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Wed May 26 10:24:27 2010 UTC (11 years, 4 months ago) by sng
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adding SystemRescueCD 1.5.4 info, puting docs together

1 sng 28 Installing on USB
2     ==============================================================================
4     Installation to USB made easy
5     ****************************************
6     Until recently installing Clonezilla-SysRescCD on a USB disk would not
7     be such a great idea, because of its size. But since USB devices become
8     cheaper and cheaper, it is an interesting alternative.
10     Starting with version 3.1.0, Clonezilla-SysRescCD provides an iso
11     file that's ISO-Hybrided. This means (as we read at the isolynux site {{
12     http://syslinux.zytor.com/wiki/index.php/Doc/isolinux#HYBRID_CD-ROM.2FHARD_DISK_MODE
13     }}) that
15     "the iso file can be booted from either CD-ROM or from a device which BIOS
16     considers a hard disk or ZIP disk, e.g. a USB key or similar. This image can
17     then be copied using any raw disk writing tool (on Unix systems, typically
18     "dd" or "cat") to a USB disk, or written to a CD-ROM using standard CD
19     burning tools.
21     The ISO 9660 filesystem is encapsulated in a partition (which starts at
22     offset zero, which may confuse some systems.) This makes it possible for
23     the operating system, once booted, to use the remainder of the device for
24     persistent storage by creating a second partition."
26     [[ important.png ]]
27     Incorrect use of any raw disk writing tool could cause your operating system
28     (GNU/Linux / Windows) not to boot. Confirm the command before you run it.
30     So, from any linux box, assuming Clonezilla-SysRescCD iso file is in
31     your home directory, and your USB device name is sdc4, you just execute
32     the commands:
34     umount /dev/sdc4
35     dd if=~/clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-"myVersion".iso of=/dev/sdc4 bs=512
37     And that's it. Your usb device is ready to boot!!!
39     Installing the "hard" way
40     ****************************************
41     If the "easy" way does not work there is an alternative; you will use
42     the Clonezilla-SysRescCD ISO file (or CD) to copy and modify a couple of
43     files on the USB disk, and finally make it bootable, using syslinux {{
44     http://syslinux.zytor.com }} and its configuration file syslinux.cfg.
46     [[ important.png ]]
47     Incorrect use of syslinux could cause your operating system (GNU/Linux /
48     Windows) not to boot. Confirm the command before you run it.
50     The only thing that's important is that your USB disk must contain a VFAT
51     (Windows 98 or DOS) file system. If this is not the case, refer to the
52     section "Troubleshooting", to find out how you can format it, before
53     copying files to it.
55     The bootable USB disk creation procedure can be performed either from
56     Linux or Windows.
58     [[ info.png ]]
59     If you want to create a bootable USB flash drive for this version
60     or later, remember to use the syslinux command from syslinux
61     3.71 or later. Otherwise the boot menu won't work.
63     Installation from Linux
64     ---------------------
65     There are two ways you can proceed, if you are going to use Linux to
66     perform the USB installation, either using a running linux box, or using
67     Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
69     I will assume that you have saved clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-3.1.0.iso
70     in your home directory (~).
72     Using a linux box
73     ---------------------
74     If you already have a linux box up and running, you can use it to create
75     your Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB, without even having to burn it to CD
76     beforehand. The only thing here is that you have to have syslinux {{
77     http://syslinux.zytor.com }} installed.
79     I will assume that your CD drive is /dev/sr0 and that your USB device
80     is /dev/sdc4. You may have to change any of them to reflect your system
81     configuration.
83     Boot into linux, connect your USB device and execute the following commands:
84     mkdir /mnt/mycd
85     mount ~/clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-3.1.0.iso /mnt/mycd -o loop
86     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
87     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
88     cp -r /mnt/mycd/* /mnt/usbdevice
89     umount /mnt/mycd; rmdir /mnt/mycd
90     cd /mnt/usbdevice
91     rm isolinux/*.cfg
92     mv isolinux/* .
93     rmdir isolinux
94     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
95     rmdir /mnt/usbdevice
97     Finally make your USB device bootable, by executing
98     syslinux /dev/sdc4
99     and you are done.
101     > Using Clonezilla-SysRescCD
102     If you already burnt Clonezilla-SysRescCD to CD, you can use it to create
103     your Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB.
105     I will assume that your CD drive is /dev/sr0 and that your USB device
106     is /dev/sdc4. You may have to change any of them to reflect your system
107     configuration.
109     Boot SystemRescueCD using the option To RAM, and when it is fully loaded,
110     execute the following commands:
111     mkdir /mnt/mycd
112     mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/mycd
113     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
114     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
115     cp -r /mnt/mycd/* /mnt/usbdevice
116     umount /mnt/mycd
117     cd /mnt/usbdevice
118     rm isolinux/*.cfg
119     mv isolinux/* .
120     rmdir isolinux
121     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
123     Finally make your USB device bootable, by executing
124     syslinux /dev/sdc4
125     and you are done.
127     Installation from Windows
128     ---------------------
129     Installing Clonezilla-SysRescCD from Windows is as easy as
130     it is in Linux. You have to burn Clonezilla-SysRescCD to CD
131     or use a CD/DVD ROM emulator software like Daemon Tools {{
132     http://www.daemon-tools.cc/dtcc/announcements.php }} to mount the ISO file.
134     I will assume that your USB device is drive K: and your CD drive or mounted
135     ISO file is drive
136     D:. You may have to change any of them, in order to reflect your system
137     configuration.
139     You will have to
141     * Copy all files from drive D: (CD or mounted ISO file) to drive K:
142     (USB disk)
143     * Delete all cfg files from K:isolinux
144     * Move all files from K:isolinux to K:
145     * Delete folder K:isolinux
147     Now all you have to do is make your USB disk bootable. In order to do
148     that you have to open a DOS window (in Windows XP press "Start / Run "
149     and type cmd). Then type at DOS prompt:
150     K:
151     cd bootprog
152     syslinux -ma K:
154     Booting from USB
155     ---------------------
156     Before trying to boot from your USB device, you have to set your boot device
157     at your BIOS. This means you have to reboot having your USB device connected,
158     get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL) and make the appropriate settings
159     in the BOOT section.
161     Booting Clonezilla Live should not be a problem. Just select the desired
162     option and press ENTER to boot.
164     Booting SystemRescueCD has been made equally simple with SystemRescueCD
165     v 1.0.0, so you shouldn't have any problem (option cdroot is not required
166     any more).
168     If you have any problems here, you may try adding any of these boot
169     parameters:
170     usbstick
171     doscsi
173     Troubleshooting
174     ---------------------
175     Whether you can successfully boot from a USB disk or not, depends mainly on
176     your BIOS. Chances are that you will not be able to boot on an old computer,
177     with an old (and possibly buggy) BIOS. So I would recommend testing your
178     Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB on a new computer.
180     * I can't boot (I don't even see the splash screen)
181     or Clonezilla Live does not boot
183     The first thing you should do is double check your BIOS settings. Reboot
184     having your USB device connected, get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL)
185     and make the appropriate settings in the BOOT section.
187     If you are on linux, check that the partition on the USB disk is active
188     (bootable), executing:
189     fdisk -l /dev/sdc
190     You should get something similar to this:
192     Disk /dev/sdc: 1031 MB, 1031798272 bytes
193     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 983 cylinders
194     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
196     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
197     /dev/sdc4 * 1 983 1006576 6 FAT16
199     If the partition is not active (no astrisk), execute:
200     fdisk /dev/sdc
201     and issue "Command: " a (toggle a bootable flag) and "Partition number:"
202     4 (for /dev/sdc4).
204     If you are on Windows, this is taken care of by syslinux (parameters -ma).
206     If you still have problems booting, you should try to execute
207     syslinux -s /dev/sdc4
208     from Linux, or
209     syslinux -sma K:
210     from Windows (from folder K:syslinux).
212     syslinux man page reads:
214     (Option) -s
215     Install a "safe, slow and stupid" version of syslinux. This version may work
216     on some very buggy BIOSes on which syslinux would otherwise fail. If you find
217     a machine on which the -s option is required to make it boot reliably, please
218     send as much info about your machine as you can, and include the failure
219     mode.
221     * I still can't boot
222     In this case you will have to format your USB disk.
224     If you are using linux to perform the installation, execute the command:
225     mkdosfs -F 16 /dev/sdc4
226     to create a FAT16 file system, or
227     mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdc4
228     to create a FAT32 file system.
230     When you are done go back to section "Installation from Linux".
232     If you are on Windows, you should download the HP-USB Format tool {{
233     http://h50178.www5.hp.com/local_drivers/17550/SP27608.exe }}, install it
234     and format your USB drive using the Fat or Fat32 option. This program can
235     be used to format USB devices that won't boot properly when formatted with
236     Windows format tool.
238     When you are done go back to section "Installation from Windows".
240     * I still can't boot (after formating)
241     Things are getting tough!!! Try to format your USB disk using the option you
242     did not use previously. So, if you have created a FAT32 file system, create
243     a FAT16 file system this time, and recreate Clonezilla-SysRescCD on USB.
245     If nothing works, you are out of luck; you will not be able to use
246     Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB on this computer... If you do manage to boot it,
247     please send me a message.
249     * SystemRescueCD does not boot
250     Ok, you have managed to get to the splash screen and successfully booted
251     Clonezilla Live. But you still can't boot SystemRescueCD.
253     Refer to section Booting from USB to find out the boot parameters you can
254     use with SystemRescueCD.
256     Customizing sysresc.cfg
257     ---------------------
258     As stated previously, Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB is booted by syslinux through
259     its configuration file syslinux.cfg. This file loads sysresc.cfg in order
260     to boot SystemRescueCD.
262     If you have to specify any additional boot parameters for SystemRescueCD,
263     you may want to write these changes to the configuration file, so that
264     you don't have to insert them by hand every time.
266     The procedure to do that is the following:
268     Boot SystemRescueCD (or if that's not possible yet, bot Clonezilla Linux
269     and get to the command line) using the option To RAM, and when it is fully
270     loaded, execute the following commands:
271     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
272     mount /dev/[device] /mnt/usbdevice
273     cd /mnt/usbdevice
274     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
275     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=x [additional params]|'
276     sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
277     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
278     cd; umount /dev/[device]
279     syslinux /dev/[device]
280     reboot
282     where x is a number from 1 to 10.
284     After executing these commands, you will have a new sysresc.cfg file,
285     and a backup file called sysresc.bak (in case things go wrong).
287     If, for example, you want to increase the device scan delay to maximum,
288     the above commands would become:
289     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
290     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
291     cd /mnt/usbdevice
292     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
293     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=10|' sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
294     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
295     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
296     syslinux /dev/sdc4
297     reboot
299     If, in addition to that, you had to use the boot parameter usbstick,
300     then it would be:
301     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
302     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
303     cd /mnt/usbdevice
304     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
305     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=10 usbstick|' sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
306     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
307     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
308     syslinux /dev/sdc4
309     reboot
311     In case something goes wrong with your new settings, you can always rename
312     sysresc.bak to sysresc.cfg, either from linux or Windows.
317     Boot parameters
318     ==============================================================================
320     Intro
321     ****************************************
322     Booting a linux system means loading a kernel, which is actually the
323     operating system. Well, this is not exactly true, and it is not the only
324     thing that happens during boot up phase, but it is not my intension to
325     explain it here.
327     The kernel is loaded by Isolinux (the CD boot manager), which is able to pass
328     a number of parameters to it, through its configuration file isolinux.cfg.
330     These parameters, called boot parameters, are documented by the kernel
331     itself, and can differentiate its behavior dramatically. In our case,
332     each CD (SystemRescueCD and Clonezilla Live) accept a different set of
333     parameters, because they are based on gentoo {{ http://www.gentoo.org/ }}
334     and debian, respectively.
336     While in the splash screen of Clonezilla-SysRescCD, you can edit the boot
337     parameters by pressing TAB. They will be presented to you, and you can
338     add or remove what you want. You must be careful not to change or remove
339     the parameters that are dedicated to the CD itself, as altering them will
340     certainty make it unbootable. When you are done, just press ENTER to boot.
342     SystemRescueCD boot parameters
343     ****************************************
344     [[ info.png ]]
345 sng 60 The following info applies to SystemRescueCD v. 1.5.4. In case
346 sng 28 you need to get info for a more recent version of SystemRescueCD
347     please see the page "Sysresccd-manual-en Booting the CD-ROM {{
348     http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Booting_the_CD-ROM }}"
350     A typical sysresccd isolinux entry is:
352     kernel rescuecd
353     append initrd=initram.igz video=ofonly
355     The kernel used is rescuecd, and anything after the word append is a
356     boot parameter.
358     Available kernels (boot images):
360 sng 60 * rescuecd Default for 32bit systems, with Framebuffer disabled, best choice.
361     * rescue64 Default 64 bit kernel. Use it if you want to chroot to a 64bit
362     linux system installed on your hard disk, or if you have to run 64 bits
363     programs. This kernel is able to boot with 32bit programs, and it requires
364     a processor with 64bit instructions (amd64 / em64t).
365     * altker32 an alternative kernel for 32bit systems. Boot with this kernel
366     if you have problems with rescuecd
367     * altker64 an alternative kernel for 64bit systems. Boot with this kernel
368     in case you have problems with rescue64.
369 sng 28
370     The boot parameters you can use are:
372 sng 43 General boot options
373     Press <TAB> to add additional options.
374 sng 28
375 sng 43 * docache: causes the CD-ROM will be fully loaded into memory. A slower
376     start but once complete, programs start faster and the CD drive will be
377     released allowing normal access to other CDs. This requires 400MB of memory
378     to cache everything (including the bootdisks and isolinux directories). Add
379     lowmem if you have less that 400MB of memory of to prevent these directories
380     to be copied.
