the state it was when creating the
1989     image. Another usage scenario is changing the hard drive: files can be
1990     copy-pasted from the old drive to the new, but that method doesn't make
1991     the new drive bootable. Disk images do.
1993     This page contains a demonstration of the latter case. On the Getting backups
1994     page, a 500 MB virtual disk containing 160 megabytes of data was copied
1995     to a 2 GB virtual disk which was empty. Now the 500 MB disk is changed to
1996     an empty 2 GB disk (still virtual) and I'll restore the data to that disk.
1998     When creating a disk image, one needs to check that both the source and
1999     target partitions are error free. That's not required when the image is
2000     restored, because restoration process can't damage the disk image. Note,
2001     however, that restoring an image erases all the data in the target
2002     disk/partition.
2004     You also need to check the BIOS settings to be able to boot from
2005     Clonezilla-SysRescCD. Some BIOSes contain a boot menu, others require
2006     editing settings pernamently. Details can be found on the manual of the
2007     motherboard or laptop.
2009     Now let's boot.
2011     [[ important.png ]]
2012     Restore process erases all the data on the target disk/partition.Before
2013     restoring make sure you have backup of all the data on the target
2014     disk/partition, even if the filesystem is corrupted.
2016     [[ info.png ]]
2017     The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.3-27
2019     Restoring data
2020     ****************************************
2021     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
2022     ---------------------
2023     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2024     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2025     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2026     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2027     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
2028     that continue from this step.
2030     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
2031     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
2032     displayed.
2034     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
2035     are the following:
2037     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2038     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2039     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2040     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
2042     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
2043     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
2044     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
2046     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2047     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2048     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2049     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
2051     Screen "Choose Language"
2052     ---------------------
2053     [[ backup-00.png ]]
2054     This is where the language can be selected. I select "en_US.UTF-8 English"
2055     and press ENTER.
2057     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2058     ---------------------
2059     [[ backup-01.png ]]
2060     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
2061     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
2063     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2064     ---------------------
2065     [[ backup-02.png ]]
2066     Because I haven't changed my keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish /
2067     Standard / Standard". Because you most likely use a different keyboard,
2068     choose the one you use.
2070     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2071     ---------------------
2072     [[ backup-03.png ]]
2073     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2075     Screen "Clonezilla"
2076     ---------------------
2077     [[ backup-04.png ]]
2078     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2080     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2081     ---------------------
2082     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory has been saved.
2083     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2084     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2085     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2087     [[ backup-05.png ]]
2088     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
2090     Next screen
2091     ---------------------
2092     This is where I choose the location of the image file.
2093     [[ restoration-06.png ]]
2094     I select partition hda1 and press ENTER.
2096     [[ backup-07.png ]]
2098     [[ restoration-08.png ]]
2099     This screen displays the mounting result.
2100     As we can see, /dev/hda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
2102     Next Screen
2103     ---------------------
2104     [[ backup-09.png ]]
2105     I select Beginer mode to accept the default restore options. If you select
2106     Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
2107     found here.
2109     Screen "Select mode"
2110     ---------------------
2111     Here I can select the desired operation.
2113     [[ restoration-10.png ]]
2114     I select "restoredisk" and press ENTER.
2116     Next Screen
2117     ---------------------
2118     [[ restoration-11.png ]]
2119     In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only
2120     one image.
2122     Next Screen
2123     ---------------------
2124     [[ restoration-12.png ]]
2125     Finally I am asked to select which partition the image will be restored
2126     to. After double-checking the disk doesn't contain anything important,
2127     I press ENTER.
2129     Starting the restoration
2130     ---------------------
2131     [[ restoration-13.png ]]
2132     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2133     ask me to press ENTER.
2134     Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
2136     [[ restoration-14.png ]]
2138     [[ important.png ]]
2139     This is the last confirmation Clonezilla Live asks.After this step there
2140     is no coming back.
2141     Then my confirmation is asked one last time. After checking one more time
2142     the disk doesn't contain any important data, I press y and ENTER.
2144     [[ restoration-15.png ]]
2145     After that, the restore process begins
2147     [[ restoration-16.png ]]
2148     and when it's successfully completed, I will be able to reboot the system
2149     by pressing 1 and ENTER.
2154     Creating a Restore DVD - Part 1
2155     ==============================================================================
2157     Intro
2158     ****************************************
2159     Assuming you have used Clonezilla Live to make a backup of your Windows XP
2160     system (partition /dev/hda1), which you have saved as win_img, you will
2161     probably be wondering what to do with it now. Well, one option would be
2162     to keep it to the disk you used to save it in, store the disk, and use it
2163     whenever you need it. Another option would be to create a DVD you can use
2164     to restore this image.
2166     Before, up to Clonezilla-SysRescCD 2.6.0, the process to create an automated
2167     restore DVD required entering command line prompt and writing some commands,
2168     that can be uncomfortable or even difficult for many people.
2170     Later, a TUI option to create an automated recovery disc was added to
2171     Clonezilla Live, and ocs-iso script included in Clonezilla-SysRescCD
2172     3.1.0 and newer has a TUI too. Old command-line options are no longer
2173     supported. This page walks you through the creation of an automated restore
2174     DVD via TUI.
2176     Assuming you have saved your image file win_img in partition hdb4, you
2177     have to boot Clonezilla Live, using Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
2179     [[ info.png ]]
2180     The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.3-27
2182     Creating the disk image
2183     ****************************************
2184     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
2185     ---------------------
2186     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2187     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2188     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2189     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2190     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
2191     that continue from this step.
2193     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
2194     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
2195     displayed.
2197     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
2198     are the following:
2200     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2201     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2202     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2203     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
2205     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
2206     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
2207     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
2209     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2210     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2211     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2212     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
2214     Screen "Choose Language"
2215     ---------------------
2216     [[ backup-00.png ]]
2217     I select "en_US.UTF-8 English" and press ENTER.
2219     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2220     ---------------------
2221     [[ backup-01.png ]]
2222     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
2223     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
2225     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2226     ---------------------
2227     [[ backup-02.png ]]
2228     Because I haven't changed my keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish /
2229     Standard / Standard". Because you most likely use a different keyboard,
2230     choose the one you use.
2232     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2233     ---------------------
2234     [[ backup-03.png ]]
2235     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2237     Screen "Clonezilla"
2238     ---------------------
2239     [[ backup-04.png ]]
2240     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2242     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2243     ---------------------
2244     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory has been saved.
2245     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2246     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2247     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2249     [[ backup-05.png ]]
2250     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
2252     Next screen
2253     ---------------------
2254     This is where I choose the location of the image file.
2255     [[ restore-06.png ]]
2256     I select partition hda1 and press ENTER.
2258     [[ backup-07.png ]]
2259     and then ENTER again.
2261     [[ restore-08.png ]]
2262     This screen displays the mounting result.
2263     As we can see, /dev/hda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
2265     Next Screen
2266     ---------------------
2267     [[ backup-09.png ]]
2268     I select Beginer mode to accept the default restore options, which are
2269     used if the recovery disk is ever used. If you select Expert mode, you
2270     can choose the options yourself. More details can be found here.
2272     Screen "Clonezilla: Select mode"
2273     ---------------------
2274     Here I can select the desired operation.
2276     [[ restore-10.png ]]
2277     I select "recovery-iso-zip" and press ENTER.
2279     Next Screen
2280     ---------------------
2281     [[ restore-11.png ]]
2282     In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only
2283     one image.
2285     Next Screen
2286     ---------------------
2287     [[ restore-12.png ]]
2288     Now I am asked to select which disk the image will be restored to, if the
2289     recovery disc is used. Because this image is a backup, I choose the same
2290     disk where the original data resides. If you're upgrading your hard drive,
2291     choose the new drive.
2293     Next Screen
2294     ---------------------
2295     [[ restore-13.png ]]
2296     In this screen I can select the language that the recovery disc uses. I
2297     choose "en_US.UTF-8".
2299     Next Screen
2300     ---------------------
2301     [[ restore-14.png ]]
2302     This screen allows me to select the keymap that the recovery disc
2303     uses. Unfortunately, changing the keymap requires knowing where the keymap
2304     file resides in Debian GNU/Linux. Because I don't know it, I just press
2305     ENTER to accept US keymap.
2307     Next Screen
2308     ---------------------
2309     [[ restore-15.png ]]
2310     I select "iso" to create a CD/DVD disk image which I can burn to a recordable
2311     CD/DVD disc. The good thing about recordable discs is that overwriting
2312     the backup by accident is impossible. The "zip" option creates a ZIP file
2313     which can be used to create a bootable pendrive or external hard drive.