382     During boot you will be prompted for the keyboard configuration, avoid
383     this by using
385     * setkmap=kk: which defines the keymap to load where kk (example: setkmap=de
386     for German keyboards)
387 sng 60 * root=/dev/xdnp: the root=<device> option boots an existing linux
388     system. For example, if you have linux Gentoo installed on /dev/sda6,
389     use rescuecd root=/dev/sda6 to start it. Keep in mind that you must use a
390     64bit kernel if your system is made of 64bit programs. This option works
391     with LVM volumes. Use rescuecd root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00. Support
392     is also provided for root=auto, which scans all the block devices tfor
393     a linux system. The first linux system found will be started. So with
394     root=auto let you start the system installed from the CD-ROM in case
395     you have problem with your boot loader or kernel. It's also possible
396     to specify a partition using its filesystem label or filesystem
397     uuid. If the label of the partition where linux is installed is
398     mylinux, then boot it using rescuecd root=LABEL=mylinux. Similarly
399 sng 43 root=UUID=b3d3bec5-997a-413e-8449-0d0ec41ccba7. See more details.
400     * initscript=service:action: This options allows start/stop a service
401     at boot time. For instance if you need the samba service to be started,
402     you can boot with: initscript=samba:start. This does the same thing as
403     /etc/init.d/samba start. Use this option multiple times for different
404     services. All the actions that are supported by an initscript can be used.
405 sng 60 * backstore=xxx: SystemRescueCd comes with support for the backing-stores. A
406     backing-store saves all the changes you can make. so that you keep these
407     changes the next time you boot it. By default, sysresccd automatically
408     scan removable devices (eg: USB sticks) at boot time and uses the first
409     backing-store it finds. A backing-store is not mandatory and it the
410     scan fails it will store the files which change in memory. To disable
411     the disks scan at boot time specify backstore=off on the boot command
412 sng 43 line. If you want to save your backing-store file on an harddisk, boot with
413     backstore=alldev to scan all devices (not just removable devices). The
414     default location for backing-stores file is any file named sysrcd.bs
415     located at the root of a disk which is often an USB stick. Change the path
416     by using backstore=/sysrcd/mybackstore.bs. See backing-stores.
417     * isoloop=xxx: Grub2 (currently in development: grub-1.98) provides a new
418     feature to boot from an ISO image which is stored from the hard disk. If you
419     put a copy of systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso on a partition that Grub2 can read
420     then you can boot SystemRescueCd directly from the ISO image stored on your
421     hard drive. This is very convenient if you frequently update SystemRescueCd
422     and you want to boot it directly from Grub2. Grub2 knows what an ISO image
423     is and it will load the kernel image (rescuecd/rescue64) and the initramfs
424     (initram.igz) from the ISO into memory. It will then do its normal job and
425     execute the kernel. The SystemRescueCd init script must then be aware that
426     its sysrcd.dat file is in an ISO and not directly on the partition. For that
427     reason, this isoloop=xxx boot option is required so you must use it in your
428     grub.cfg. This option is only supported in SystemRescueCd-1.4.0 and more
429 sng 60 recent. This option specifies the path of the ISO image in the partition that
430     grub considers as its root partition. It's important to understand that the
431     path of the ISO image may be different from the path on your linux system. If
432     you have a separate boot partition mounted on /boot and if you copy this
433     ISO image to /boot/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso then the option has
434     to be isoloop=/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso. This is because the
435     boot partition is what Grub2 will consider as its root partition during
436     the boot process. Please read the section about isoloop for more details.
437 sng 28
438 sng 43 Hardware, drivers and troubleshooting options
439     * dodebug: Enables verbose messages in linuxrc
440 sng 28
441 sng 43 * doload=xxx: loads needed modules, multiple occurrences are permitted
442     (example: doload=3c59x)
443     * noload=xxx: prevents loading modules, multiple occurrences are permitted
444     (example: noload=3c59x). Use this option if you have a problem when the
445     system loads a particular module.
446 sng 28 * nonet: this will disable the network auto detection at startup
447 sng 43
448 sng 28 * scandelay=x: pauses x seconds during the startup to allow slow devices
449 sng 43 to initialize. This is required when you boot an USB device. A delay of
450 sng 28 only few seconds should be enough.
451 sng 43
452 sng 28 * doxdetect: Since version 0.3.5 the auto-configuration is done in X.Org
453 sng 43 itself, mkxf86config is disabled by default. This option forces the system to
454     run the mkxf86config startup script and to run the hardware auto-detection
455     from this script. Use this option if you have problems with the graphical
456     environment configuration. This option replaces the option noxdetect that
457     was useful in previous versions.
458     * nodetect: prevents generic hardware auto-detection. Use this option if
459     you have problems with the hardware auto-detection.
461     * dostartx: load the X.Org graphical environment.
462     * forcevesa: Forces X.Org to use the safe VESA driver instead of the best
463     video driver detected for your video card. Use this option if you cannot
464     get the graphical environment working with the default options.
465     * forcevesa=xxx: The startx command will load the Xvesa server instead
466     of Xorg, and use the screen resolution given as parameter (eg: 1024x768,
467     1280x1024x32).
469 sng 28 * all-generic-ide: In case of problems related to your hard disk, try to
470     enable this option (eg rescuecd all-generic-ide)
471 sng 43 * nodmraid: Disable dmraid, for some motherboards with built-in RAID
472     controller.
473     * nomdadm: Disable mdadm, for software RAID.
475     * acpi-off / noapic / irqpool: use these options if you have problem when
476     the kernel boots: if it hangs on a driver or if it crashes, ...
478     * lowmem: For systems with smaller memory, some daemons are not started
479     including sshd and nfsd.
481 sng 28 * skipmount=/dev/xxx: The system mounts all the storage devices at boot
482 sng 43 time to find the sysrcd.dat file. If your hard disk is broken it should
483     be mounted. Boot with skipmount=/dev/sda1 skipmount=/dev/sda2 to ignore
484     these two partitions.
485 sng 28
486 sng 43 Network configuration and remote access
487     * dodhcp: to request a DHCP server provide network attributes including
488     an IP address, gateway... . otherwise,
489     * ethx=ipaddr/cidr: Sets the static IP address of all the ethernet
490     interfaces on the system. The /cidr extension is optional. For instance,
491     if you use option ethx= on a machine with two ethernet adapters,
492     both eth0 and eth1 will be configured with You can use the
493     format ethx= (using the cidr notation) if you don't use the
494     default netmask.
495     * eth0=ipaddr/cidr: This option is similar to ethx=ipaddr/cidr but it
496     configures only one interface at a time. To configure the network on a
497     server that has two interfaces, use: eth0= eth1=
498 sng 28 * dns=ipaddr: Sets the static IP address of the DNS nameserver you want
499     to use to resolve the names. For instance dns= means that
500     you want to use as the DNS server.
501     * gateway=ipaddr: Sets the static IP address of the default route on your
502     network. For instance gateway= means that the computer can
503     connect to a computer outside of the local network via
504     * dhcphostname=myhost: Sets the hostname that the DHCP client will send
505     to the DHCP server. This may be required if the default hostname cannot
506     be used with your DHCP configuration. This option has been introduced
507     in SystemRescueCd-1.3.5.
508     * rootpass=123456: Sets the root password of the system running on the
509     livecd to 1234. That way you can connect from the network and ssh on the
510     livecd and give 123456 password as the root password.
511 sng 60 * vncserver=x:123456: The vncserver boot option has been introduced in
512     SystemRescueCd-1.0.2. This options forces the system to configure the
513     VNC-server and to start it automatically at boot time. You have to replace
514     x with the number of displays you want, and 123456 with your password The
515     password must be between 5 and 8 characters, else the boot option will be
516     ignored. In other words the vncserver=2:MyPaSsWd option will give you access
517     to two displays (display=1 on tcp/5901 and display=2 on tcp/5902). Display
518     0 is reserved for X.Org since SystemRescueCd-1.1.0.
519     * nameif=xxx: You can can specify what interface name to give to a
520     particular interface using the mac address. You need SystemRescueCd-1.1.0
521     or newer to do that. Here is how you can specify which interface
522     is using which mac address on a machine with two network interfaces:
523     nameif=eth0!00:0C:29:57:D0:6E,eth1!00:0C:29:57:D0:64. Be careful, you have
524     to respect the separator (comma between the interfaces and exclamation
525     marks between the name and the mac address).
526 sng 28
527 sng 43 Network boot using PXE
528     SystemRescueCd provides several options for booting from the network
529     using PXE.
530 sng 60 These options can be combined with other network boot options such as ethx
531     (cf previous section). See PXE network booting to get a global overview
532     of SystemRescueCd and PXE and Manage remote servers using PXE.
533 sng 43 The second stage downloads the kernel + initramfs using DHCP/TFTP.
534     The third stage of the PXE boot process acquires the root files system.
535     Several protocols are available.
536 sng 28
537 sng 43 * netboot=tftp://ip/path/sysrcd.dat: from a TFTP server. The filesystem
538     is loaded into memory. As a consequence computers with less than 400MB of
539     memory won't be able to boot this way. The system will continue to work
540     if the network is disconnected after the boot process.
541     * netboot=http://ip:port/path/sysrcd.dat: from a Web server. The file system
542     is loaded into memory. Computers with smaller memory won't be able to boot
543     this way. The the system continues to work if the network is disconnected
544     after the boot process.
545     * netboot=nfs://ip:/path: mount an NFSv3 directory. The NFS url must be
546     the path of the directory that contains sysrcd.dat. Only NFSv3 can be used,
547     NFSv4 is not supported. NFS it allows computers with smaller memory to boot
548     SystemRescueCd from the network. After the boot process, the connection
549     is required or you will loose the access to the root file system.
550     * netboot=nbd://ip:port: connect to an NBD server configured with sysrcd.dat
551     on ip:port. NBD is easier to configure than NFS (only one TCP port involved)
552     and it allows computers with smaller memort to boot SystemRescueCd from
553     the network. After the boot process, the connection is required the access
554     to the root system.
556 sng 60 For information on activating speakup, see the speakup info page.
557 sng 43
558     Options provided for autorun
559 sng 28 * ar_source=xxx: place where the autorun are stored. It may
560     be the root directory of a partition (/dev/sda1), an nfs
561     share (nfs://, a samba share
562     (smb://, or an http directory
563     (
564 sng 43 * autoruns=[0-9]: comma separated list of the autorun scrip to be run. For
565     example autoruns=0,2,7 the autorun sc autorun0, autorun2, autorun7 are
566     run. Use autoruns=no to disable all the autorun scripts with a number.
567 sng 28 * ar_ignorefail: continue to execute the scripts chain even if a script
568     failed (returned a non-zero status)
569     * ar_nodel: do not delete the temporary copy of the autorun scripts located
570     in /var/autorun/tmp after execution
571     * ar_disable: completely disable autorun, the simple autorun script will
572     not be executed
573     * ar_nowait: do not wait for a keypress after the autorun script have
574     been executed.
576     Clonezilla Live boot parameters
577     ****************************************
578     [[ info.png ]]
579 sng 60 The following info applies to Clonezilla Live v. 1.2.5-17
580 sng 28 In case you need to get info for a more recent version of Clonezilla Live
581     please see the page "The boot parameters for Clonezilla live {{
582     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/fine-print.php?path=./99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc
583     }}"
585     A typical Clonezilla Live isolinux entry is:
587     kernel /live/vmlinuz1
588     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
589     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"
590     ocs_live_extra_param="" ocs_live_keymap="" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang=""
591     vga=791 nolocales
593     The kernel used is vmlinuz, and anything after the word append is a boot
594     parameter.
596     The following info comes from the
597     page titled The boot parameters for Clonezilla live {{
598     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/fine-print.php?path=./99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc
599     }}.
601 sng 60 Clonezilla live is based on Debian live with clonezilla installed. Therefore
602     there are 2 kinds of boot parameters:
603 sng 28
604     * Boot parameters from live-initramfs. You can refer to this manual of
605     live-initramfs.
606     * Boot parameters specially for Clonezilla. All of them are named as
607     "ocs_*", e.g. ocs_live_run, ocs_live_extra_param, ocs_live_batch, ocs_lang.
608     * ocs_live_run is the main program to run in Clonezilla live to save
609     or restore. or other command. Available program: ocs-live-general,
610     ocs-live-restore or any command you write. Use the Absolute path in
611     Clonezilla live.
612     e.g. ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"
613 sng 43 //NOTE// You might have to use "sudo" command inside your own script,
614     or you can assign it like: ocs_live_run="sudo bash /my-clonezilla"
615 sng 28 * ocs_live_extra_param will be used only when ocs_live_run=ocs-live-restore
616     (not for ocs-live-general or any other), then it will be passed to
617     ocs-sr. Therefore these parameters are actually those of ocs-sr.
618     e.g. ocs_live_extra_param="-b -c restoredisk sarge-r5 hda"
619     * ocs_live_keymap is for keymap used in Clonezilla live. Man install-keymap
620     for more details.
621     e.g. ocs_live_keymap="NONE" (won't change the default layout)
622     ocs_live_keymap="/usr/share/keymaps/i386/azerty/fr-latin9.kmap.gz"
623     (French keyboard)
624     * batch mode or not (yes/no), if no, will run interactively.
625     e.g. ocs_live_batch="no"
626     * ocs_lang is the language used in Clonezilla live. Available value:
627     en_US.UTF-8, zh_TW.UTF-8... (see $DRBL_SCRIPT_PATH/lang/bash/)
628     e.g. ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8"
629     * ocs_debug (or ocs-debug) is for you to enter command line prompt before
630     any clonezilla-related action is run. This is easier for you to debug.
631     * ocs_daemonon, ocs_daemonoff, ocs_numlk, ocs_capslk.
632     Ex. for the first 2 parameters, ocs_daemonon="ssh", then ssh service will
633     be turned on when booting. For the last 2 parameters, use "on" or "off",
634     e.g. ocs_numlk=on to turn on numberlock when booting.
635     * ocs_prerun, ocs_prerun1, ocs_prerun2... is for you to run a shell script
636     before Clonezilla is started. E.g. ocs_prerun="/live/image/myscript.sh". If
637     you have more commands to run, you can assign them in the order:
638     ocs_prerun=..., ocs_prerun1=..., ocs_prerun2=.... If more than 10
639     parameters, remember to use ocs_prerun01, ocs_prerun02..., ocs_prerun11
640     to make it in order.
641     * ocs_live_run_tty. This option allows you to specify the tty where
642     $ocs_live_run is run. By default $ocs_live_run is run on /dev/tty1
643     only. (It was also on /dev/ttyS0 before, but since Clonezilla live >=
644     1.2.3-22 no more this due to a problem). If you want to use ttyS0, for
645     example, add live-getty and console=ttyS0,38400n81 in the boot parameter.
646 sng 43 //NOTE//
647     * This parameter was added in Clonezilla live 1.2.3-22 or later.
648     * If "live-getty console=$tty,38400n81" are assigned in the boot parameters,
649     ocs_live_run_tty will honor $tty, even other value is assigned to
650     ocs_live_run_tty in boot parameter.
651     * It's recommended to assign ocs_lang and ocs_live_keymap in the boot
652     parameters too.
653     * ip, this option allows you to specify the network parameters for
654     network card. In Clonezilla live a patched live-initramfs is used, which
655     is different from the original live-initramfs so that you can assign
656     DNS server, too. Its format is: ip=ethernet port,IP address, netmask,
657     gateway, DNS. E.g. If you want to assing eth0 with IP address,
658     netmask, gateway, DNS server, you can
659     assign the following in the boot parameter:
660     ip=eth0,,,,
661     If more than one network card, you can use ":" to separate them, e.g.:
662     ip=eth0,,,,,,,,,
663 sng 28 * Besides, "live-netdev" (yes, not ocs_live_netdev) can be used when
664     using PXE booting, you can force to assign the network device to get
665     filesystem.squashfs. This is useful when there are two or more NICs are
666     linked. E.g. live-netdev="eth1" allows you to force the live-initramfs
667     to use eth1 to fetch the root file system filesystem.squashfs.
669     With the above options, we have the following examples:
671     * A PXE config example for you to boot Clonezilla live via PXE, and ssh
672     service is on, the password of account "user" is assigned:
673     ----------------------------------------
674     label Clonezilla Live
675     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live
677     kernel vmlinuz1
678     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788
679     fetch=tftp:// usercrypted=bkuQxLqLRuDW6
680     ocs_numlk="on" ocs_daemonon="ssh"
681     ----------------------------------------
682     The usercrypted password is created by:
683     echo YOUR_PASSWORD | mkpasswd -s
684     ("mkpasswd" is from package "whois" in Debian or Ubuntu. Check your
685     GNU/Linux to see which package provides this command if you are not using
686     Debian or Ubuntu. Replace YOUR_PASSWORD with your plain text password,
687     and remember do not put any " in the boot parameters of live-initramfs
688     (while it's ok for those ocs_* boot parameters), i.e. do NOT use something
689     like usercrypted="bkuQxLqLRuDW6").
690     //NOTE// If you do not assign salt to mkpasswd, the encrypted password
691     will not be the same every time you create it.
692     For more about usercrypted discussion, please check the here.
694     * How to put your own binary driver in Clonezilla live without modifying
695     /live/filesystem.squashfs:
697     * Boot clonezilla live
698     * Become root by running "sudo su -"
699     * Copy the dir lsi, which contains a precompiled kernel module matching
700     the running kernel in Clonezilla live and a script to run it, to a working
701     dir, e.g.:
702     cp -r /live/image/lsi /home/partimag
703     * cd /home/partimag
704     * /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-live-dev -c -s -i lsi -u lsi -x
705     "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
706     * /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-iso -s -i lsi -u lsi -x
707     "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
708     * ///NOTE/// In this example, the 2 files in dir lsi are: megasr.ko (the
709     binary driver) and prep-lsi.sh. The contents of prep-lsi.sh:
711     ------------------------
712     #!/bin/bash
713     cp -f /live/image/lsi/megasr.ko /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/
714     chown root.root /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/megasr.ko
715     depmod -a modprobe megasr
716     sleep 1
717     ------------------------
718     * To put your customized script with a PXE version of Clonezilla live
719     (You have to use Clonezilla live version 1.2.2-2 or later):
720     In this example, we assume (1) The IP address of your PXE server is
721, (2) the customized script (custom-ocs-2) is put on
722     your PXE server's tftpd root dir (E.g. On DRBL server, the path is
723     /tftpboot/nbi_img/. It might be different in your case if you are not use
724     DRBL server as a PXE server).
725     Therefor your pxelinux.cfg/default file is like:
726     ------------------------
727     label Clonezilla Live
729     # MENU HIDE
730     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live
731     # MENU PASSWD
732     kernel vmlinuz1
733     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788
734     ip=frommedia fetch=tftp://
735     ocs_prerun="busybox tftp -g -b 10240 -r custom-ocs-2 -l
736     /tmp/custom-ocs-2" ocs_live_run="bash /tmp/custom-ocs-2"
737     ocs_live_keymap="NONE" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" nolocales
738     TEXT HELP
739     Boot Clonezilla live via network
740     ENDTEXT
741     ------------------------
742     The content of custom-ocs-2 can be like:
744     ------------------------
745     #!/bin/bash
746     . /opt/drbl/sbin/drbl-conf-functions
747     . /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-functions
748     . /etc/ocs/ocs-live.conf
750     # Load language file
751     ask_and_load_lang_set en_US.UTF-8
753     # 1. Mount the clonezilla image home.
754     # Types: local_dev, ssh_server, samba_server, nfs_server
755     prep-ocsroot -t nfs_server
757     # 2. Restore the image
758     if mountpoint /home/partimag/ &>/dev/null; then
759     ocs-sr -l en_US.UTF-8 -c -p choose restoredisk ask_user ask_user
760     else
761     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] & $SETCOLOR_FAILURE
762     echo "Fail to find the Clonezilla image home /home/partimag!"
763     echo "Program terminated!"
764     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] & $SETCOLOR_NORMAL
765     fi
766     ------------------------
767     live-initramfs manual
768     ---------------------
769     This is the manual of live-initramfs {{
770     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/live-initramfs-param.php }}
772     live-initramfs(7)
773     =================
775     Name
776     ----
777     live-initramfs - Debian Live initramfs hook
779     Synopsis
780     --------
781     BOOT=live
783     as kernel parameter at boot prompt.
785     Description
786     -----------
788     live-initramfs is a hook for the initramfs-tools, used to generate
789     a initramfs
790     capable to boot live systems, such as those created by *live-helper*(7).
791     This includes the Debian Live isos, netboot tarballs, and usb stick images.
793     At boot time it will look for a (read-only) media containing a "/live"
794     directory where a root filesystems (often a compressed filesystem image like
795     squashfs) is stored. If found, it will create a writable environment, using
796     aufs, for Debian like systems to boot from.
798     You probably do not want to install this package onto a non-live system,
799     although it will do no harm.
801 sng 60 live-initramfs is a fork of casper.
802     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen
803     &lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
804     and Matt Zimmerman &lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
805 sng 28
806     Boot options
807     ------------
809     Here is the complete list of recognized boot parameters by live-initramfs.
811     access=*ACCESS*::
813     Set the accessibility level for physically or visually impared users. ACCESS
814     must be one of v1, v2, v3, m1, or m2. v1=lesser visual impairment,
815     v2=moderate
816     visual impairment, v3=blindness, m1=minor motor difficulties, m2=moderate
817     motor
818     difficulties.
820     console=*TTY,SPEED*::
822     Set the default console to be used with the "live-getty" option. Example:
823     "console=ttyS0,115200"
825     debug::
827     Makes initramfs boot process more verbose.
829     fetch=*URL*::
831     Another form of netboot by downloading a squashfs image from a given url,
832     copying to ram and booting it.
834     hostname=*HOSTNAME*, username=*USER*, userfullname=*USERFULLNAME*::
836     Those parameters lets you override values read from the config file.
838     ignore_uuid
840     Do not check that any UUID embedded in the initramfs matches the discovered
841     medium. live-initramfs may be told to generate a UUID by setting
842     LIVE_GENERATE_UUID=1 when building the initramfs.
844     integrity-check::
846     If specified, an MD5 sum is calculated on the live media during boot and
847     compared to the value found in md5sum.txt found in the root directory of the
848     live media.
853     [DEVICE]:[AUTOCONF]]***::
854 sng 28
855     Let you specify the name(s) and the options of the interface(s) that
856     should be
857     configured at boot time. Do not specify this if you want to use dhcp
858     (default).
859     It will be changed in a future release to mimick official kernel boot param
860     specification
861     (e.g. ip=,:::::eth1:dhcp).
863     ip[=**frommedia**]::
865     If this variable is set, dhcp and static configuration are just skipped
866     and the
867     system will use the (must be) media-preconfigured /etc/network/interfaces
868     instead.
870     {keyb|kbd-chooser/method}=**KEYBOARD**,
871     {klayout|console-setup/layoutcode}=**LAYOUT**,
872     {kvariant|console-setup/variantcode}=**VARIANT**,
873 sng 60 {kmodel|console-setup/modelcode}=
874     **CODE**, koptions=**OPTIONS**::
875 sng 28
876     Configure the running keyboard as specified, if this one misses
877     live-initramfs
878     behaves as if "keyb=us" was specified. It will be interfered from
879     "locale=" if
880     locale is only 2 lowecase letters as a special case. You could also specify
881     console layout, variant, code, and options (no defaults).
883     live-getty::
885     This changes the auto-login on virtual terminals to use the (experimental)
886     live-getty code. With this option set the standard kernel argument
887     "console=" is
888     parsed and if a serial console is specified then live-getty is used to
889     autologin
890     on the serial console.
892     {live-media|bootfrom}=**DEVICE**::
894     If you specify one of this two equivalent forms, live-initramfs will
895     first try
896     to find this device for the "/live" directory where the read-only root
897     filesystem should reside. If it did not find something usable, the
898     normal scan
899     for block devices is performed.
901     {live-media-encryption|encryption}=**TYPE**::
903     live-initramfs will mount the encrypted rootfs TYPE, asking the passphrase,
904     useful to build paranoid live systems :-). TYPE supported so far are
905     "aes" for
906     loop-aes encryption type.
908     live-media-offset=**BYTES**::
910     This way you could tell live-initramfs that your image starts at offset
911     BYTES in
912     the above specified or autodiscovered device, this could be useful to
913     hide the
914     Debian Live iso or image inside another iso or image, to create "clean"
915     images.
917     live-media-path=**PATH**::
919     Sets the path to the live filesystem on the medium. By default, it is set to
920     '/live' and you should not change that unless you have customized your media
921     accordingly.
923     live-media-timeout=**SECONDS**::
925     Set the timeout in seconds for the device specified by "live-media="
926     to become
927     ready before giving up.
929     {locale|debian-installer/locale}=**LOCALE**::
931     Configure the running locale as specified, if not present the live-media
932     rootfs
933     configured locale will be used and if also this one misses live-initramfs
934     behave
935     as "locale=en_US.UTF-8" was specified. If only 2 lowercase letter are
936     specified
937     (like "it"), the "maybe wanted" locale is generated (like en:EN.UTF-8),
938     in this
939     case if also "keyb=" is unspecified is set with those 2 lowercase letters
940     (keyb=us). Beside that facility, only UTF8 locales are supported by
941     live-initramfs.
943     module=**NAME**::
945     Instead of using the default optional file "filesystem.module" (see below)
946     another file could be specified without the extension ".module"; it should be
947     placed on "/live" directory of the live medium.
949     netboot[=**nfs**|**cifs**]::
951     This tells live-initramfs to perform a network mount. The parameter
952     "nfsroot="
953     (with optional "nfsopts="), should specify where is the location of the root
954     filesystem. With no args, will try cifs first, and if it fails nfs.
956     nfsopts=::
958     This lets you specify custom nfs options.
960     noautologin::
962     This parameter disables the automatic terminal login only, not touching
963     gdk/kdm.
965     noxautologin::
967     This parameter disables the automatic login of gdm/kdm only, not touching
968     terminals.
970     nofastboot::
972     This parameter disables the default disabling of filesystem checks in
973     /etc/fstab. If you have static filesystems on your harddisk and you want
974     them to
975     be checked at boot time, use this parameter, otherwise they are skipped.
977     nopersistent::
979     disables the "persistent" feature, useful if the bootloader (like syslinux)
980     has
981     been installed with persistent enabled.
983     noprompt
985     Do not prompt to eject the CD on reboot.
987     nosudo::
989     This parameter disables the automatic configuration of sudo.
991     swapon::
993     This parameter enables usage of local swap partitions.
995     nouser::
997     This parameter disables the creation of the default user completely.
999     noxautoconfig::
1001     This parameter disables Xorg auto-reconfiguration at boot time. This
1002     is valuable
1003     if you either do the detection on your own, or, if you want to ship a custom,
1004     premade xorg.conf in your live system.
1006     persistent[=nofiles]::
1008     live-initramfs will look for persistent and snapshot partitions or files
1009     labeled
1010     "live-rw", "home-rw", and files called "live-sn*", "home-sn*" and will
1011     try to,
1012     in order: mount as /cow the first, mount the second in /home, and just
1013     copy the
1014     contents of the latter in appropriate locations (snapshots). Snapshots
1015     will be
1016     tried to be updated on reboot/shutdown. Look at live-snapshot(1) for more
1017     informations. If "nofiles" is specified, only filesystems with matching
1018     labels
1019     will be searched; no filesystems will be traversed looking for archives
1020     or image
1021     files. This results in shorter boot times.
1023     {preseed/file|file}=**FILE**::
1025     A path to a file present on the rootfs could be used to preseed debconf
1026     database.
1028     package/question=**VALUE**::
1030     All debian installed packages could be preseeded from command-line that way,
1031     beware of blanks spaces, they will interfere with parsing, use a preseed
1032     file in
1033     this case.
1035     quickreboot::
1037     This option causes live-initramfs to reboot without attempting to eject the
1038     media and without asking the user to remove the boot media.