2315     [[ restore-16.png ]]
2316     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2317     ask me to press ENTER.
2319     [[ cust-menu-01.png ]]
2320     Due to limitations of mkisofs, the script can't create a ISO file which
2321     is over 4,5 gigabytes in size. It causes problems if the size of your
2322     image is over 4,4 gigabytes. Clonezilla-SysRescCD contains a workaround
2323     that creates a ISO file that contains no image, so you can add the image
2324     manually later. This dialog asks if you want to do so. Note that if you
2325     see this dialog, you most likely need a dual layer DVD+R or Blu-ray disc
2326     to burn the image. Growisofs doesn't support multisession burning on dual
2327     layer DVD-R discs, so such disc can't be used either.
2329     Screen "Customization section"
2330     ---------------------
2331     [[ cust-menu-02.png ]]
2332     Now I am asked if I want to customize the boot menu of the disc. I answer
2333     "Yes". If you don't want to customize the menu, continue from this step.
2335     Screen "DVD Title"
2336     ---------------------
2337     [[ cust-menu-03.png ]]
2338     In this screen I select the title of the boot menu. I type "Home PC
2339     Restore DVD".
2341     Screen "Menu Items Caption"
2342     ---------------------
2343     [[ cust-menu-04.png ]]
2344     This screen allows me to select the caption for all menu items. I enter
2345     "Restore Win XP".
2347     Screen "Boot delay"
2348     ---------------------
2349     [[ cust-menu-05.png ]]
2350     I press ENTER to accept the default delay of 30 seconds. It means that
2351     when a computer is booted from the restore disc, it waits 30 seconds
2352     before choosing the default option automatically. You may want to reduce
2353     this delay if, for example, your keyboard doesn't work in boot menu and
2354     you must wait until the delay ends.
2356     Screen "Default Boot Item"
2357     ---------------------
2358     [[ cust-menu-06.png ]]
2359     In this screen I can select the default option of the menu. Selecting one
2360     of the options that restore the image makes using the disc even easier,
2361     but also raises the risk that the image is restored accidentally. Another
2362     reason to select such option may be that your keyboard doesn't work in
2363     boot menu, preventing you from choosing any non-default option. I select
2364     the first option that restores the image using pixel dimensions of 1024*768.
2366     Screen "Boot Screen Image"
2367     ---------------------
2368     [[ cust-menu-07.png ]]
2369     This screen allows me to select the background picture of the menu. Note
2370     that the picture must be in the same partition that contains the disk
2371     image, if you don't mind entering command line and mounting the right
2372     partition manually. I choose picture mysplash.png in the root of the
2373     partition. Because the partition has been mounted in /home/partimag,
2374     the full path of the picture is /home/partimag/mysplash.png.
2376     Screen "ISO Label"
2377     ---------------------
2378     [[ cust-menu-08.png ]]
2379     In this screen I can select the volume label of the disc. Volume label is
2380     the name of the disc you may see in various situations, for example in the
2381     notification you see when you insert the disc into your DVD writer. I type
2382     "Backup_52-2009_hdb".
2384     Screen "Publisher ID"
2385     ---------------------
2386     [[ cust-menu-09.png ]]
2387     This is where I choose the publisher ID of the ISO file
2388     and the disc. Publisher ID means the person or company who
2389     created the disc. However, at least in GNU/Linux reading
2390     the publisher ID is, strictly speaking, a challenge. Here {{
2391     http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/getting-volume-information-from-cds-iso- }}
2392     are instructions to read the publisher ID of a ISO file. I didn't find
2393     any working instructions to read the ID from the disc.
2395     Starting the creation of the disk image
2396     ---------------------
2397     [[ restore-17.png ]]
2398     After that, creation of the disk image begins. Note that no confirmation
2399     is asked it the disk image is small enough to fit to a CD.
2401     [[ cust-menu-10.png ]]
2403     If you have above enabled the workaround to create a ISO file without any
2404     image, you get the info screen, which explains the actions to be taken
2405     in order to burn the ISO file and add the iamge file to the DVD. A script
2406     file is also saved as /tmp/burnISO.
2408     [[ restore-18.png ]]
2409     When the disk image is successfully created, I must reboot in order to
2410     burn the disc because my DVD burner is still in use. Clonezilla Live can
2411     be loaded into computer memory during boot in order to be able to burn
2412     disc(s) within it. However, due to a known bug, the disk image can't
2413     be created if Clonezilla Live has been loaded into memory. (source {{
2414     http://free.nchc.org.tw/clonezilla-live/stable/Known-issues-Clonezilla-live.txt
2415     }}) Thus, I press 1 and ENTER to reboot to another operating system and
2416     burn the image using graphical burning program. For instructions, follow
2417     one of these links:
2419     If the ISO file contains the disk image
2420     If the ISO file contains no image
2421     If you've created a ZIP file
2426     Creating a Restore DVD - Part 2
2427     ==============================================================================
2429     What to do with the disk image
2430     ****************************************
2431     The previous page contains partial instructions to create an automated
2432     recovery DVD. They're partial because they only tell how the disk image
2433     can be created, not what one should do with the image. Of course, partial
2434     instructions are not enough, but don't worry - this page is the other part.
2436     Earlier versions of Clonezilla Live allowed creating the DVD without
2437     reboot, but it's no longer possible due to a known bug. The disk image
2438     can't be created if Clonezilla Live has been loaded into memory (source {{
2439     http://free.nchc.org.tw/clonezilla-live/stable/Known-issues-Clonezilla-live.txt
2440     }}) and the image can't be burned to disc if Clonezilla Live isn't in
2441     memory. And if the computer must be rebooted anyway, it's a good idea to
2442     use one's favorite operating system and a graphical burning program for
2443     burning the disc. Doing so also allows reading these instructions while
2444     burning the disc.
2446     This page walks through burning the disc by using ImgBurn and K3b. The
2447     instructions can be adapted for many other burning programs as well. If
2448     your burning program is too different, download either of the programs
2449     mentioned - they both can be downloaded for free.
2451     In addition to a DVD, bootable pendrive or external hard drive can be
2452     created as well. If you want to do so, follow instructions below.
2454     Before following these instructions, insert a writable DVD or Blu-ray disc
2455     to your burner.
2457     Burning the disc
2458     ****************************************
2459     If the ISO file contains the disk image
2460     ---------------------
2461     > Using ImgBurn
2463     ImgBurn {{ http://www.imgburn.com/ }} is a lightweight but very feature-rich
2464     disc burning program. It only requires about two megabytes disk space
2465     and contains a lot of settings. ImgBurn is closed-source freeware and -
2466     unfortunately - Windows-only software. I (Jyrki) personally use ImgBurn
2467     when burning discs within Windows.
2469     Launch ImgBurn and press Write image file to disc. Select the disk image
2470     you just created.
2472     At the settings window, keep Test Mode disabled. I also recommend
2473     keeping the Verify option enabled. Verifying the integrity of the disc
2474     after burning requires time and doesn't prevent the disc from becoming a
2475     so-called coaster, but it allows you to know immediately if the burning
2476     attempt failed, so you can try burning the disc again.
2478     Keep the number of copies as 1 (or increase it, if you really
2479     want multiple copies of the disc). Use your best judgment while
2480     choosing the burning speed: according to this forum thread {{
2481     http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/ }} lowering
2482     the burning speed gives very mixed results in quality. I personally use
2483     ¾ of the maximum speed of the disc, for example 12x on a disc rated 16x.
2485     After choosing the settings, press the big picture at the bottom-left of
2486     the window. Don't do anything that requires much computer resources while
2487     burning, because doing so increases the likelihood of burning failure.
2489     That's it. You own now an automated recovery disc.
2491     > Using K3b
2493     K3b (KDE Burn Baby Burn) is the disc burning program included in KDE
2494     Software Compilation. It comes with most, if not all, KDE-based GNU/Linux
2495     distributions. It can also be installed on other distributions, but I
2496     recommend against doing so - K3b requires KDE base packages to be installed,
2497     and it doesn't make much sense to install KDE base only for K3b.
2499     [[ k3b-00.png ]]
2500     I launch K3b and navigate to the folder where the disk image resides.
2502     [[ k3b-01.png ]]
2503     I double-click the file clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hda.iso.
2505     [[ k3b-02.png ]]
2506     This window allows me to choose burning settings. I don't touch Image Type or
2507     Burn Medium, because they're auto-detected anyway. The maximum burning speed
2508     allowed by the disc is 16x, so I choose speed 12x. According to this forum
2509     thread {{ http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/
2510     }} low burning speed can decrease burning quality, so I always use speed
2511     near the maximum speed of the disc.