1040     showmounts::
1042     This parameter will make live-initramfs to show on "/" the ro filesystems
1043     (mostly compressed) on "/live". This is not enabled by default because could
1044     lead to problems by applications like "mono" which store binary paths on
1045     installation.
1047     textonly
1049     Start up to text-mode shell prompts, disabling the graphical user interface.
1051     timezone=**TIMEZONE**::
1053     By default, timezone is set to UTC. Using the timezone parameter, you can
1054     set it
1055     to your local zone, e.g. Europe/Zurich.
1057     todisk=**DEVICE**::
1059     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the entire read-only
1060     media to the specified device before mounting the root filesystem. It
1061     probably
1062     needs a lot of free space. Subsequent boots should then skip this step
1063     and just
1064     specify the "live-media=DEVICE" boot parameter with the same DEVICE used this
1065     time.
1067     toram::
1069     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the whole read-only
1070     media
1071     to the computer's RAM before mounting the root filesystem. This could need
1072     a lot
1073     of ram, according to the space used by the read-only media.
1075     union=**aufs**|**unionfs**::
1077     By default, live-initramfs uses aufs. With this parameter, you can switch to
1078     unionfs.
1080     utc=**yes**|**no**::
1082     By default, Debian systems do assume that the hardware clock is set to
1083     UTC. You
1084     can change or explicitly set it with this parameter.
1086     xdebconf::
1088     Uses xdebconfigurator, if present on the rootfs, to configure X instead
1089     of the
1090     standard procedure (experimental).
1092     xvideomode=**RESOLUTION**::
1094     Doesn't do xorg autodetection, but enforces a given resolution.
1096     Files
1097     -----
1099     /etc/live.conf
1101     Some variables can be configured via this config file (inside the live
1102     system).
1104     /live/filesystem.module
1106     This optional file (inside the live media) contains a list of white-space or
1107     carriage-return-separated file names corresponding to disk images in the
1108     "/live"
1109     directory. If this file exists, only images listed here will be merged
1110     into the
1111     root aufs, and they will be loaded in the order listed here. The first entry
1112     in this file will be the "lowest" point in the aufs, and the last file in
1113     this list will be on the "top" of the aufs, directly below /cow. Without
1114     this file, any images in the "/live" directory are loaded in alphanumeric
1115     order.
1117 sng 60 /etc/live-persistence.binds
1118 sng 28
1119     This optional file (which resides in the rootfs system, not in the live
1120     media)
1121     is used as a list of directories which not need be persistent: ie. their
1122     content does not need to survive reboots when using the persistence features.
1124     This saves expensive writes and speeds up operations on volatile data such as
1125     web caches and temporary files (like e.g. /tmp and .mozilla) which are
1126     regenerated each time. This is achieved by bind mounting each listed
1127     directory
1128     with a tmpfs on the original path.
1130     See also
1131     --------
1133     live-snapshot(1), initramfs-tools(8), live-helper(7), live-initscripts(7),
1134     live-webhelper(7)
1136     Bugs
1137     ----
1139     Report bugs against live-initramfs
1140 sng 60 http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs.
1141 sng 28
1142     Homepage
1143     --------
1145     More information about the Debian Live project can be found at
1146 sng 60 http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/ and
1147     http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/.
1148 sng 28
1149     Authors
1150     -------
1152 sng 60 live-initramfs is maintained by Daniel Baumann &lt;daniel@debian.org&amp;gt;
1153 sng 28 for the Debian project.
1155 sng 60 live-initramfs is a fork of casper.
1156     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen
1157     &lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
1158     and Matt Zimmerman &lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
1159 sng 28
1163     About Clonezilla Live
1164     ==============================================================================
1166     Intro
1167     ****************************************
1168     The DRBL-based PXEBoot Clonezilla is used to clone many computers
1169     simultaneously. It is an extremely useful tool, however, it does have several
1170     limitations. In order to use it, you must first prepare a DRBL server AND
1171     the machine to be cloned must boot from a network (e.g. PXE/Etherboot).
1173     To address these limitations, the Free Software Lab at the NCHC has combined
1174     Debian Live {{ http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/ }} with Clonezilla
1175     to produce "Clonezilla Live", a new software that can be used to easily
1176     clone individual machines.
1178     Clonezilla Live provides two modes of operation:
1180     * device-image
1181     In this mode of operation, a disk/partition can be saved to an
1182     image file. This image file can be used to restore the original
1183     disk/partition. With Clonezilla-SysRescCD, it can also be used to create an
1184     automated restore CD/DVD. This is the mode of operation we will discuss here.
1186     * device-device (cloning)
1187     This mode of operation creates an exact copy of the original disk/partition
1188     on the fly.
1190     When working in device-image mode, you will always have to specify three
1191     things:
1193     * The location of the image file
1194     * The working parameters for the operation
1195     * The disk/partition that will be saved/restored
1197     Clonezilla Live provides a user friendly interface in order to insert
1198     this data.
1200     When Clonezilla Live is booted up, either normally or copied to RAM, the
1201     contents of the whole CD/DVD can be found in folder /live/image. This
1202     is where you will find any extra files, such as the restorecd and the
1203     doc folders.
1205     Starting and stopping Clonezilla Live
1206     ****************************************
1207     When you boot into Clonezilla Live, the program (actually a script) starts
1208     automatically. There are many places where you can stop it, by selecting
1209     Cancel or answering N(o) to a question. When you do that you will probably
1210     get the following:
1211     Now you can choose to:
1212     (0) Poweroff
1213     (1) Reboot
1214     (2) Enter command line prompt
1215     (3) Start over
1216     [2]
1218     Select Poweroff or Reboot, only if you haven't already mounted a disk
1219     partition. I found out by experience, it is not always safe to let any live
1220     CD automatically unmount my partitions. So if you have already specified
1221     the image partition and/or the partition to save/restore, you should enter
1222     command line prompt and type:
1223     sudo su -
1224     mount | grep /dev/[sh]d
1225     and then unmount the partitions shown by the last command. So if the
1226     results of this command is for example:
1227     /dev/hda1 on /home/partimag type vfat (rw)
1228     just type the command:
1229     umount /dev/hda1
1230     and it's now safe to Poweroff of Reboot.
1232     If, on the other hand, you just want to restart the program, type:
1233     ocs-live
1235     About the Image file
1236     ****************************************
1237     One thing should be made clear about the image file: it is not a file,
1238     it is a folder, containing the actual image file and some data about the
1239     disk/partition it is associated with. So when you insert the image file name,
1240     you actually insert the folder name where the image will be saved/restored.
1242     Before you are able to insert the image file name, a list of partitions
1243     will be presented to you, so that you can choose where it should be
1244     saved/found. When you select one of them, it will be mounted under
1245     /home/partimag.
1247     This folder is very important for Clonezilla Live; the image file must be
1248     located under this directory, which means that the image file must be on
1249     the root directory of the mounted partition. So you can not, for example,
1250     create a folder called all_my_images and move all your image files in there;
1251     Clonezilla Live will not be able to find them!!!
1253     Another thing that should be pointed out is that only unmounted partitions
1254     will be included in the above list. This means that if you have stopped
1255     the program at some point after specifying the partition where the image
1256     file resides, and it has been mounted, it will not be present in the list
1257     the next time it is presented to you, and you will not be able to use it.
1259     There are two things you can do in this case; either unmount the partition,
1260     as stated above, or select
1261     skip Use existing /home/partimag
1263     instead of any other option, when you restart the program. The later of
1264     course means that you still want to use the previously specified partition
1265     as the image file location.
1267     Fianlly I should say that Clonezilla Live is able to use a remote
1268     disk/partition as the location of the image file, mounted through ssh,
1269     samba or nfs. Using any of these options is a more advanced topic, way
1270     beyond the scope of this presentation.
1272     Scripts' options
1273     ****************************************
1274     This section presents the options which are available at the "Clonezilla
1275     advanced extra parameters" screens, if the "Expert" mode is selected. For
1276     other options, see Getting backups and Restoring data.
1278     Backup options
1279     ---------------------
1280     > Imaging program priority
1282     -q2 Priority: partclone > partimage > dd
1283     -q1 Priority: Only dd (supports all filesystem, but inefficient)
1284     -q Priority: ntfsclone > partimage > dd
1285     Priority: partimage > dd (no ntfsclone)
1287     This option chooses which imaging programs are preferred. By default,
1288     Clonezilla Live uses partclone for nearly all filesystems, including
1289     ext2/3/4, NTFS and FAT32. If a filesystem isn't supported by partclone,
1290     but is supported by partimage (spesifically: if the filesystem is HFS,
1291     HPFS or JFS), it is cloned by partimage. If it isn't supported by either
1292     (for example Linux swap, though it doesn't make any sense to clone swap
1293     partitions), it is cloned by dd. Unlike partclone or partimage, dd copies
1294     all blocks of the partition instead of only used, resulting in slower
1295     imaging process and bigger images.
1297     Normally the default option -q2 should be preferred. Try another option
1298     if you have problems and believe they are caused by the imaging program used.
1300     > Various parameters
1302     These options are available at the second "Clonezilla advanced extra
1303     parameters" screen.
1304     -c Client waits for confirmation before cloning
1305     This option causes Clonezilla Live to ask if you really want to clone the
1306     disk/partition just before it starts cloning. It is enabled by default.
1308     -j2 Clone the hidden data between MBR and 1st partition
1309     If this option is set, the 15 hidden sectors between Master Boot Record
1310     and the first partition are copied. This area usually contains some data
1311     necessary for booting. The option is enabled by default and should be kept
1312     enabled if you are cloning a bootable disk.
1314     -nogui Use text output only, no TUI/GUI output
1315     Causes Clonezilla Live to force the used programs to use only command-line
1316     interface even if text-based or graphical user interface is available.
1318     -a Do NOT force to turn on HD DMA
1319     Prevents Clonezilla Live from using DMA for communicating with hard
1320     drives. Slows cloning down but in some conditions cloning without this
1321     option can be impossible.
1323     -rm-win-swap-hib Remove page and hibernation files in Win if exists
1324     This option prevents Clonezilla Live from cloning your page file if you
1325     are cloning a partition containing Windows. Often the page file is big
1326     and unneeded, and skipping it may speed cloning up without causing any
1327     harm. Mind you, this option is disabled by default because sometimes the
1328     page file may be necessary.
1330     -ntfs-ok Skip checking NTFS integrity, even bad sectors (ntfsclone only)
1331     This option works only if you selected the -q option and you're cloning
1332     a NTFS partition. It prevents the integrity check of NTFS partitions and
1333     speeds the cloning process up a little. However, if the check is disabled,
1334     there is a risk that the filesystem is damaged and the image created from
1335     it is useless.
1337     -gm Generate image MD5 checksums
1338     Causes Clonezilla Live to calculate MD5 checksum(s) of image(s) created. If
1339     the image cets corrupted afterwards, the checksum allows to notice the
1340     corruption before the image is restored. Mind you, calculating the checksum
1341     takes some time and slows the process down a little.
1343     -gs Generate image SHA1 checksums
1344     This option is identical to the above, but creates SHA1 checksum(s) instead
1345     of MD5. SHA1 is considered to be more accurate checksum algorithm than MD5,
1346     but MD5 is more popular.
1348     > Compression method
1350     -z1 gzip compression (fast with a smaller image)
1351     -z2 bzip2 compression (slowest but smallest image)
1352     -z3 lzo compression (faster with image size approx. to that of
1353     gzip)(NOTE!!)
1354     -z4 lzma compression (slowest but also small image, faster
1355     decompression than bzip2)
1356     -z0 No compression (fastest but largest image size)
1358     This option chooses the method which is used to compress the image while
1359     creating it.
1361     If no compression is used at all, there won't be any negative speed impact
1362     caused by compression. However, the image file size is the size of all the
1363     data backed up - for example, if you clone a 160 GB hard drive containing
1364     60 gigabytes of data, the resulting disk image will be 60 gigabytes in size.
1366     Gzip and lzop are fast compression methods. Lzop is many times faster than
1367     gzip, but creates slightly larger images. Clonezilla Live warns that lzop
1368     requires good-quality RAM, but I (the contributor who wrote this chapter)
1369     think other compression methods require good RAM too.
1371     Bzip2 and lzma are powerful compression methods. Lzma creates a little
1372     smaller images than bzip2, and decompressing lzma-compressed images is faster
1373     than decompressing bzip2 images. But there is no free lunch: lzma compression
1374     method is very slow compared even to bzip2, which isn't fast method either.
1376     > Splitting
1378     This option (command line: -i [number]) decides if the created image files
1379     are splitted into smaller pieces, and if yes, how large the pieces are. This
1380     setting doesn't usually matter, but some filesystems (most importantly
1381     FAT32) don't allow files larger than four gigabytes. If you're saving the
1382     disk image to a FAT32 partition, enter 4000 or less. (Value 0 disables
1383     splitting, so don't use it in that case.) If the filesystem allows files
1384     big enough, enter any value which isn't too small (you don't want to split
1385     the image into too many pieces, do you?)
1387     > Postaction
1389     -p true Do nothing when the clone finishes
1390     -p reboot Reboot client when the clone finishes
1391     -p poweroff Shutdown client when the clone finishes
1393     In this screen you can decide what Clonezilla Live does when the
1394     disk/partition is cloned.
1396     Spiros told above that he has found out that it's not always safe to allow
1397     Live CDs automatically unmount partitions, and I have lost data when trying
1398     auto-unmount with a script. So, avoid -p reboot and -p poweroff options
1399     if possible. You have been warned.
1401     Restore options (script ocs-sr)
1402     ---------------------
1403     > Various parameters
1405     These options are available at the first "Clonezilla advanced extra
1406     parameters" screen.
1407     -g auto Reinstall grub in client disk MBR (only if grub config exists)
1408     Causes Clonezilla Live to reinstall GRUB into the Master Boot Record
1409     of the disk if at least one partition contains GRUB config file
1410     (/boot/grub/menu.lst). The option is enabled by default and shouldn't
1411     cause any harm. However, it should be disabled if you for example have
1412     another bootloader in MBR and chainload GRUB with it.
1414     -e1 auto Automatically adjust filesystem geometry for a NTFS boot partition
1415     if exists
1416     The NTLDR bootloader used by Windows isn't able to determine automatically
1417     where the files it needs are stored. It only knows their physical locations,
1418     which sometimes change when the disk or partition is copied. If the locations
1419     are changed and this option is selected, the location information of the
1420     files is changed accordingly. This option is enabled by default and if
1421     it's disabled, the cloned Windows will fail to boot.
1423     -e2 sfdisk uses CHS of hard drive from EDD(for non-grub boot loader)
1424     This option requires that the -e1 auto option is selected. It causes
1425     Clonezilla Live to use disk read interface named EDD for determining the
1426     physical locations of the files when updating the location information
1427     used by NTLDR. The option is enabled by default because it reduces the
1428     risk that Windows doesn't boot.
1430     -hn0 PC Change MS Win hostname (based on IP address) after clone
1431     If this option is selected and a partition containing Microsoft Windows is
1432     cloned, its IP address -based hostname is changed after cloning. Computers
1433     which are on any network simultaneously need to have different hostnames,
1434     so this option is needed if a Windows system is cloned to another computer
1435     and the original computer is still used in addition to the one where the
1436     image was restored to.
1438     -hn1 PC Change MS Win hostname (based on MAC address) after clone
1439     This option causes the MAC address -based hostname of Windows to change. This
1440     option needs also be enabled in the above condition.
1442     -v Prints verbose messages (especially for udpcast)
1443     Causes Clonezilla Live to tell more information of what it does.
1445     -nogui Use text output only, no TUI/GUI output
1446     Causes Clonezilla Live to force the used programs to use only command-line
1447     interface even if text-based or graphical user interface is available.
1449     -b Run clone in batch mode (DANGEROUS!)
1450     Causes Clonezilla Live to run in batch mode. According to Clonezilla
1451     Live reference card, this option is dangerous, though I (the contributor)
1452     don't know why.
1454     -c Client waits for confirmation before cloning
1455     This option causes Clonezilla Live to ask if you really want to clone the
1456     disk/partition just before it starts cloning. It is enabled by default.
1458     -t Client does not restore the MBR (Mater Boot Record)
1459     Do NOT restore the MBR (Mater Boot Record) when restoring image. If this
1460     option is set, you must make sure there is an existing MBR in the current
1461     restored harddisk. Default is Yes.
1463     -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For Windows only)
1464     If this option is set, the MBR is overwritten by prebuilt one which
1465     chainloads Windows. Use this option if you have to restore Windows and
1466     make it bootable, but don't have the original MBR or backup of it.
1468     -r Try to resize the filesystem to fit partition size
1469     This option is useful if you are cloning a small disk to larger one. It
1470     tries to resize the restored filesystem to the size of the partition where
1471     it was restored to. It allows you to use the whole size of your new disk
1472     without resizing the partition afterwards. The option requires that the
1473     disk where the image is copied already contains a partition where the
1474     image is restored or that the option -k1 is enabled.
1476     -e sfdisk uses the CHS value of hard drive from the saved image
1477     Force to use the saved CHS (cylinders, heads, sectors) when using sfdisk. Of
1478     cource, there is no use of it when using any of -j0, -k or -k2 options.
1480     -j1 Write MBR (512 B) again after image is restored. Not OK for partition
1481     table diffe
1482     When a disk image is restored, the partition table must be updated to
1483     reflect the actual partitions in the disk. If you don't want it to happen,
1484     enable this option. Then the Master Boot Record (including the partition
1485     table) is restored again after restoring the image. Note that using this
1486     option can destroy all the data in the target drive.
1488     -j2 Clone the hidden data between MBR and 1st partition
1489     If this option is set, the 15 hidden sectors between Master Boot Record
1490     and the first partition are restored. This area usually contains some data
1491     necessary for booting. The option is enabled by default and should be kept
1492     enabled if you are cloning a bootable disk.
1494     -cm Check image by MD5 checksums
1495     If the image folder contains MD5 checksum(s), this option causes Clonezilla
1496     Live to check if the image has corrupted by calculating its checksum and
1497     comparing it to the precalculated one. Mind you, calculating the checksum
1498     takes some time and slows the process down a little.
1500     -cs Check image by SHA1 checksums
1501     This option is identical to the above, but checks SHA1 checksum(s) instead
1502     of MD5.
1504     -a Do NOT force to turn on HD DMA
1505     Prevents Clonezilla Live from using DMA for communicating with hard
1506     drives. Slows cloning down but in some conditions cloning without this
1507     option can be impossible.
1509     -o0 Run script in $OCS_PRERUN_DIR before clone starts
1510     Run the scripts in the directory $OCS_PRERUN_DIR before clone is
1511     started. The location of the directory can be determined by editing the
1512     file drbl-ocs.conf. By default it is /opt/drbl/share/ocs/prerun.
1514     -o1 Run script in $OCS_POSTRUN_DIR as clone finishes
1515     Run the scripts in the directory $OCS_POSTRUN_DIR when clone is
1516     finished. The location of the directory can be determined by editing the
1517     file drbl-ocs.conf. By default it is /opt/drbl/share/ocs/postrun. The
1518     command will be run before that assigned in -p.
1520     The scripts will be executed by the program "run-parts". run-parts only
1521     accepts that the name of the scripts must consist entirely of upper and
1522     lower case letters, digits and underscores. So if your file name has an
1523     illegal character ".", run-parts won't run it. You can test which files
1524     will be executed by entering the command:
1525     run-parts --test /opt/drbl/share/ocs/postrun
1527     > Partition table
1529     This option decides what is done to the partition table of the target drive.
1530     Use the partition table from the image
1531     This option causes Clonezilla Live to copy the partition table from the
1532     image. Use this option if you are cloning a whole disk or somehow know that
1533     the partition tables are identical (for example, if you are restoring a
1534     partition to the same disk where it was copied from and haven't repartitioned
1535     the drive after creating the backup). This is the default option.
1537     -k Do NOT create a partition table on the target disk
1538     Do NOT create partition in target harddisk. If this option is set,
1539     you must make sure there is an existing partition table in the current
1540     restored harddisk.
1542     -k1 Create partition table proportionally (OK for MRB format, not GPT)
1543     Causes Clonezilla Live to create the partition table automatically using
1544     sfdisk after restoring the images. This option works nearly always, but
1545     sometimes cloned Windows don't boot. Note that this option doesn't work if
1546     you have GUID Partition Table on your disk. (Most likely you don't have one.)
1548     -k2 Enter command line prompt to create partition manually later
1549     Like the -k option, this option doesn't create the partition table
1550     automatically. However, after restoring the image you are led to command
1551     line prompt where you can create the partition table manually. Don't use
1552     this option if you don't know how the partition table can be created.
1554     -j0 Use dd to create partition (NOT OK if logical drives exist)
1555     Use dd to dump the partition table from saved image instead of sfdisk.
1557     We read in DRBL FAQ/Q&A {{
1558     http://drbl.sourceforge.net/faq/fine-print.php?path=./2_System/23_Missing_OS.faq#23_Missing_OS.faq
1559     }}:
1561     When I use clonezilla to clone M$ windows, there is no any problem
1562     when saving an image from template machine. However, after the image
1563     is restored to another machine, it fails to boot, the error message is
1564     "Missing Operating System". What's going on ?
1566     Usually this is because GNU/Linux and M$ windows interpret the CHS (cylinder,
1567     head, sector) value of harddrive differently. Some possible solutions:
1568     1. Maybe you can change the IDE harddrive setting in BIOS, try to use
1569     LBA instead of auto mode.
1570     2. Try to choose
1571     [ ] -j0 Use dd to create partition table instead of sfdisk
1572     and
1573     [ ] -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For Windows only)
1574     when you restore the image.
1575     3. You can try to boot the machine with MS Windows 9x bootable floppy,
1576     and in the DOS command prompt, run: "fdisk /mbr".
1577     4. You can try to boot the machine with MS Windows XP installation
1578     CD, enter recovery mode (by pressing F10 key in MS XP, for example),
1579     then in the console, run "fixmbr" to fix it. Maybe another command
1580     "fixboot" will help, too. For more info, refer to this doc {{
1581     http://support.microsoft.com/?scid=kb%3Ben-us%3B314058&x=7&y=14 }}
1582     5. Use ntfsreloc to adjust FS geometry on NTFS partitions. For more info,
1583     refer to http://www.linux-ntfs.org/doku.php?id=contrib:ntfsreloc
1585     It has been confirmed that activating the -j0 option, fixes the problem.
1587     This option doesn't work if you use LVM (Logical Volume Manager).
1589     exit Exit
1590     This option ends the restore process and enters command line prompt.
1592     > Postaction
1594     -p true Do nothing when the clone finishes
1595     -p reboot Reboot client when the clone finishes
1596     -p poweroff Shutdown client when the clone finishes
1598     When image restoration finishes, do one of the following: choose action
1599     (default), poweroff or reboot.
1601     Saving image files in NTFS partitions
1602     ****************************************
1603     Although not recomended, you may find yourself having to save your image
1604     file in a NTFS (Windows XP) partition. You may never have a problem doing
1605     this, but you may get a message like the following one, when the partition
1606     gets mounted:
1607     Volume is scheduled for check
1608     Please boot into Windows TWICE, or use 'force' mount option"
1609     and the backup procedure fails. There are two things you can do here:
1611     * Exit the program, reboot and use Windows XP Recovery Console to fix the
1612     NTFS file system. From Recovery Console
1613     prompt, execute the command:
1614     chkdsk /f X:
1616     where X: is the drive letter of the disk. When done, boot back into
1617     Clonezilla Live and repeat the backup procedure.
1619     If the Windows version you use is not XP, boot into SystemRescueCD
1620     (graphical mode is not needed) and run the following command:
1621     ntfsfix /dev/hda1
1623     where /dev/hda1 is the partition name in GNU/Linux. When done, boot back
1624     into Clonezilla Live and repeat the backup procedure.
1626     If the disk/partition you are trying to backup is not the Windows System
1627     disk (usually C:), you can boot Windows, and execute the command in a DOS
1628     window. To open a DOS window click Start / Run... and at the prompt Open:
1629     type cmd.
1631     * If Windows XP Recovery Console is not available, you don't have the time
1632     to execute the procedure described above, or even if you have executed it
1633     but you still get the same message, and you are absolutely sure that you
1634     get this message because the NTFS partition is really scheduled for check,
1635     and it's not because Windows crushed or have become corrupt, you can mount
1636     the patririon by hand and tell Clonezilla Live to use it. Assuming the
1637     partition is /dev/hda1, exit the program and execute the commands:
1638     sudo su -
1639     ntfs-3g -o force /dev/hda1 /home/partimag
1640     ocs-live
1642     and when you get to the screen "Mount clonezilla image directory", select
1643     skip Use existing /home/partimag
1648     Getting backups
1649     ==============================================================================
1651     Intro
1652     ****************************************
1653     In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting
1654     a backup of a virtual partition (/dev/hdb1). The image file will be saved
1655     in another virtual partition (/dev/hda1).
1657     The first thing you do when you want to get a backup of a disk/partition,
1658     is make sure both the souce (to be backed up) and target (to hold the
1659     image file) partitions are in excellent condition (error free). This is the
1660     logical thing to do, cause I wouldn't want to backup a corrupt partition,
1661     or end up with a corrupt image file.
1663     There is one more step I would want to take: I should check that my BIOS
1664     boot settings are correct, in order to boot from my CD/DVD drive.
1666     Having done all of the above, I am ready to boot from Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
1668     [[ info.png ]]
1669     The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.3-27
1671     Getting the backup
1672     ****************************************
1673     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
1674     ---------------------
1675     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
1676     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
1677     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
1678     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
1679     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
1680     that continue from this step.
1682     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
1683     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
1684     displayed.
1686     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
1687     are the following:
1689     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
1690     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1691     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1692     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
1694     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
1695     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
1696     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
1698     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
1699     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1700     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1701     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
1703     Screen "Choose Language"
1704     ---------------------
1705     [[ backup-00.png ]]
1706     I select "en_US.UTF-8 English" and press ENTER.
1708     Screen "Configuring console-data"
1709     ---------------------
1710     [[ backup-01.png ]]
1711     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
1712     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
1714     Screen "Configuring console-data"
1715     ---------------------
1716     [[ backup-02.png ]]
1717     As I (the contributor who wrote a great deal of this page) use Finnish
1718     keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish / Standard / Standard". Because
1719     you most likely use a different keyboard, choose the one you use.
1721     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
1722     ---------------------
1723     [[ backup-03.png ]]
1724     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
1726     Screen "Clonezilla"
1727     ---------------------
1728     [[ backup-04.png ]]
1729     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
1731     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
1732     ---------------------
1733     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory will be saved.
1734     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
1735     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
1736     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
1738     [[ backup-05.png ]]
1739     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
1741     Next screen
1742     ---------------------
1743     This is where I choose the location of the image file. It will be saved
1744     at the root directory of the selected partition.
1746     [[ backup-06.png ]]
1747     I select partition hda1 and press ENTER.
1749     [[ backup-07.png ]]
1750     and then ENTER again.
1752     [[ backup-08.png ]]
1753     This screen displays the mounting result.
1754     As we can see, /dev/hda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
1756     Next Screen
1757     ---------------------
1758     [[ backup-09.png ]]
1759     I select Beginer mode to accept the default backup options. If you select
1760     Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
1761     found here.
1763     Screen "Select mode"
1764     ---------------------
1765     Here I can select the desired operation.
1767     [[ backup-10.png ]]
1768     I select "savedisk" and press ENTER.
1770     Next Screen
1771     ---------------------
1772     [[ backup-11.png ]]
1773     In this screen I select the image name.
1774     I type "Backup_5-2010_hdb", which in my opinion is more informative name
1775     than the default.