2513     I keep Writing Mode as Auto and number of copies as 1. I also keep the
2514     Simulate option disabled and enable the Verify written data option. The
2515     latter allows me to notice immediately if the burning attempt failed, so
2516     I can try burning the disc again, rather than owning a so-called coaster
2517     and relying on it if something happens to my data...
2519     [[ k3b-03.png ]]
2520     I click Start and the burning process begins.
2522     [[ k3b-04.png ]]
2523     Because I enabled the Verify written data option, K3b starts verifying
2524     the integrity of the disc right after burning.
2526     [[ k3b-05.png ]]
2527     The burning attempt succeeded.
2529     If the ISO file contains no image
2530     ---------------------
2531     If you have enabled the workaround to create a ISO file that contains
2532     no disk image (required if the size of the image is over 4,4 gigabytes),
2533     things become much more problematic. The ISO file and the image can't be
2534     burned to the disc simultaneously, they must be written one-by-one. That
2535     requires two burning sessions: the first for writing the ISO file to the
2536     disc and the second for adding the disk image. Many burning programs don't
2537     even support multisession burning at all. About the programs I've mentioned
2538     in this page: K3b supports multisession burning, ImgBurn doesn't.
2540     I didn't find any instructions for adding an additional file to a
2541     spesific directory by using K3b. Actually, I don't even know if that's
2542     possible at all. Thus, I recommend using growisofs for burning the disc
2543     if the workaround has been enabled, because growisofs allows adding
2544     any file to any directory. However, there's one more limitation:
2545     growisofs doesn't support multisession burning on dual layer DVD-R
2546     discs, so you must use dual layer DVD+R or Blu-ray disc. (source {{
2547     http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/-RW/#nomultisess }})
2549     Growisofs is a command-line program and a part of dvd+rw-tools that is
2550     installed on most GNU/Linux distributions. Dvd+rw-tools is Linux-only
2551     software, so if you use a competing operating system, you must boot into
2552     SystemRescueCD (graphical mode is not needed) in order to burn the disc.
2554     Open terminal and mount the partition that contains the image. The commands
2555     below must be run as root.
2557     mkdir /media/usb
2558     mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb
2560     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
2561     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above the
2562     command. For example, the latter of the above commands can be executed by
2563     typing "sudo mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb". If you're using SystemRescueCD,
2564     all commands are run as root, so you don't need to add any prefix to
2565     the commands.
2567     Note: In the command replace /dev/sdc1 with the partition where the disk
2568     image resides. It's the same partition you mounted as /home/partimag when
2569     creating the image.
2571     Go to root of the partition:
2573     cd /media/usb
2575     Burn the ISO file to the disc:
2577     growisofs -Z /dev/dvd=clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.iso
2579     Note: In the last command I have assumed your ISO file is
2580     clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.iso. You will have to replace this with
2581     the actual name of the file.
2583     Note: If your computer has multiple DVD drives, replace /dev/dvd with the
2584     name of your DVD writer.
2586     The disc must be ejected because it's the only known way to force the
2587     drive to reread the disc. Do it:
2589     eject /dev/dvd
2591     Note: If your drive can't reload the disc, insert the disc back right
2592     after ejecting it.
2594     Finally, add the image file to the disc:
2596     growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J -V "Backup_5-2010_hdb" --publisher "Your Name"
2597     -graft-points /Backup_5-2010_hdb/=/media/usb/Backup_5-2010_hdb
2599     Note: In the command replace Your Name with anything you want to be the
2600     publisher ID of the disc. If you don't want the disc to have any publisher
2601     ID, run this command instead:
2603     growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J -V "Backup_5-2010_hdb" -graft-points
2604     /Backup_5-2010_hdb/=/media/usb/Backup_5-2010_hdb
2606     [[ restore-20.png ]]
2608     ZIP file instructions
2609     ****************************************
2610     Often the image file is way too big to fit to even 8 GB DVD. Some people may
2611     also want to be able to overwrite the backup when it becomes outdated. In
2612     addition, netbooks don't have optical drives at all.
2614     One option is using recovery thumb drive or external hard drive instead
2615     of DVD. If the external HD is big enough, the disk image can be even over
2616     a terabyte in size. Recovery USB drive can also be used on netbooks and
2617     overwritten at will.
2619     Clonezilla Live allows creating a ZIP file instead of disk image. If you
2620     want to do so, follow this step-by-step guide.
2622     Before creating the disk image, make sure it is split to pieces of four
2623     gigabytes or less. It is split automatically if you use Beginner mode,
2624     and if you use Expert mode, you should already know how the splitting
2625     setting can be changed.
2627     Using GNU/Linux
2628     ---------------------
2629     After creating the disk image and booting into GNU/Linux, make sure that the
2630     filesystem of the partition where you plan to put the disk image is FAT32. If
2631     you don't know the filesystem, open terminal and run this command as root:
2633     fdisk -l /dev/sdc
2635     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
2636     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above
2637     the command. For example, the above command can be executed by typing
2638     "sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdc"
2640     Note: In the command replace /dev/sdc with the name of your USB disk.
2642     Note: The l in parameter -l is lowercase L, not number 1.
2644     If your disk doesn't contain any FAT32 partition, but it contains a
2645     partition which is big enough and doesn't contain any important data,
2646     format the partition as FAT32. The command below needs root access too.
2648     [[ important.png ]]
2649     The command below erases all the data on the target partition.Make sure
2650     you don't format a wrong partition by accident.
2652     mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sdc1
2654     After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32,
2655     extract the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Also these commands
2656     need root rights.
2658     mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb
2659     unzip clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.zip -d /media/usb/
2661     Note: In the last command I have assumed your image file is
2662     clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.zip. You will have to replace this with
2663     the actual name of the file.
2665     ZIP package contains a script to make the USB drive bootable. Let's run
2666     it. The latter of these commands needs root access.
2668     [[ important.png ]]
2669     The latter of the commands below replaces theexisting bootloader of the
2670     target disk, if there is one.Make sure you don't select a wrong disk
2671     by accident.
2673     cd /media/usb/utils/linux
2674     ./makeboot.sh /dev/sdc1
2676     That's all. Your thumb drive or external hard drive should be now an
2677     automatic recovery disk.
2679     Using Windows
2680     ---------------------
2681     If the Windows version you use is not Vista or 7, you need to be logged in
2682     as administrator. If you're not, but you have access to an admin account,
2683     log out and then log again in as admin.
2685     If you don't have admin rights at all, boot into SystemRescueCD (you don't
2686     need graphical mode this time) and follow the instructions for GNU/Linux. In
2687     SystemRescueCD all commands are run as root, so you don't need to add any
2688     prefix to the commands.
2690     If you normally use Windows, you maybe don't know the name of your USB
2691     disk in GNU/Linux. If that's the case, don't specify any disk in the first
2692     command. It causes fdisk to tell about all disks in the computer and you
2693     should be able to identify both the right disk and the right partition.
2695     After creating the disk image and booting into Windows, make sure that
2696     the filesystem of the partition where you plan to put the disk image is
2697     FAT32. If you don't know the filesystem, open My Computer, right-click the
2698     partition and select Properties. Then read the "File system" column. If
2699     there reads anything but FAT32, check other partitions of the disk too,
2700     if the disk contains multiple partitions. If you have a suitable FAT32
2701     partition, continue from this step.
2703     If your disk doesn't contain any FAT32 partition, but it contains a
2704     partition which is big enough and doesn't contain any important data,
2705     format the partition as FAT32.
2707     [[ important.png ]]
2708     Formatting erases all the data on the target partition.Make sure the
2709     partition contains nothing important.
2711     Right-click the partition and select Format.... If the Windows version
2712     you use is Vista or 7, an UAC prompt asks for admin password. Enter it.
2714     At the format window, choose the FAT32 filesystem. You can enter any volume
2715     label (it means the name of the partition you can see next to the partition
2716     letter) and enable Quick Format if you're in a hurry. If Quick Format is
2717     disabled, Windows checks if the partition is physically OK after formatting
2718     it. Enabling Quick Format makes the formatting process many times faster
2719     and, contrary to popular belief, hardly ever causes any harm.
2721     After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32, extract
2722     the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Navigate to the folder where
2723     you've saved the ZIP file and right-click it. Choose Extract all..., and when
2724     you're asked for location where the archive is extracted, enter the letter
2725     of the partition, for example H:\. Do NOT choose any folder in the partition!