1777     Next Screen
1778     ---------------------
1779     [[ backup-12.png ]]
1780     Finally I am asked to select the partition to save.
1781     I just press ENTER again.
1783     Starting the backup
1784     ---------------------
1785     [[ backup-13.png ]]
1786     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
1787     ask me to press ENTER.
1788     Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
1790     [[ backup-14.png ]]
1791     After that, the backup begins
1793     [[ backup-15.png ]]
1794     and when it's successfully completed, I will be able to reboot the system
1795     by pressing 1 and ENTER.
1800     Getting backups on Samba
1801     ==============================================================================
1803     Intro
1804     ****************************************
1805     What if you don't have a spare local disk or partition or a USB disk? How
1806     will you be able to get a backup of your system? Well, if your PC is on
1807     the same LAN with another PC running Windows (or linux), you can use Samba
1808     to save your image file on that remote PC (which we will call Samba server
1809     from now on).
1811     Using Samba you will be able to mount a Windows share resource (or
1812     Samba share resource), from within Clonezilla Live, and save the image
1813     file there. Then you can boot that PC using SystemRescueCD and create a
1814     restore DVD.
1816     In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting a
1817     backup of my Windows partition (/dev/hda1). The image file will be save in
1818     my Samba server which is my laptop (ip:, Windows share resource
1819     name: data).
1821     What is Samba?
1822     ---------------------
1823     We read at http://us1.samba.org/samba/:
1825     Samba is an Open Source/Free Software suite that provides seamless file
1826     and print services to SMB/CIFS clients. Samba is freely available, unlike
1827     other SMB/CIFS implementations, and allows for interoperability between
1828     Linux/Unix servers and Windows-based clients.
1830     Samba is software that can be run on a platform other than Microsoft
1831     Windows, for example, UNIX, Linux, IBM System 390, OpenVMS, and other
1832     operating systems. Samba uses the TCP/IP protocol that is installed on the
1833     host server. When correctly configured, it allows that host to interact
1834     with a Microsoft Windows client or server as if it is a Windows file and
1835     print server.
1837     Gathering info
1838     ****************************************
1839     Before you can use this approach to get a backup, you have to get some
1840     info about the Samba server.
1842     The Samba server I have used for this example was my laptop, so I already
1843     knew most of the info required. If this is not the case for you, just ask
1844     the owner, user or system admin.
1846     The info required is:
1848     * The IP address of the Samba server
1849     * The domain on the Samba server
1850     This may exist if your PC is connected to a larger LAN (a corporation
1851     network, for example). In my case this is empty.
1852     * The user name and password you can use
1853     * The directory on the Samba server you can use to save your backup
1854     This is the name of the Windows share resource (Samba share resource)
1855     as it is known in the network, which is not necessarily the same as the
1856     local directory name. The user whose account will be used to login to the
1857     Samba server, must have write permission to this directory.
1859     Getting the backup
1860     ****************************************
1861     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
1862     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
1863     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
1864     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
1865     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup.
1867     If you need to change these settings, go to the Getting backups page for
1868     instructions .
1870     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
1871     ---------------------
1872     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
1874     Screen "Clonezilla"
1875     ---------------------
1876     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
1878     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory" [^
1879     ---------------------
1880     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory will be saved.
1881     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
1882     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
1883     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
1885     I select "samba server" and press ENTER.
1887     Screen "Mount Samba Server"
1888     ---------------------
1889     This is where I have to enter the IP address of my Samba server. I type
1890     "" and press ENTER.
1892     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (second time)
1893     ---------------------
1894     This is where I have to enter the account (user) name on my Samba server. I
1895     type "spiros" and press ENTER.
1897     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (third time)
1898     ---------------------
1899     This is where I have to enter the domain name on my Samba server. I select
1900     "Cancel" and press ENTER, as there is no domain in my LAN. If there
1901     is a domain in your network, you have to type its name (something like
1902     my_company.com) and press ENTER.
1904     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (fourth time)
1905     ---------------------
1906     This is where I have to enter the directory name on my Samba server,
1907     in which the image file will be saved. I type "/data" and press ENTER.
1909     At this point I will be asked for the password for user spiros. I will be
1910     able to continue only after entering it correctly.
1912     Screen "Clonezilla - Opensource Clone System (OCS)"
1913     ---------------------
1914     I select Beginner mode to accept the default backup options. If you select
1915     Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
1916     found here.
1918     Screen "Clonezilla: Select mode"
1919     ---------------------
1920     Here I can select the desired operation. Available options are:
1922     savedisk
1923     Save entire disk to image
1925     restoredisk
1926     Restore entire disk from image
1928     saveparts
1929     Save partition to image
1931     restoreparts
1932     Restore partition from image
1934     recovery-iso-zip
1935     Create an automated restore CD/DVD/USB drive
1937     I select "saveparts" and press ENTER.
1939     Screen "Clonezilla - Opensource Clone System (OCS) | Mode: saveparts"
1940     ---------------------
1941     This is the name of the image file. You can insert anything you like,
1942     as long as it makes sence to you, so that you can distinguish the image
1943     file afterwards.
1945     I insert "win_img" and press ENTER.
1947     Next screen
1948     ---------------------
1949     Here I can select the partition that will be backed up. I select "( )
1950     hda1 ntfs" by pressing SPACE and press ENTER, and ENTER again.
1952     Then a message is displayed asking for confirmation in order to continue. I
1953     just press y, and the backup procedure begins.
1955     Rebooting the system
1956     ****************************************
1957     When the backup is done, I get the following:
1958     (0) Poweroff
1959     (1) Reboot
1960     (2) Enter command line prompt
1961     (3) Start over
1962     [2]
1963     Then I press ENTER and get to the shell. I execute the commands:
1964     sudo su -
1965     cd
1966     umount -a
1967     reboot
1972     Restoring data
1973     ==============================================================================
1975     Intro
1976     ****************************************
1977     Image files are always created for one purpose: restoring the data they
1978     contain. Images can be, for example, a backup solution: as long as hardware
1979     works, the computer can be restored to the state it was when creating the
1980     image. Another usage scenario is changing the hard drive: files can be
1981     copy-pasted from the old drive to the new, but that method doesn't make
1982     the new drive bootable. Disk images do.
1984     This page contains a demonstration of the latter case. On the Getting backups
1985     page, a 500 MB virtual disk containing 160 megabytes of data was copied
1986     to a 2 GB virtual disk which was empty. Now the 500 MB disk is changed to
1987     an empty 2 GB disk (still virtual) and I'll restore the data to that disk.
1989     When creating a disk image, one needs to check that both the source and
1990     target partitions are error free. That's not required when the image is
1991     restored, because restoration process can't damage the disk image. Note,
1992     however, that restoring an image erases all the data in the target
1993     disk/partition.
1995     You also need to check the BIOS settings to be able to boot from
1996     Clonezilla-SysRescCD. Some BIOSes contain a boot menu, others require
1997     editing settings pernamently. Details can be found on the manual of the
1998     motherboard or laptop.
2000     Now let's boot.
2002     [[ important.png ]]
2003     Restore process erases all the data on the target disk/partition.Before
2004     restoring make sure you have backup of all the data on the target
2005     disk/partition, even if the filesystem is corrupted.
2007     [[ info.png ]]
2008     The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.3-27
2010     Restoring data
2011     ****************************************
2012     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
2013     ---------------------
2014     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2015     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2016     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2017     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2018     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
2019     that continue from this step.
2021     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
2022     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
2023     displayed.
2025     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
2026     are the following:
2028     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2029     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2030     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2031     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
2033     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
2034     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
2035     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
2037     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2038     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2039     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2040     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
2042     Screen "Choose Language"
2043     ---------------------
2044     [[ backup-00.png ]]
2045     This is where the language can be selected. I select "en_US.UTF-8 English"
2046     and press ENTER.
2048     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2049     ---------------------
2050     [[ backup-01.png ]]
2051     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
2052     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
2054     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2055     ---------------------
2056     [[ backup-02.png ]]
2057     Because I haven't changed my keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish /
2058     Standard / Standard". Because you most likely use a different keyboard,
2059     choose the one you use.
2061     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2062     ---------------------
2063     [[ backup-03.png ]]
2064     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2066     Screen "Clonezilla"
2067     ---------------------
2068     [[ backup-04.png ]]
2069     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2071     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2072     ---------------------
2073     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory has been saved.
2074     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2075     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2076     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2078     [[ backup-05.png ]]
2079     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
2081     Next screen
2082     ---------------------
2083     This is where I choose the location of the image file.
2084     [[ restoration-06.png ]]
2085     I select partition hda1 and press ENTER.
2087     [[ backup-07.png ]]
2089     [[ restoration-08.png ]]
2090     This screen displays the mounting result.
2091     As we can see, /dev/hda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
2093     Next Screen
2094     ---------------------
2095     [[ backup-09.png ]]
2096     I select Beginer mode to accept the default restore options. If you select
2097     Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
2098     found here.
2100     Screen "Select mode"
2101     ---------------------
2102     Here I can select the desired operation.
2104     [[ restoration-10.png ]]
2105     I select "restoredisk" and press ENTER.
2107     Next Screen
2108     ---------------------
2109     [[ restoration-11.png ]]
2110     In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only
2111     one image.
2113     Next Screen
2114     ---------------------
2115     [[ restoration-12.png ]]
2116     Finally I am asked to select which partition the image will be restored
2117     to. After double-checking the disk doesn't contain anything important,
2118     I press ENTER.
2120     Starting the restoration
2121     ---------------------
2122     [[ restoration-13.png ]]
2123     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2124     ask me to press ENTER.
2125     Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
2127     [[ restoration-14.png ]]
2129     [[ important.png ]]
2130     This is the last confirmation Clonezilla Live asks.After this step there
2131     is no coming back.
2132     Then my confirmation is asked one last time. After checking one more time
2133     the disk doesn't contain any important data, I press y and ENTER.
2135     [[ restoration-15.png ]]
2136     After that, the restore process begins
2138     [[ restoration-16.png ]]
2139     and when it's successfully completed, I will be able to reboot the system
2140     by pressing 1 and ENTER.
2145     Creating a Restore DVD - Part 1
2146     ==============================================================================
2148     Intro
2149     ****************************************
2150     Assuming you have used Clonezilla Live to make a backup of your Windows XP
2151     system (partition /dev/hda1), which you have saved as win_img, you will
2152     probably be wondering what to do with it now. Well, one option would be
2153     to keep it to the disk you used to save it in, store the disk, and use it
2154     whenever you need it. Another option would be to create a DVD you can use
2155     to restore this image.
2157     Before, up to Clonezilla-SysRescCD 2.6.0, the process to create an automated
2158     restore DVD required entering command line prompt and writing some commands,
2159     that can be uncomfortable or even difficult for many people.
2161     Later, a TUI option to create an automated recovery disc was added to
2162     Clonezilla Live, and ocs-iso script included in Clonezilla-SysRescCD
2163     3.1.0 and newer has a TUI too. Old command-line options are no longer
2164     supported. This page walks you through the creation of an automated restore
2165     DVD via TUI.
2167     Assuming you have saved your image file win_img in partition hdb4, you
2168     have to boot Clonezilla Live, using Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
2170     [[ info.png ]]
2171     The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.3-27
2173     Creating the disk image
2174     ****************************************
2175     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
2176     ---------------------
2177     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2178     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2179     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2180     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2181     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
2182     that continue from this step.
2184     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
2185     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
2186     displayed.
2188     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
2189     are the following:
2191     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2192     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2193     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2194     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
2196     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
2197     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
2198     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
2200     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2201     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2202     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2203     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
2205     Screen "Choose Language"
2206     ---------------------
2207     [[ backup-00.png ]]
2208     I select "en_US.UTF-8 English" and press ENTER.
2210     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2211     ---------------------
2212     [[ backup-01.png ]]
2213     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
2214     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
2216     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2217     ---------------------
2218     [[ backup-02.png ]]
2219     Because I haven't changed my keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish /
2220     Standard / Standard". Because you most likely use a different keyboard,
2221     choose the one you use.
2223     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2224     ---------------------
2225     [[ backup-03.png ]]
2226     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2228     Screen "Clonezilla"
2229     ---------------------
2230     [[ backup-04.png ]]
2231     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2233     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2234     ---------------------
2235     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory has been saved.
2236     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2237     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2238     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2240     [[ backup-05.png ]]
2241     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
2243     Next screen
2244     ---------------------
2245     This is where I choose the location of the image file.
2246     [[ restore-06.png ]]
2247     I select partition hda1 and press ENTER.
2249     [[ backup-07.png ]]
2250     and then ENTER again.
2252     [[ restore-08.png ]]
2253     This screen displays the mounting result.
2254     As we can see, /dev/hda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
2256     Next Screen
2257     ---------------------
2258     [[ backup-09.png ]]
2259     I select Beginer mode to accept the default restore options, which are
2260     used if the recovery disk is ever used. If you select Expert mode, you
2261     can choose the options yourself. More details can be found here.
2263     Screen "Clonezilla: Select mode"
2264     ---------------------
2265     Here I can select the desired operation.
2267     [[ restore-10.png ]]
2268     I select "recovery-iso-zip" and press ENTER.
2270     Next Screen
2271     ---------------------
2272     [[ restore-11.png ]]
2273     In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only
2274     one image.
2276     Next Screen
2277     ---------------------
2278     [[ restore-12.png ]]
2279     Now I am asked to select which disk the image will be restored to, if the
2280     recovery disc is used. Because this image is a backup, I choose the same
2281     disk where the original data resides. If you're upgrading your hard drive,
2282     choose the new drive.
2284     Next Screen
2285     ---------------------
2286     [[ restore-13.png ]]
2287     In this screen I can select the language that the recovery disc uses. I
2288     choose "en_US.UTF-8".
2290     Next Screen
2291     ---------------------
2292     [[ restore-14.png ]]
2293     This screen allows me to select the keymap that the recovery disc
2294     uses. Unfortunately, changing the keymap requires knowing where the keymap
2295     file resides in Debian GNU/Linux. Because I don't know it, I just press
2296     ENTER to accept US keymap.
2298     Next Screen
2299     ---------------------
2300     [[ restore-15.png ]]
2301     I select "iso" to create a CD/DVD disk image which I can burn to a recordable
2302     CD/DVD disc. The good thing about recordable discs is that overwriting
2303     the backup by accident is impossible. The "zip" option creates a ZIP file
2304     which can be used to create a bootable pendrive or external hard drive.