2727     After that, browse to the folder X:\utils\win32, where X: is the letter
2728     of the partition. Then, double-click makeboot.bat. If the Windows version
2729     you use is Vista or 7, another UAC prompt appears. Enter the password
2730     again. Then just follow the prompts to make the USB drive bootable.
2732     Now you're done. Your thumb drive or external hard drive should be an
2733     automatic recovery disk.
2738     Restoring to a different location
2739     ==============================================================================
2741     Intro
2742     ****************************************
2743     In the past restoring to a different location was not supported by
2744     Clonezilla Live at all. Because of that, a script called reloc-img was
2745     added to Clonezilla-SysRescCD, which would help the user perform this task.
2747     Recent versions of Clonezilla Live partly support restoring to a
2748     different location, so the reloc-img script is obsolete, and has been
2749     removed. Clonezilla Live now supports:
2751     * Relocation of a disk image (restoring a whole disk)
2752     * Relocation of a partition image (restoring a partition)
2754     Clonezilla Live does not support:
2756     * Relocation of a single partition contained into a disk image.
2758     Imagine you have a disk backup image named hda-2009-02-02. The image
2759     contains three partitions, hda1 (operating system), hda2 (user data)
2760     and hda3 (other data).
2762     You want to restore your other data partition (hda3), to a different system
2763     (partition sdb2) but there is no way to restore (extract) a single partition
2764     from a disk image - you can only restore the whole disk.
2766     In order to address this situation, two new scripts have been written for
2767     Clonezilla-SysRescCD: imginfo and imgconvert
2769     Script imginfo
2770     ****************************************
2771     The script will be used to print info about existing image files.
2773     Its help screen is:
2775     # imginfo -h
2776     Clonezilla Live Image Information
2777     imginfo v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
2779     Usage: imginfo <options> <directory>
2781     Available options:
2782     s Search in sub-directories too
2783     i [name] Pring info for image [name]
2784     v Print version info and exit
2785     h Print this screen and exit
2787     Script imgconvert
2788     ****************************************
2789     The script will be used to convert an existing disk image file to a new
2790     partition image file.
2792     imgconvert can create two type of images:
2794     * Temporary image
2795     This type of image is created by linking the data files of the existing
2796     disk image to the new partition image. This means that the original image
2797     must be present for the new image to be used. This is the default image
2798     type created by imgconvert.
2800     * Permanent image
2801     This type of image is created by copying the data files from the existing
2802     disk image to the new partition image. This means that the original image is
2803     not needed in order to use the new one. Permenant image files are created
2804     using the command line parameter -p.
2806     Its help screen is:
2808     # imgconvert -h
2809     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2810     imgconvert v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
2812     Usage: imgconvert <options> [image] [partition] <new partition>
2814     Parameters are:
2815     [image] Disk image to be converted to partition image
2816     [partition] Partition name to convert. It must be a valid device name
2818     Available options:
2819     o [image] Save new imag as [image]
2820     p Save new partition instead of making a link to the old one
2821     v Print version info and exit
2822     h Print this screen and exit
2824     Using the scripts
2825     ****************************************
2826     Restoring to a partition
2827     ---------------------
2828     After booting into Clonezilla Live, I select
2830     Enter_shell Enter command line prompt
2832     when the menu is displayed and then I press 2 to exit to the shell.
2834     At this point I will mount my images partition (in this example /dev/sdc4),
2835     and use script imginfo to get info about my image files.
2837     $ sudo su -
2838     # mount /dev/sdc4 /home/partimag
2839     # cd /home/partimag
2840     # imginfo
2841     Image files found in: /home/partimag
2842     Image: usb250-img, disk: sda, size: 259MB, parts: 1
2843     part: sda4, size: 247.00MB, type: FAT16
2844     Image: sys-bck, disk: hda, size: 320.0GB, parts: 3
2845     part: hda1, size: 22.36GB, type: Linux
2846     part: hda2, size: 39.06GB, type: Linux
2847     part: hda3, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
2849     As you can see there are two disk images under /home/partimag: usb250-img
2850     and sys-bck.
2852     sys-bck is a backup of my old system, which had three partitions. What
2853     I need to do now is "copy" the hda3 partition to my current system, by
2854     transfering its data to partition sdb2.
2856     The way to proceed is:
2858     * Create a new partition image (containing hda3's data) based on the
2859     existing disk image file, by executing the command:
2861     # imgconvert sys-bck hda3 sdb2
2862     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2863     imgconvert v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras
2865     Determining input image
2866     Input image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck"
2867     Validating image... ok
2868     Determining input partition
2869     Input partition: "hda3"
2870     Validating input partition... ok
2871     Determining output image
2872     Output image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck-cnv"
2873     Validating output image... ok
2874     Checking permissions... ok
2875     Determining output partition
2876     Output partition: "sda2"
2877     Validating output partition... ok
2878     Creating output image: /home/partimag/sys-bck-cnv
2879     Linking files... done
2880     Fixing info files... done
2882     This command will create a temporary partition image file (automatically
2883     named sys-bck-cnv), which contains sdb2 only, as you can see by executing:
2885     # imginfo -i sys-bck-cnv
2886     Image: sys-bck-cnv, part: sdb2, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
2888     * Restart Clonezilla Live by pressing Control-D twice.
2890     * Restore the new image file into sdb2, by selecting
2892     Screen 1: Start_Clonezilla Start Clonezilla
2894     Screen 2: device-image disk/partition to/from image
2896     Screen 3: skip use existing /home/partimag
2898     Screen 4: Beginer / Expert
2900     Screen 5: restoreparts
2901     Restore_an_image_to_local_partition
2903     and continue as usual to restore the partition.
2905     Converting image files
2906     ---------------------
2907     # imgconvert -p -o other_data sys-bck hda3 sdb2
2908     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2909     imgconvert v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras
2911     Determining input image
2912     Input image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck"
2913     Validating image... ok
2914     Determining input partition
2915     Input partition: "hda3"
2916     Validating input partition... ok
2917     Determining output image
2918     Output image: "/home/partimag/other_data"
2919     Validating output image... ok
2920     Checking permissions... ok
2921     Determining output partition
2922     Output partition: "sda2"
2923     Validating output partition... ok
2924     Creating output image: /home/partimag/other_data
2925     Copying files... done
2926     Fixing info files... done
2928     # imginfo -i other_data
2929     Image: other_data, part: sdb2, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
2931     # ls -la sys-bck
2932     total 1111972
2933     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-11-22 03:21 .
2934     drwxr-xr-x. 34 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:28 ..
2935     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4 2007-11-20 20:33 disk
2936     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1081716736 2007-11-20 20:32 hda1.aa
2937     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 45453312 2007-11-20 20:33 hda2.aa
2938     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10317824 2007-11-20 20:33 hda3.aa
2939     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2007-11-21 18:56 hda-chs.sf
2940     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2007-11-21 18:50 hda-chs.sf.orig
2941     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 512 2007-11-20 20:31 hda-mbr
2942     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 259 2007-11-21 18:59 hda-pt.sf
2943     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 259 2007-11-21 18:50 hda-pt.sf.orig
2944     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 15 2007-11-20 20:33 parts
2945     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17 2007-11-20 20:33 swappt-hda4.info
2946     #
2947     #
2948     # ls -la other_data
2949     total 24
2950     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:27 .
2951     drwxr-xr-x. 35 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:27 ..
2952     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5 2009-04-06 21:27 parts
2953     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10317824 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb2.aa
2954     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb-chs.sf
2955     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 106 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb-pt.sf
2957     Booting a restored Linux system
2958     ****************************************
2959     A Linux system that has been restored to a new disk/partition, is usually
2960     not ready to be booted right after the restoration procedure is finished.
2962     There are two more steps that you may have to take:
2964     * Fix /etc/fstab
2965     * Reinstall GRUB.
2966     I will assume GRUB is your boot manager, as it is the usual case nowadays.
2968     For this example I will assume that you have restored a Linux system
2969     (that used to be in sdb), to a new disk (hda), and that it contains three
2970     partitions, / (the root partition), /home (user's partition) and a swap
2971     partition. You must be really careful here, as the name of the new disk
2972     depends on the system to be booted. If it uses one of the newest Linux
2973     kernels (using the libata disk driver), ALL your disks will be recognised
2974     as SCSI. More info: "Identifying devices in Linux" section "SCSI disks
2975     when there are none!!!".