2306     [[ restore-16.png ]]
2307     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2308     ask me to press ENTER.
2310     [[ cust-menu-01.png ]]
2311     Due to limitations of mkisofs, the script can't create a ISO file which
2312     is over 4,5 gigabytes in size. It causes problems if the size of your
2313     image is over 4,4 gigabytes. Clonezilla-SysRescCD contains a workaround
2314     that creates a ISO file that contains no image, so you can add the image
2315     manually later. This dialog asks if you want to do so. Note that if you
2316     see this dialog, you most likely need a dual layer DVD+R or Blu-ray disc
2317     to burn the image. Growisofs doesn't support multisession burning on dual
2318     layer DVD-R discs, so such disc can't be used either.
2320     Screen "Customization section"
2321     ---------------------
2322     [[ cust-menu-02.png ]]
2323     Now I am asked if I want to customize the boot menu of the disc. I answer
2324     "Yes". If you don't want to customize the menu, continue from this step.
2326     Screen "DVD Title"
2327     ---------------------
2328     [[ cust-menu-03.png ]]
2329     In this screen I select the title of the boot menu. I type "Home PC
2330     Restore DVD".
2332     Screen "Menu Items Caption"
2333     ---------------------
2334     [[ cust-menu-04.png ]]
2335     This screen allows me to select the caption for all menu items. I enter
2336     "Restore Win XP".
2338     Screen "Boot delay"
2339     ---------------------
2340     [[ cust-menu-05.png ]]
2341     I press ENTER to accept the default delay of 30 seconds. It means that
2342     when a computer is booted from the restore disc, it waits 30 seconds
2343     before choosing the default option automatically. You may want to reduce
2344     this delay if, for example, your keyboard doesn't work in boot menu and
2345     you must wait until the delay ends.
2347     Screen "Default Boot Item"
2348     ---------------------
2349     [[ cust-menu-06.png ]]
2350     In this screen I can select the default option of the menu. Selecting one
2351     of the options that restore the image makes using the disc even easier,
2352     but also raises the risk that the image is restored accidentally. Another
2353     reason to select such option may be that your keyboard doesn't work in
2354     boot menu, preventing you from choosing any non-default option. I select
2355     the first option that restores the image using pixel dimensions of 1024*768.
2357     Screen "Boot Screen Image"
2358     ---------------------
2359     [[ cust-menu-07.png ]]
2360     This screen allows me to select the background picture of the menu. Note
2361     that the picture must be in the same partition that contains the disk
2362     image, if you don't mind entering command line and mounting the right
2363     partition manually. I choose picture mysplash.png in the root of the
2364     partition. Because the partition has been mounted in /home/partimag,
2365     the full path of the picture is /home/partimag/mysplash.png.
2367     Screen "ISO Label"
2368     ---------------------
2369     [[ cust-menu-08.png ]]
2370     In this screen I can select the volume label of the disc. Volume label is
2371     the name of the disc you may see in various situations, for example in the
2372     notification you see when you insert the disc into your DVD writer. I type
2373     "Backup_52-2009_hdb".
2375     Screen "Publisher ID"
2376     ---------------------
2377     [[ cust-menu-09.png ]]
2378     This is where I choose the publisher ID of the ISO file
2379     and the disc. Publisher ID means the person or company who
2380     created the disc. However, at least in GNU/Linux reading
2381     the publisher ID is, strictly speaking, a challenge. Here {{
2382     http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/getting-volume-information-from-cds-iso- }}
2383     are instructions to read the publisher ID of a ISO file. I didn't find
2384     any working instructions to read the ID from the disc.
2386     Starting the creation of the disk image
2387     ---------------------
2388     [[ restore-17.png ]]
2389     After that, creation of the disk image begins. Note that no confirmation
2390     is asked it the disk image is small enough to fit to a CD.
2392     [[ cust-menu-10.png ]]
2394     If you have above enabled the workaround to create a ISO file without any
2395     image, you get the info screen, which explains the actions to be taken
2396     in order to burn the ISO file and add the iamge file to the DVD. A script
2397     file is also saved as /tmp/burnISO.
2399     [[ restore-18.png ]]
2400     When the disk image is successfully created, I must reboot in order to
2401     burn the disc because my DVD burner is still in use. Clonezilla Live can
2402     be loaded into computer memory during boot in order to be able to burn
2403     disc(s) within it. However, due to a known bug, the disk image can't
2404     be created if Clonezilla Live has been loaded into memory. (source {{
2405     http://free.nchc.org.tw/clonezilla-live/stable/Known-issues-Clonezilla-live.txt
2406     }}) Thus, I press 1 and ENTER to reboot to another operating system and
2407     burn the image using graphical burning program. For instructions, follow
2408     one of these links:
2410     If the ISO file contains the disk image
2411     If the ISO file contains no image
2412     If you've created a ZIP file
2417     Creating a Restore DVD - Part 2
2418     ==============================================================================
2420     What to do with the disk image
2421     ****************************************
2422     The previous page contains partial instructions to create an automated
2423     recovery DVD. They're partial because they only tell how the disk image
2424     can be created, not what one should do with the image. Of course, partial
2425     instructions are not enough, but don't worry - this page is the other part.
2427     Earlier versions of Clonezilla Live allowed creating the DVD without
2428     reboot, but it's no longer possible due to a known bug. The disk image
2429     can't be created if Clonezilla Live has been loaded into memory (source {{
2430     http://free.nchc.org.tw/clonezilla-live/stable/Known-issues-Clonezilla-live.txt
2431     }}) and the image can't be burned to disc if Clonezilla Live isn't in
2432     memory. And if the computer must be rebooted anyway, it's a good idea to
2433     use one's favorite operating system and a graphical burning program for
2434     burning the disc. Doing so also allows reading these instructions while
2435     burning the disc.
2437     This page walks through burning the disc by using ImgBurn and K3b. The
2438     instructions can be adapted for many other burning programs as well. If
2439     your burning program is too different, download either of the programs
2440     mentioned - they both can be downloaded for free.
2442     In addition to a DVD, bootable pendrive or external hard drive can be
2443     created as well. If you want to do so, follow instructions below.
2445     Before following these instructions, insert a writable DVD or Blu-ray disc
2446     to your burner.
2448     Burning the disc
2449     ****************************************
2450     If the ISO file contains the disk image
2451     ---------------------
2452     > Using ImgBurn
2454     ImgBurn {{ http://www.imgburn.com/ }} is a lightweight but very feature-rich
2455     disc burning program. It only requires about two megabytes disk space
2456     and contains a lot of settings. ImgBurn is closed-source freeware and -
2457     unfortunately - Windows-only software. I (Jyrki) personally use ImgBurn
2458     when burning discs within Windows.
2460     Launch ImgBurn and press Write image file to disc. Select the disk image
2461     you just created.
2463     At the settings window, keep Test Mode disabled. I also recommend
2464     keeping the Verify option enabled. Verifying the integrity of the disc
2465     after burning requires time and doesn't prevent the disc from becoming a
2466     so-called coaster, but it allows you to know immediately if the burning
2467     attempt failed, so you can try burning the disc again.
2469     Keep the number of copies as 1 (or increase it, if you really
2470     want multiple copies of the disc). Use your best judgment while
2471     choosing the burning speed: according to this forum thread {{
2472     http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/ }} lowering
2473     the burning speed gives very mixed results in quality. I personally use
2474     ¾ of the maximum speed of the disc, for example 12x on a disc rated 16x.
2476     After choosing the settings, press the big picture at the bottom-left of
2477     the window. Don't do anything that requires much computer resources while
2478     burning, because doing so increases the likelihood of burning failure.
2480     That's it. You own now an automated recovery disc.
2482     > Using K3b
2484     K3b (KDE Burn Baby Burn) is the disc burning program included in KDE
2485     Software Compilation. It comes with most, if not all, KDE-based GNU/Linux
2486     distributions. It can also be installed on other distributions, but I
2487     recommend against doing so - K3b requires KDE base packages to be installed,
2488     and it doesn't make much sense to install KDE base only for K3b.
2490     [[ k3b-00.png ]]
2491     I launch K3b and navigate to the folder where the disk image resides.
2493     [[ k3b-01.png ]]
2494     I double-click the file clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hda.iso.
2496     [[ k3b-02.png ]]
2497     This window allows me to choose burning settings. I don't touch Image Type or
2498     Burn Medium, because they're auto-detected anyway. The maximum burning speed
2499     allowed by the disc is 16x, so I choose speed 12x. According to this forum
2500     thread {{ http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/
2501     }} low burning speed can decrease burning quality, so I always use speed
2502     near the maximum speed of the disc.
2504     I keep Writing Mode as Auto and number of copies as 1. I also keep the
2505     Simulate option disabled and enable the Verify written data option. The
2506     latter allows me to notice immediately if the burning attempt failed, so
2507     I can try burning the disc again, rather than owning a so-called coaster
2508     and relying on it if something happens to my data...
2510     [[ k3b-03.png ]]
2511     I click Start and the burning process begins.
2513     [[ k3b-04.png ]]
2514     Because I enabled the Verify written data option, K3b starts verifying
2515     the integrity of the disc right after burning.
2517     [[ k3b-05.png ]]
2518     The burning attempt succeeded.
2520     If the ISO file contains no image
2521     ---------------------
2522     If you have enabled the workaround to create a ISO file that contains
2523     no disk image (required if the size of the image is over 4,4 gigabytes),
2524     things become much more problematic. The ISO file and the image can't be
2525     burned to the disc simultaneously, they must be written one-by-one. That
2526     requires two burning sessions: the first for writing the ISO file to the
2527     disc and the second for adding the disk image. Many burning programs don't
2528     even support multisession burning at all. About the programs I've mentioned
2529     in this page: K3b supports multisession burning, ImgBurn doesn't.
2531     I didn't find any instructions for adding an additional file to a
2532     spesific directory by using K3b. Actually, I don't even know if that's
2533     possible at all. Thus, I recommend using growisofs for burning the disc
2534     if the workaround has been enabled, because growisofs allows adding
2535     any file to any directory. However, there's one more limitation:
2536     growisofs doesn't support multisession burning on dual layer DVD-R
2537     discs, so you must use dual layer DVD+R or Blu-ray disc. (source {{
2538     http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/-RW/#nomultisess }})
2540     Growisofs is a command-line program and a part of dvd+rw-tools that is
2541     installed on most GNU/Linux distributions. Dvd+rw-tools is Linux-only
2542     software, so if you use a competing operating system, you must boot into
2543     SystemRescueCD (graphical mode is not needed) in order to burn the disc.
2545     Open terminal and mount the partition that contains the image. The commands
2546     below must be run as root.
2548     mkdir /media/usb
2549     mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb
2551     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
2552     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above the
2553     command. For example, the latter of the above commands can be executed by
2554     typing "sudo mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb". If you're using SystemRescueCD,
2555     all commands are run as root, so you don't need to add any prefix to
2556     the commands.
2558     Note: In the command replace /dev/sdc1 with the partition where the disk
2559     image resides. It's the same partition you mounted as /home/partimag when
2560     creating the image.
2562     Go to root of the partition:
2564     cd /media/usb
2566     Burn the ISO file to the disc:
2568     growisofs -Z /dev/dvd=clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.iso
2570     Note: In the last command I have assumed your ISO file is
2571     clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.iso. You will have to replace this with
2572     the actual name of the file.
2574     Note: If your computer has multiple DVD drives, replace /dev/dvd with the
2575     name of your DVD writer.
2577     The disc must be ejected because it's the only known way to force the
2578     drive to reread the disc. Do it:
2580     eject /dev/dvd
2582     Note: If your drive can't reload the disc, insert the disc back right
2583     after ejecting it.
2585     Finally, add the image file to the disc:
2587     growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J -V "Backup_5-2010_hdb" --publisher "Your Name"
2588     -graft-points /Backup_5-2010_hdb/=/media/usb/Backup_5-2010_hdb
2590     Note: In the command replace Your Name with anything you want to be the
2591     publisher ID of the disc. If you don't want the disc to have any publisher
2592     ID, run this command instead:
2594     growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J -V "Backup_5-2010_hdb" -graft-points
2595     /Backup_5-2010_hdb/=/media/usb/Backup_5-2010_hdb
2597     [[ restore-20.png ]]
2599     ZIP file instructions
2600     ****************************************
2601     Often the image file is way too big to fit to even 8 GB DVD. Some people may
2602     also want to be able to overwrite the backup when it becomes outdated. In
2603     addition, netbooks don't have optical drives at all.
2605     One option is using recovery thumb drive or external hard drive instead
2606     of DVD. If the external HD is big enough, the disk image can be even over
2607     a terabyte in size. Recovery USB drive can also be used on netbooks and
2608     overwritten at will.
2610     Clonezilla Live allows creating a ZIP file instead of disk image. If you
2611     want to do so, follow this step-by-step guide.
2613     Before creating the disk image, make sure it is split to pieces of four
2614     gigabytes or less. It is split automatically if you use Beginner mode,
2615     and if you use Expert mode, you should already know how the splitting
2616     setting can be changed.
2618     Using GNU/Linux
2619     ---------------------
2620     After creating the disk image and booting into GNU/Linux, make sure that the
2621     filesystem of the partition where you plan to put the disk image is FAT32. If
2622     you don't know the filesystem, open terminal and run this command as root:
2624     fdisk -l /dev/sdc
2626     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
2627     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above
2628     the command. For example, the above command can be executed by typing
2629     "sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdc"
2631     Note: In the command replace /dev/sdc with the name of your USB disk.
2633     Note: The l in parameter -l is lowercase L, not number 1.
2635     If your disk doesn't contain any FAT32 partition, but it contains a
2636     partition which is big enough and doesn't contain any important data,
2637     format the partition as FAT32. The command below needs root access too.