2977     This is what we have:
2979     root partition home partition swap partition
2980     Old system /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdb3
2981     New system /dev/hda1 /dev/hda2 /dev/hda3
2983     Fixing /etc/fstab
2984     ---------------------
2985     Since we are still in Clonezilla Live, right after the restore procedure
2986     has finished, we will use it to mount our restored root partition, and
2987     edit its /etc/fstab. We issue the commands:
2989     mkdir /new-root
2990     mount /dev/hda1 /new-root
2991     vi /new-root/etc/fstab
2993     The contents of /etc/fstab could be something like
2995     /dev/sdb1 / reiserfs acl,user_xattr 1 1
2996     /dev/sdb2 /home reiserfs defaults 1 2
2997     /dev/sdb3 swap swap defaults 0 0
2999     and we have to change ti to
3001     /dev/hda1 / reiserfs acl,user_xattr 1 1
3002     /dev/hda2 /home reiserfs defaults 1 2
3003     /dev/hda3 swap swap defaults 0 0
3005     Finally, we unmount the partition, and we are ready to reboot
3007     umount /new-root
3008     reboot
3010     Reinstalling GRUB
3011     ---------------------
3012     When Clonezilla-SysRescCD menu appears, we select Tools > Super Grub Disk
3014     Then we select Super Grub Disk > Super Grub Disk (WITH HELP) > English
3015     Super Grub Disk > Gnu/Linux > Fix Boot of Gnu/Linux (GRUB). From this
3016     entry we will be able to reinstall GRUB to our hard disk.
3018     You may also want to have a look at Super Grub Disk "documentation {{
3019     http://www.supergrubdisk.org/wiki/SuperGrubDiskDocumentation }}".
3024     Fixing boot problems
3025     ==============================================================================
3027     Intro
3028     ****************************************
3029     Boot problems are probably the most feared computer problems. Without an
3030     operating system you can't access your data, get the work done or even
3031     google for help. That's why it's often a good idea to have an alternative
3032     operating system available for searching help if the main OS doesn't
3033     work. Also a copy of Clonezilla-SysRescCD can be invaluable help.
3035     Actually, the initial reason why I (Jyrki) installed GNU/Linux at all was
3036     that I wanted to be able to fix Windows boot problems if they occur. I
3037     installed both GNU/Linux and GRUB to my external hard drive, completely
3038     separating operating systems. Even if either bootloader stopped working,
3039     I'd still be able to boot one of my OSes.
3041     But such configuration is not easy to create, and when I installed GNU/Linux,
3042     I knew very little about it. If I didn't read the instructions I found
3043     here and there very carefully, I probably would have done a common mistake:
3044     installing GRUB to my internal hard drive. Such mistake would have caused
3045     two problems:
3047     * Inability to boot GNU/Linux at any computer expect the one which was
3048     used for installing
3049     * Inability to boot Windows when the external drive isn't connected
3051     In this page, I simulate that situation in a virtual machine and fix
3052     both problems.
3054     Symptoms
3055     ****************************************
3056     What happens when I try to boot the external hard drive on another computer
3057     depends on the BIOS of the computer. For example, on my computer I see a
3058     Black Screen of Death {{ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Screen_of_Death
3059     }} when I try booting from a disk with empty Master Boot Record. Other
3060     BIOSes may boot the local operating system or display an error message
3061     (for example "Disk boot failure", "Missing operating system" or "Operating
3062     system not found").
3064     The other problem is very easy to determine. When external drive is
3065     disconnected and I try to boot, I'll see this:
3067     [[ error-21.png ]]
3069     Goals
3070     ****************************************
3071     Because I still want to separate my operating systems completely,
3072     I try to restore NTLDR to the Master Boot Record of the internal disk,
3073     if possible. If that's not possible, I install there another bootloader
3074     that chainloads Windows.
3076     I could reinstall GNU/Linux completely and make sure that the GRUB is
3077     installed to the right disk this time, but it's not a good idea if I only
3078     need to overwrite the first 446 bytes (yes, bytes, not kilo- or megabytes)
3079     of the disk. So, I only install GRUB to the external disk, by using Super
3080     Grub Disk.
3082     Your problem (if you have one at all) most likely is different, but goals
3083     are often the same.
3085     You need to restore NTLDR if you...
3087     * ...just installed GNU/Linux, but the boot menu doesn't mention Windows
3088     at all. You're not willing to learn how Windows can be added to the boot
3089     menu, you just need to make your computer to boot Windows again right now.
3090     * ...cloned your Windows partition to your brand new computer but didn't
3091     clone the Master Boot Record.
3092     * ...are about to uninstall GNU/Linux and aren't willing to use GRUB as
3093     your bootloader.
3095     You need to install GRUB if you...
3097     * ...just installed Windows and want to make GNU/Linux bootable again.
3098     * ...cloned your GNU/Linux partition to your brand new computer but didn't
3099     clone the Master Boot Record.
3100     * ...just installed GNU/Linux but installed GRUB to a non-first hard drive
3101     by accident. (The symptom is that your computer still boots to the operating
3102     system you had installed already.)
3104     [[ info.png ]]
3105     The following pressentation has been made usingSuper Grub Disk v0.9799
3107     Restoring NTLDR
3108     ****************************************
3109     There are a lot of ways to restore NTLDR. However, sometimes there is no
3110     legal way to restore it, and I'm NOT telling about the illegal ones. The
3111     last resort is using syslinux to chainload Windows; there is usually no
3112     way to notice that syslinux is used instead of NTLDR.
3114     I've listed here the most important options in order I'd use them.
3116     Restoring NTLDR from a backup
3117     ---------------------
3118     If you've been smart enough to use Clonezilla Live to create a disk image
3119     of your first hard drive, it's very easy to restore NTLDR.
3121     Your NTLDR is safe in a file called hda-mbr or sda-mbr. You can use dd to
3122     overwrite your existing Master Boot Record.
3124     [[ important.png ]]
3125     Don't restore all 512 bytes of your Master Boot Record.The MBR contains
3126     your partition table and restoring it afterrepartitioning your disk erases
3127     all the data on the disk.
3129     If you normally use GNU/Linux, open terminal and run these commands as root:
3131     mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/usb
3132     dd if=/mnt/usb/Backup/sda-mbr of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1
3134     Note: In the commands I have assumed that your first hard drive is /dev/sda
3135     and that your disk image resides in the folder Backup in partition
3136     /dev/sdc1. You will have to replace them with the correct pieces of
3137     information.
3139     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
3140     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above
3141     the command. For example, the latter of the above commands can be executed
3142     by typing "sudo dd if=/mnt/usb/Backup/sda-mbr of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1"
3144     If you normally use another operating system, boot into SystemRescueCD and
3145     run the above commands. In SystemRescueCD all commands are run as root,
3146     so you don't need to add any prefix to the commands.
3148     If you don't know the name of the partition, run this command as root:
3150     fdisk -l
3152     It tells how many hard drives you have, how many partitions they contain
3153     and what filesystems the partitions use. If you know, for example, that
3154     the disk where you've saved the disk image contains only one partition,
3155     look for such disks.
3157     Using Bootrec.exe (Windows Vista/7 only)
3158     ---------------------
3159     You need Windows Vista/7 install disc for this. If you don't have one (for
3160     example, if you bought a laptop that was bundled with preinstalled Windows
3161     and manufacturer's recovery disc), download a recovery disc from here.
3163     Then boot from the disc. After selecting language, time, currency and
3164     keyboard, click Repair your computer. You'll get a list of operating systems
3165     you're able to repair. Choose any of them; that choice doesn't matter.
3167     After that, you'll see a dialog box named System Recovery Options. Click
3168     Command Prompt. Then you only need to execute one command:
3170     Bootrec /FixMbr
3172     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example,
3173     "bootrec /fixmbr".
3175     Using FIXMBR (Windows XP only)
3176     ---------------------
3177     You need Windows XP install disc. Boot from it, and when you see the screen
3178     "Windows XP Home Edition Setup" or "Windows XP Professional Setup", press
3179     R to enter the Recovery Console. Then choose the Windows installation you
3180     want to log onto. If you have only one copy of Windows installed, press
3181     1 and ENTER. After that, enter the administator password and press ENTER.
3183     There is only one command to run:
3185     FIXMBR
3187     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example, "fixmbr".
3189     Using FDISK (Windows 95/98/Me only)
3190     ---------------------
3191     For this, you need a floppy drive. You also need to run a Windows-only
3192     program, so your first challenge is to boot Windows without NTLDR.
3194     Don't worry, Super Grub Disk makes it possible. Boot into it.
3196     [[ supergrubdisk-01.png ]]
3197     Just choose the option "!WIN! :(((" and press ENTER.
3199     When you have Windows up and running, download the boot disk
3200     image appropriate to your version of Windows from Bootdisk.Com {{
3201     http://www.bootdisk.com/bootdisk.htm }}. Then put a floppy to your floppy
3202     drive.
3204     If the floppy isn't already formatted, open My Computer, right-click the
3205     floppy drive and select Format....
3207     At the format window, choose the capacity of 1,44 megabytes and Full format
3208     type. You can enter any label (it means the name of the floppy you can see
3209     next to the floppy drive letter) and disable the summary if you wish. Keep
3210     the Copy system files option disabled.
3212     When you have a formatted floppy in your drive, double-click the boot disk
3213     image you downloaded. When it's done, shut Windows down and check your
3214     BIOS settings to be able to boot from the floppy. Some BIOSes contain a
3215     boot menu, others require editing settings pernamently. Details can be
3216     found on the manual of the motherboard or laptop.
3218     Then boot from the floppy. When you're given three boot options, choose
3219     the option 2. Start computer without CD-ROM support. Wait a moment to
3220     enter command line and run this command:
3222     FDISK /MBR
3224     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example,
3225     "fdisk /mbr".
3227     Installing syslinux using Super Grub Disk
3228     ---------------------
3229     The above four are the only legal ways I know to restore NTLDR to the
3230     Master Boot Record. Unfortunately, sometimes none of them can be used. If
3231     that's the case, it's time to switch bootloader. GRUB can be configured to
3232     chainload Windows, and usually it even does that automatically, but this
3233     page isn't intended to help configuring GRUB. I assume that if you're
3234     primarily a Windows user and reading this page, you don't want to learn
3235     how to use GNU/Linux, you just want to make Windows bootable again.
3237     Maybe the easiest way to do so is installing syslinux using Super Grub
3238     Disk. Super Grub Disk configures it automatically to chainload the first
3239     active partition. The partition should contain Windows, Windows can't boot
3240     if its partition isn't active.
3242     Boot into Super Grub Disk.
3244     [[ supergrubdisk-01a.png ]]
3245     Choose the option "WIN => MBR & !WIN! :(((((((((((((((((((((" and
3246     press ENTER. Windows will be booted automatically right after installing
3247     syslinux.
3249     Installing GRUB
3250     ****************************************
3251     Contrary to various ways to restore NTLDR, there is only one way to install
3252     GRUB I recommend. That's Super Grub Disk, because it contains GRUB no
3253     matter what has happened to the hard drive(s). First, I boot into it.
3255     [[ supergrubdisk-01b.png ]]
3256     I select "Choose Language & HELP :-)))" and press ENTER.
3258     Screen "S.G.D. Language Selection."
3259     ---------------------
3260     [[ supergrubdisk-02.png ]]
3261     I select "English Super Grub Disk" and press ENTER.
3263     [[ supergrubdisk-03.png ]]
3264     I press ENTER...
3266     [[ supergrubdisk-04.png ]]
3267     ...and then ENTER again...
3269     [[ supergrubdisk-05.png ]]
3270     ...and then ENTER once again...
3272     [[ supergrubdisk-06.png ]]
3273     ...and finally ENTER one more time.
3275     Screen "English Super Grub Disk (Help)"
3276     ---------------------
3277     [[ supergrubdisk-07.png ]]
3278     I select "Advanced".
3280     Screen "Advanced (Help)"
3281     ---------------------
3282     [[ supergrubdisk-08.png ]]
3283     I select "GRUB" and press ENTER.
3285     Screen "GRUB (Help)"
3286     ---------------------
3287     [[ supergrubdisk-09.png ]]
3288     I select "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)" and press ENTER...
3290     [[ supergrubdisk-10.png ]]
3291     ...and ENTER.
3293     Screen "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)"
3294     ---------------------
3295     [[ supergrubdisk-11.png ]]
3296     I select "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)" and press ENTER. If you
3297     want to install GRUB to the Master Boot Record of the first hard drive,
3298     "Automatically Install" is a better choice. If you don't know if you
3299     want GRUB to the first or some other disk, you most likely want it to the
3300     first disk.
3302     Screen "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)"
3303     ---------------------
3304     [[ supergrubdisk-12.png ]]
3305     I confirm my decision by selecting "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)"
3306     again and pressing ENTER.
3308     Screen "Partition of GRUB"
3309     ---------------------
3310     [[ supergrubdisk-13.png ]]
3311     In this screen I can select the disk that contains the partition that
3312     contains the files needed by GRUB. In this case, that disk is the external
3313     hard drive. As you can see, the disk is only three megabytes in size -
3314     because the computer used for screenshots is still virtual. Actually, the
3315     "disk" where I'm installing GRUB is just a file.
3317     Next Screen
3318     ---------------------
3319     [[ supergrubdisk-14.png ]]
3320     This is where I choose the partition where GRUB files reside. This disk
3321     contains only one partition.
3323     Screen "Restore to MBR of Hard Disk"
3324     ---------------------
3325     [[ supergrubdisk-15.png ]]
3326     I select the external hard drive to install GRUB to its Master Boot Record.
3328     [[ supergrubdisk-12.png ]]
3329     Some text scrolled in the screen (too fast to read or take a screenshot)
3330     and I was back at this screen. I rebooted the computer. (In this situation,
3331     you can safely do a "hard reboot" by pressing reset button once or power
3332     button twice.)
3334     [[ grub-loading.png ]]
3335     GRUB booted successfully.
3340     Booting an old PC
3341     ==============================================================================
3343     Intro
3344     ****************************************
3345     Have you ever tried to boot an old PC off a CD-ROM, and found out it
3346     wouldn't, because its BIOS does not support it, or it's faulty or for any
3347     other reason? Well, I have. So this page is an effort to solve this problem.
3349     The only way to do it, is to boot of a floppy disk which will help me
3350     "load" whatever operation system I want from a CD. This means that I will
3351     have to write a boot loader to the floppy disk.
3353     The software I will use is Smart Boot Manager {{
3354     http://sourceforge.net/projects/btmgr/ }}, a small boot manager with a
3355     nice TUI (Text User Interface). Its floppy image, already accessible from
3356     the "Tools" menu, can be found in the bootdisk folder of the CD under the
3357     name sbm.img.
3359     Writing the image to a floppy disk
3360     ****************************************
3361     All you have to do is get to a PC equipped with a floppy drive, get a
3362     floppy disk which is in excellent condition (no bad sectors/blocks),
3363     and copy the image file to it.
3365     1. From Linux
3366     ---------------------
3367     You can either boot Clonezilla Live or SystemRescueCD, and when the system
3368     is fully up, execute the command:
3370     dd if=/path/to/sbm.img of=/dev/fd0
3372     where /path/to is
3373     /live/image/bootdisk for Clonezilla Live
3374     /mnt/livecd/bootdisk for SystemRescueCD
3376     2. From DOS
3377     ---------------------
3378     You can get into any DOS (boot FreeDOS from the CD, for example), and use
3379     any of the following programs found in the rawrite folder of the CD:
3381     * rawrite.exe: is just here for completeness, as it may be needed for someone
3382     * rawrite2.exe: should be the fastest
3383     * rawrite3.com: should work if rawrite2 fails for some reason
3384     * fdimage.exe: rawrite alternative
3386     I found these programms at the FreeDOS web site {{
3387     http://www.fdos.org/ripcord/rawrite/ }}, where the following info is
3388     included:
3390     Basic Usage (Rawrite):
3391     Depending on the exact version, the output and command line support may
3392     vary, i.e. not work
3393     Usage:
3394     MS-DOS prompt> RAWRITE
3395     and follow the prompts, -or-
3397     MS-DOS prompt> RAWRITE [-f ] [-d ] [-n(owait)] [-h(elp)]
3398     where: -f - name of disk image file
3399     -d - diskette drive to use, must be A or B
3400     -n - don't prompt for user to insert diskette
3401     -h - print usage information to stdout
3403     The diskette must be formatted or rawrite will not work.
3404     The contents of the disk do not matter and will be overwritten.
3405     When ran interactively (without command line options) you will be prompted
3406     for the disk image filename (you must remember this as there is no file
3407     chooser).
3408     You will also be prompted for the target/destination drive, either A or
3409     B for A: or B: respectively.
3410     Basic Usage (FDImage):
3411     fdimage is an updated DOS program meant to replace rawrite. It does not
3412     require a pre-formatted floppy diskette.
3414     FDIMAGE - Write disk image to floppy disk
3415     Version 1.5 Copyright (c) 1996-7 Robert Nordier
3417     Usage: fdimage [-dqsv] [-f size] [-r count] file drive
3419     -d Debug mode
3420     -f size Specify the floppy disk format by capacity, eg:
3421     160K, 180K, 320K, 360K, 720K, 1.2M, 1.44M, 2.88M
3422     -q Quick mode: don't format the disk
3423     -r count Retry count for format/write operations
3424     -s Single-sector I/O
3425     -v Verbose
3427     In order to write the image file to a pre-formatted diskette, execute
3428     the commands:
3430     X:
3431     cd rawrite
3432     rawrite2 -f X:bootdisksbm.img -d b:
3434     In order to write the image file and format the diskette at the same time,
3435     execute the commands:
3437     X:
3438     cd rawrite
3439     fdimage -f 1.44M X:bootdisksbm.img b:
3441     where X: is the drive name in DOS
3443     3. From Windows
3444     ---------------------
3445     The final alternative is to use Windows program rawwritewin.exe (found in
3446     the utils\rawrite folder of the CD), as shown in the following image:
3448     [[ rawwritewin.png ]]
3453     Using SystemRescueCD
3454     ==============================================================================
3456     Intro
3457     ****************************************
3458     SystemRescueCD is an excellent Live CD. It contains cloning software too
3459     (FSArchiver {{ http://www.fsarchiver.org/Main_Page }} and partimage,
3460     to be spesific), but is unable to clone a whole disk, instead of only
3461     individual partitions.
3463     Clonezilla Live is a great cloning solution, but it is unable to do anything
3464     but clone. For general system administration, you need a lot more functions
3465     - like these offered by SystemRescueCD.
3467     Clonezilla-SysRescCD has all of the functions of both discs. It's a
3468     multi boot CD, so switching between CDs requires a reboot, but using
3469     both individual discs requires switching the physical disc - in addition
3470     to rebooting.
3472     But, of course, to be able to use SystemRescueCD's functions, you need to
3473     know how to use them. We don't have permission to redistribute SystemRescueCD
3474     documentation, so this page contains only just enough information to allow
3475     you to look for more help in SystemRescueCD documentation.
3477     Which boot option to pick?
3478     ****************************************
3479     You may be confused because of the number of boot options you have. After
3480     choosing "CD 2: System Rescue CD" you have a total of 15 options to boot
3481     SystemRescueCD. Here is a table of them.
3483     kernel Normal To RAM Graphical Environment VESA Mini Shell
3484     32-bit xxx +++
3485     32-bit (alt)
3486     64-bit xxx +++
3488     In the table, I have marked the options you most likely need. You should
3489     choose either of the options marked with a '+++' if you have no idea and/or
3490     time to read the next sections.
3492     Choosing the column
3493     ---------------------
3494     If you're accustomed to graphical environment, choose Graphical
3495     Environment. In Graphical Environment you're able to use graphical programs,
3496     like GParted and Mozilla Firefox. Terminals are also available, so using
3497     Graphical Environment doesn't prevent using command line. The only negative
3498     thing of Graphical Environment is that it slows booting process down a bit -
3499     and it's often just plain unneeded.
3501     Try VESA, if normal Graphical Environment doesn't work. VESA uses Xvesa
3502     graphical environment instead of X.Org that sometimes doesn't work. The
3503     drawbacks of Xvesa compared to X.Org are that Xvesa isn't optimized to
3504     any hardware (which means poorer performance) and Xvesa requires 32-bit
3505     kernel. Thus, if you use this option, do NOT choose 64-bit kernel, the
3506     combination leaves you at command line.
3508     If you're accustomed to command line and know already that you're not going
3509     to use any graphical program, choose one of the normal options (just below
3510     "System Rescue CD Menu"). Booting to command line is a bit faster process
3511     than booting to graphical environment, and you can start X manually later.
3513     You need the option To RAM if you plan to burn discs while using
3514     SystemRescueCD. The option copies the whole SystemRescueCD to the memory of
3515     the computer during the boot process, allowing you to put another disc to
3516     your CD/DVD writer while using SystemRescueCD. The negative thing is that
3517     reading all the contents of the disc slows boot process down a lot. There
3518     is no option which copies the disc to the memory and starts graphical
3519     environment automatically, but you can easily start it manually.
3521     Mini Shell is probably the least used option. It enters BusyBox
3522     shell after booting. BusyBox is an application that "combines
3523     tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a single small
3524     executable." However, SystemRescueCD contains most of these utilities
3525     anyway, so there is not much need to use this option. some information {{
3526     http://www.busybox.net/about.html }} about BusyBox
3528     Choosing the row (kernel)
3529     ---------------------
3530     After having chosen the column of the above table, you still have three
3531     options. Now you need to choose the kernel.
3533     The optimal kernel depends on the processor of your computer. If it's an
3534     IA-32 processor, like Intel Pentium 4 or AMD Athlon XP, you should choose
3535     32-bit kernel, because 64-bit kernel doesn't work at all. If you have
3536     a x86-64 processor, like AMD Athlon 64 or Intel Core 2, you can choose
3537     any kernel - the processor can run all of them. 64-bit kernel should be
3538     preferred, because it allows chrooting on an existing GNU/Linux partition
3539     containing 64-bit programs. Note, though, that you can't use 64-bit kernel
3540     with VESA option.
3542     If you don't know your processor architecture, try 64-bit kernel. If your
3543     processor architecture is IA-32, you'll see the following error message:
3545     This kernel requires an x86-64 CPU, but only detected an i686 CPU. Unable
3546     to boot - please use a kernel appropriate for your CPU.
3548     At this stage, simply press Ctrl-Alt-Del to reboot and use always 32-bit
3549     kernel on the machine.
3551     There is one more kernel - 32-bit kernel (alternative). It's designed to
3552     support more recent hardware than the regular kernel. Try it if standard
3553     32-bit kernel doesn't work.
3555     After booting
3556     ****************************************
3557     HELP!!! Where are the desktop and Start menu?
3558     ---------------------
3559     You should have read this section if you're looking for them. However,
3560     you don't need to reboot in order to enter graphical environment. Simply
3561     type this command and press ENTER:
3563     wizard
3565     The command asks you to choose a graphical environment. Try first X.Org,
3566     and if it fails, run the command again and choose Xvesa.
3568     Connecting to the Internet
3569     ---------------------
3570     The CD doesn't contain any SystemRescueCD documentation, because we don't
3571     have permission to redistribute it. In addition, our time is limited and
3572     we can't rewrite it all. So, you need to connect to the Internet to be
3573     able to read SystemRescueCD's official online documentation.
3575     Luckily, establishing Internet connection should be easy, if you're in a
3576     network using DHCP. Nowadays, most people are. If you're using graphical
3577     mode and terminal isn't already open, open it via the menu that opens when
3578     you click the leftmost icon in the bottom pane.
3580     Then, type this command and press ENTER:
3582     dhcpcd eth0
3584     If the network doesn't use DHCP, you can also configure Internet settings
3585     by hand. You should be able to do so if you've previously configured your
3586     settings in the operating system you normally use. The command to run is
3588     net-setup
3590     When you're done
3591     ****************************************
3592     When you're done, you naturally want to either shut the computer down or
3593     reboot. Wait! Don't do it yet!
3595     Both I and Spiros have found out that letting a live CD to automatically
3596     unmount partitions is often a bad idea. It can damage the filesystems
3597     of the partitions which were mounted when the computer was shut down and
3598     destroy any files in the partitions, even them you didn't use within the CD.
3600     So, I recommend unmounting them refore shutdown or reboot. Just run these
3601     commands when you're done.
3603     If you want to reboot:
3605     cd
3606     umount -a
3607     reboot
3609     If you want to shut down:
3610     cd
3611     umount -a
3612     poweroff
3614     More info
3615     ****************************************
3616     Here are some links to the official SystemRescueCD resources.
3618     SystemRescueCD - http://www.sysresccd.org/Main_Page
3619     Detailed packages list- http://www.sysresccd.org/Detailed-packages-list
3620     Manual - http://www.sysresccd.org/Online-Manual-EN
3621     FAQ - http://www.sysresccd.org/FAQ
3622     Howto - http://www.sysresccd.org/Howto
3623     Forum - http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/
3628     Managing partitions
3629     ==============================================================================
3631     Intro
3632     ****************************************
3633     One of the most important maintenance tasks that can only be done by using
3634     a live CD is partitioning. No operating system allows partitioning the
3635     same disk where the OS itself resides. Trying to do so is like attempting
3636     to repair a car while its engine is turned on.
3638     Of course, SystemRescueCD contains multiple programs that are related to
3639     partitioning. Most important are GParted (graphical partitioning program),
3640     GNU Parted (text-based partitioning program), fdisk and sfdisk (partition
3641     table editors) and various filesystem tools (like ntfsprogs and e2fsprogs).
3643     This page contains some theory about partitions and filesystems, advice for
3644     choosing the right filesystem and a partitioning example by using GParted.
3646     [[ important.png ]]
3647     While partitioning, an user error or a bug can damage your
3648     partitions.Creating a disk image of the disk to bepartitioned beforehand
3649     is highly recommended.
3651     [[ info.png ]]
3652     The following pressentation has been made usingSystemRescueCD v 1.4.0
3654     Some theory
3655     ****************************************
3656     What is a partition?
3657     ---------------------
3658     A partition is a logical division of a hard disk created so that you can
3659     have different operating systems on the same hard disk or to create the
3660     appearance of having separate hard drives for file management, multiple
3661     users, or other purposes.
3663     In Windows, a one-partition hard disk is labelled the "C:" drive ("A:" and
3664     "B:" are typically reserved for diskette drives). A two-partition hard drive
3665     would typically contain "C:" and "D:" drives. (CD-ROM drives typically are
3666     assigned the last letter in whatever sequence of letters have been used
3667     as a result of hard disk formatting, or typically with a two-partition,
3668     the "E:" drive.).
3670     In UNIX-based systems, a partition is used to host the / (root) file system,
3671     and optionally the /opt, /usr and /home file systems. There may also be
3672     a swap partition, which doesn't host any file system.
3674     Each operatin system provides some kind of tool to create and manage
3675     partitions. Examples of such tools are fdisk in DOS/Windows, fdisk, sfdisk
3676     and parted in Linux, etc.
3678     What is the difference between primary, extended and logical partitions?
3679     ---------------------
3680     Information about partitions is saved in so-called partition table
3681     in Master Boot Record. MBR itself is only 512 bytes in size,
3682     and only 64 bytes are reserved for partition table. That's not
3683     enough, and there are many workarounds to bypass limitations
3684     caused by the size, for example logical block addressing {{
3685     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_block_addressing#LBA.2C_ATA_devices_and_Enhanced_BIOS
3686     }}. Extended partitions are another workaround.
3688     Partition table can only store information about four partitions. If one
3689     has, for example, two GNU/Linux distributions on the same disk, both of
3690     them having separate root partitions, shared /home and shared swap, the
3691     partition number limit has been hit already.
3693     A partition that is mentioned in the partition table is called primary
3694     partition. Because of the limit, one disk can only contain 1-4 primary
3695     partitions.
3697     An extended partition fixes the problem simply by containing more boot
3698     records, called Extended Boot Records (EBR). Each EBR contains information
3699     about one logical partition and, if the extended partition contains multiple
3700     logical partitions, link to the next EBR. Thus, an extended partition can
3701     contain unlimited amount of logical partitions.
3703     Extended partition contains only EBRs and logical partitions (and maybe
3704     unallocated space). Extended partition doesn't contain any filesystem and
3705     files can't be stored in it. Of course, logical partition can contain any
3706     filesystem (or be unformatted).
3708     Extended partition itself must be primary partition: an extended partition
3709     can't be within another extended partition. In addition, a disk can contain
3710     only one extended partition.
3712     Logical partitions can always be used for storing data: any operating system
3713     can see logical partitions. GNU/Linux distributions can be installed to
3714     logical partitions as well, but Windows requires a lot of tweaking. See
3715     this outdated guide {{ http://www.goodells.net/multiboot/index.htm }}.
3717     What is LVM?
3718     ---------------------
3719     LVM means "Logical Volume Manager". It allows creating volume groups on top
3720     of hard drives and logical volumes within volume groups. Logical volumes
3721     are NOT the same thing as logical partitions!
3723     Volume groups can be created very flexibly: a volume group can allocate,
3724     for example, the first half of the first hard drive and the second half
3725     of the third drive. One can even create a massive volume group containing
3726     all storage he/she has.
3728     The computer sees a logical volume as a partition: logical volume can be
3729     left unformatted or contain any filesystem.
3731     LVM has many benefits: for example, if one has three hard drives 60 gigabytes
3732     each, he/she can create a 160-gigabyte partition for storing massive files
3733     and/or saving some disk space. In addition, logical volumes can be resized
3734     even when they're in use, so when creating logical volumes one doesn't need
3735     to worry if they're too small or big - if they are, he/she can resize them
3736     at any time.
3738     However, resizing a logical volume doesn't resize the filesystem in
3739     it, so using a filesystem that can be resized in use (online resizing)
3740     is recommended. Very few filesystems can be shrinked online, but most
3741     GNU/Linux filesystems (including ext3/4, ReiserFS, XFS and btrfs) can be
3742     grown online. It's generally a good idea to leave unallocated space within
3743     volume group, so logical volumes can later be grown without shrinking any
3744     other logical volume.
3746     Here come bad news for people who dualboot: Windows doesn't support LVM, it
3747     sees volume groups as unformatted partitions. If you try to access volume
3748     group within Windows, you're just prompted to format the partition. That
3749     prompt is annoying at best and dangerous at worst.
3751     More information about LVM can be found here (almost everything about LVM
3752     in a single page) and here (official SystemRescueCD documentation about LVM).
3754     What is a file system?
3755     ---------------------
3756     A file system is the way in which files are named and where they are placed
3757     logically for storage and retrieval. The DOS, Windows, OS/2, Macintosh,
3758     and UNIX-based operating systems all have file systems in which files are
3759     placed somewhere in a hierarchical (tree) structure. A file is placed in
3760     a directory (folder in Windows) or subdirectory at the desired place in
3761     the tree structure.
3763     The most important difference between filesystems is operating system
3764     support. Some filesystems are supported by all modern operating systems,
3765     but especially the newest filesystems are very rarely supported. Other
3766     important limits are maximum file size, journaling support and file
3767     permission metadata support.
3769     The reason that file size limits exist is that all filesystems reserve a
3770     fixed number of bits for storing the file size. If the size of the file,
3771     in bytes, is bigger than the biggest number that can be stored in file
3772     size bits, the operating system must refuse to store the file at all in
3773     order to prevent data corruption.
3775     File permission metadata means that the filesystem stores in the metadata
3776     of the file, among other things, information about who owns the file and
3777     what different users are allowed to do with the file. That metadata is
3778     especially useful in multi-user environment because it mostly prevents
3779     users from reading each other's files. Permissions can be bypassed, however.
3781     What is journaling?
3782     ---------------------
3783     Ideally, data in a partition never corrupts. But, in the real world,
3784     there are power failures and operating system freezes. And if a computer
3785     is forcefully shut down while something is written to the drive, the write
3786     operation can't be finished. That can damage the filesystem and destroy
3787     any files in the partition.
3789     Journaling partially fixes that problem by writing most changes to the
3790     disk twice: first to a special area called journal and, after that, to
3791     the filesystem itself. If power is lost while writing to the journal was
3792     in progress, the partial change is just ignored and never committed to the
3793     filesystem itself. If power failure or OS freeze happened while writing to
3794     filesystem itself, the write operation is finished by using the information
3795     in journal.
3797     Journaling helps most of the time when the computer has been forcefully
3798     shut down, but not always. Due to performance reasons, only some
3799     write operations are written to the journal, mostly the biggest
3800     operations. Of course, journaling doesn't help if that particular
3801     operation that was in progress while power was lost didn't go
3802     through the journal. Journaling also doesn't protect from everything:
3803     for example, using ext4 filesystem in conjuction with programs that
3804     write a lot of files in a short time can result in massive data loss {{
3805     http://www.h-online.com/open/news/item/Possible-data-loss-in-Ext4-740467.html
3806     }}, regardless if journaling is enabled or not.
3808     In addition, journaling reduces performance. It causes more writes to
3809     the disk. That's not a big problem on mechanical hard drives, but on SSDs
3810     (Solid State Drives) and thumb drives write speed is much slower than read
3811     speed. They also have a limited number of writing cycles, so journaling
3812     reduces their lifetime. I (Jyrki) actually use ext2 and FAT32 filesystems
3813     on my external SSD drive because they do NOT support journaling at all.
3815     What are the differences between most popular filesystems?
3816     ---------------------
3817     The following table quickly describes the most important differences
3818     between them.
3820     Operating system support
3821     #############################################################################
3822     Under Under Maximum Journaling Permissions
3823     Windows GNU/Linux file size
3824     #############################################################################
3825     FAT32 Native Built-in 4 GB No No
3826     NTFS Native Included 16 EB Yes Yes
3827     ext2 3rd party driver Native 16 GB-2 TB* No Yes