2639     [[ important.png ]]
2640     The command below erases all the data on the target partition.Make sure
2641     you don't format a wrong partition by accident.
2643     mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sdc1
2645     After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32,
2646     extract the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Also these commands
2647     need root rights.
2649     mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb
2650     unzip clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.zip -d /media/usb/
2652     Note: In the last command I have assumed your image file is
2653     clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.zip. You will have to replace this with
2654     the actual name of the file.
2656     ZIP package contains a script to make the USB drive bootable. Let's run
2657     it. The latter of these commands needs root access.
2659     [[ important.png ]]
2660     The latter of the commands below replaces theexisting bootloader of the
2661     target disk, if there is one.Make sure you don't select a wrong disk
2662     by accident.
2664     cd /media/usb/utils/linux
2665     ./makeboot.sh /dev/sdc1
2667     That's all. Your thumb drive or external hard drive should be now an
2668     automatic recovery disk.
2670     Using Windows
2671     ---------------------
2672     If the Windows version you use is not Vista or 7, you need to be logged in
2673     as administrator. If you're not, but you have access to an admin account,
2674     log out and then log again in as admin.
2676     If you don't have admin rights at all, boot into SystemRescueCD (you don't
2677     need graphical mode this time) and follow the instructions for GNU/Linux. In
2678     SystemRescueCD all commands are run as root, so you don't need to add any
2679     prefix to the commands.
2681     If you normally use Windows, you maybe don't know the name of your USB
2682     disk in GNU/Linux. If that's the case, don't specify any disk in the first
2683     command. It causes fdisk to tell about all disks in the computer and you
2684     should be able to identify both the right disk and the right partition.
2686     After creating the disk image and booting into Windows, make sure that
2687     the filesystem of the partition where you plan to put the disk image is
2688     FAT32. If you don't know the filesystem, open My Computer, right-click the
2689     partition and select Properties. Then read the "File system" column. If
2690     there reads anything but FAT32, check other partitions of the disk too,
2691     if the disk contains multiple partitions. If you have a suitable FAT32
2692     partition, continue from this step.
2694     If your disk doesn't contain any FAT32 partition, but it contains a
2695     partition which is big enough and doesn't contain any important data,
2696     format the partition as FAT32.
2698     [[ important.png ]]
2699     Formatting erases all the data on the target partition.Make sure the
2700     partition contains nothing important.
2702     Right-click the partition and select Format.... If the Windows version
2703     you use is Vista or 7, an UAC prompt asks for admin password. Enter it.
2705     At the format window, choose the FAT32 filesystem. You can enter any volume
2706     label (it means the name of the partition you can see next to the partition
2707     letter) and enable Quick Format if you're in a hurry. If Quick Format is
2708     disabled, Windows checks if the partition is physically OK after formatting
2709     it. Enabling Quick Format makes the formatting process many times faster
2710     and, contrary to popular belief, hardly ever causes any harm.
2712     After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32, extract
2713     the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Navigate to the folder where
2714     you've saved the ZIP file and right-click it. Choose Extract all..., and when
2715     you're asked for location where the archive is extracted, enter the letter
2716     of the partition, for example H:\. Do NOT choose any folder in the partition!
2718     After that, browse to the folder X:\utils\win32, where X: is the letter
2719     of the partition. Then, double-click makeboot.bat. If the Windows version
2720     you use is Vista or 7, another UAC prompt appears. Enter the password
2721     again. Then just follow the prompts to make the USB drive bootable.
2723     Now you're done. Your thumb drive or external hard drive should be an
2724     automatic recovery disk.
2729     Restoring to a different location
2730     ==============================================================================
2732     Intro
2733     ****************************************
2734     In the past restoring to a different location was not supported by
2735     Clonezilla Live at all. Because of that, a script called reloc-img was
2736     added to Clonezilla-SysRescCD, which would help the user perform this task.
2738     Recent versions of Clonezilla Live partly support restoring to a
2739     different location, so the reloc-img script is obsolete, and has been
2740     removed. Clonezilla Live now supports:
2742     * Relocation of a disk image (restoring a whole disk)
2743     * Relocation of a partition image (restoring a partition)
2745     Clonezilla Live does not support:
2747     * Relocation of a single partition contained into a disk image.
2749     Imagine you have a disk backup image named hda-2009-02-02. The image
2750     contains three partitions, hda1 (operating system), hda2 (user data)
2751     and hda3 (other data).
2753     You want to restore your other data partition (hda3), to a different system
2754     (partition sdb2) but there is no way to restore (extract) a single partition
2755     from a disk image - you can only restore the whole disk.
2757     In order to address this situation, two new scripts have been written for
2758     Clonezilla-SysRescCD: imginfo and imgconvert
2760     Script imginfo
2761     ****************************************
2762     The script will be used to print info about existing image files.
2764     Its help screen is:
2766     # imginfo -h
2767     Clonezilla Live Image Information
2768     imginfo v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
2770     Usage: imginfo <options> <directory>
2772     Available options:
2773     s Search in sub-directories too
2774     i [name] Pring info for image [name]
2775     v Print version info and exit
2776     h Print this screen and exit
2778     Script imgconvert
2779     ****************************************
2780     The script will be used to convert an existing disk image file to a new
2781     partition image file.
2783     imgconvert can create two type of images:
2785     * Temporary image
2786     This type of image is created by linking the data files of the existing
2787     disk image to the new partition image. This means that the original image
2788     must be present for the new image to be used. This is the default image
2789     type created by imgconvert.
2791     * Permanent image
2792     This type of image is created by copying the data files from the existing
2793     disk image to the new partition image. This means that the original image is
2794     not needed in order to use the new one. Permenant image files are created
2795     using the command line parameter -p.
2797     Its help screen is:
2799     # imgconvert -h
2800     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2801     imgconvert v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
2803     Usage: imgconvert <options> [image] [partition] <new partition>
2805     Parameters are:
2806     [image] Disk image to be converted to partition image
2807     [partition] Partition name to convert. It must be a valid device name
2809     Available options:
2810     o [image] Save new imag as [image]
2811     p Save new partition instead of making a link to the old one
2812     v Print version info and exit
2813     h Print this screen and exit
2815     Using the scripts
2816     ****************************************
2817     Restoring to a partition
2818     ---------------------
2819     After booting into Clonezilla Live, I select
2821     Enter_shell Enter command line prompt
2823     when the menu is displayed and then I press 2 to exit to the shell.
2825     At this point I will mount my images partition (in this example /dev/sdc4),
2826     and use script imginfo to get info about my image files.
2828     $ sudo su -
2829     # mount /dev/sdc4 /home/partimag
2830     # cd /home/partimag
2831     # imginfo
2832     Image files found in: /home/partimag
2833     Image: usb250-img, disk: sda, size: 259MB, parts: 1
2834     part: sda4, size: 247.00MB, type: FAT16
2835     Image: sys-bck, disk: hda, size: 320.0GB, parts: 3
2836     part: hda1, size: 22.36GB, type: Linux
2837     part: hda2, size: 39.06GB, type: Linux
2838     part: hda3, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
2840     As you can see there are two disk images under /home/partimag: usb250-img
2841     and sys-bck.
2843     sys-bck is a backup of my old system, which had three partitions. What
2844     I need to do now is "copy" the hda3 partition to my current system, by
2845     transfering its data to partition sdb2.
2847     The way to proceed is:
2849     * Create a new partition image (containing hda3's data) based on the
2850     existing disk image file, by executing the command:
2852     # imgconvert sys-bck hda3 sdb2
2853     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2854     imgconvert v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras
2856     Determining input image
2857     Input image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck"
2858     Validating image... ok
2859     Determining input partition
2860     Input partition: "hda3"
2861     Validating input partition... ok
2862     Determining output image
2863     Output image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck-cnv"
2864     Validating output image... ok
2865     Checking permissions... ok
2866     Determining output partition
2867     Output partition: "sda2"
2868     Validating output partition... ok
2869     Creating output image: /home/partimag/sys-bck-cnv
2870     Linking files... done
2871     Fixing info files... done
2873     This command will create a temporary partition image file (automatically
2874     named sys-bck-cnv), which contains sdb2 only, as you can see by executing:
2876     # imginfo -i sys-bck-cnv
2877     Image: sys-bck-cnv, part: sdb2, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
2879     * Restart Clonezilla Live by pressing Control-D twice.
2881     * Restore the new image file into sdb2, by selecting
2883     Screen 1: Start_Clonezilla Start Clonezilla
2885     Screen 2: device-image disk/partition to/from image
2887     Screen 3: skip use existing /home/partimag
2889     Screen 4: Beginer / Expert
2891     Screen 5: restoreparts
2892     Restore_an_image_to_local_partition
2894     and continue as usual to restore the partition.
2896     Converting image files
2897     ---------------------
2898     # imgconvert -p -o other_data sys-bck hda3 sdb2
2899     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2900     imgconvert v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras
2902     Determining input image
2903     Input image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck"
2904     Validating image... ok
2905     Determining input partition
2906     Input partition: "hda3"
2907     Validating input partition... ok
2908     Determining output image
2909     Output image: "/home/partimag/other_data"
2910     Validating output image... ok
2911     Checking permissions... ok
2912     Determining output partition
2913     Output partition: "sda2"
2914     Validating output partition... ok
2915     Creating output image: /home/partimag/other_data
2916     Copying files... done
2917     Fixing info files... done
2919     # imginfo -i other_data
2920     Image: other_data, part: sdb2, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
2922     # ls -la sys-bck
2923     total 1111972
2924     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-11-22 03:21 .
2925     drwxr-xr-x. 34 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:28 ..
2926     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4 2007-11-20 20:33 disk
2927     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1081716736 2007-11-20 20:32 hda1.aa
2928     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 45453312 2007-11-20 20:33 hda2.aa
2929     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10317824 2007-11-20 20:33 hda3.aa
2930     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2007-11-21 18:56 hda-chs.sf
2931     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2007-11-21 18:50 hda-chs.sf.orig
2932     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 512 2007-11-20 20:31 hda-mbr
2933     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 259 2007-11-21 18:59 hda-pt.sf
2934     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 259 2007-11-21 18:50 hda-pt.sf.orig
2935     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 15 2007-11-20 20:33 parts
2936     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17 2007-11-20 20:33 swappt-hda4.info
2937     #
2938     #
2939     # ls -la other_data
2940     total 24
2941     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:27 .
2942     drwxr-xr-x. 35 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:27 ..
2943     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5 2009-04-06 21:27 parts
2944     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10317824 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb2.aa
2945     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb-chs.sf
2946     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 106 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb-pt.sf
2948     Booting a restored Linux system
2949     ****************************************
2950     A Linux system that has been restored to a new disk/partition, is usually
2951     not ready to be booted right after the restoration procedure is finished.
2953     There are two more steps that you may have to take:
2955     * Fix /etc/fstab
2956     * Reinstall GRUB.
2957     I will assume GRUB is your boot manager, as it is the usual case nowadays.
2959     For this example I will assume that you have restored a Linux system
2960     (that used to be in sdb), to a new disk (hda), and that it contains three
2961     partitions, / (the root partition), /home (user's partition) and a swap
2962     partition. You must be really careful here, as the name of the new disk
2963     depends on the system to be booted. If it uses one of the newest Linux
2964     kernels (using the libata disk driver), ALL your disks will be recognised
2965     as SCSI. More info: "Identifying devices in Linux" section "SCSI disks
2966     when there are none!!!".
2968     This is what we have:
2970     root partition home partition swap partition
2971     Old system /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdb3
2972     New system /dev/hda1 /dev/hda2 /dev/hda3
2974     Fixing /etc/fstab
2975     ---------------------
2976     Since we are still in Clonezilla Live, right after the restore procedure
2977     has finished, we will use it to mount our restored root partition, and
2978     edit its /etc/fstab. We issue the commands:
2980     mkdir /new-root
2981     mount /dev/hda1 /new-root
2982     vi /new-root/etc/fstab
2984     The contents of /etc/fstab could be something like
2986     /dev/sdb1 / reiserfs acl,user_xattr 1 1
2987     /dev/sdb2 /home reiserfs defaults 1 2
2988     /dev/sdb3 swap swap defaults 0 0
2990     and we have to change ti to
2992     /dev/hda1 / reiserfs acl,user_xattr 1 1
2993     /dev/hda2 /home reiserfs defaults 1 2
2994     /dev/hda3 swap swap defaults 0 0
2996     Finally, we unmount the partition, and we are ready to reboot
2998     umount /new-root
2999     reboot
3001     Reinstalling GRUB
3002     ---------------------
3003     When Clonezilla-SysRescCD menu appears, we select Tools > Super Grub Disk
3005     Then we select Super Grub Disk > Super Grub Disk (WITH HELP) > English
3006     Super Grub Disk > Gnu/Linux > Fix Boot of Gnu/Linux (GRUB). From this
3007     entry we will be able to reinstall GRUB to our hard disk.
3009     You may also want to have a look at Super Grub Disk "documentation {{
3010     http://www.supergrubdisk.org/wiki/SuperGrubDiskDocumentation }}".
3015     Fixing boot problems
3016     ==============================================================================
3018     Intro
3019     ****************************************
3020     Boot problems are probably the most feared computer problems. Without an
3021     operating system you can't access your data, get the work done or even
3022     google for help. That's why it's often a good idea to have an alternative
3023     operating system available for searching help if the main OS doesn't
3024     work. Also a copy of Clonezilla-SysRescCD can be invaluable help.
3026     Actually, the initial reason why I (Jyrki) installed GNU/Linux at all was
3027     that I wanted to be able to fix Windows boot problems if they occur. I
3028     installed both GNU/Linux and GRUB to my external hard drive, completely
3029     separating operating systems. Even if either bootloader stopped working,
3030     I'd still be able to boot one of my OSes.
3032     But such configuration is not easy to create, and when I installed GNU/Linux,
3033     I knew very little about it. If I didn't read the instructions I found
3034     here and there very carefully, I probably would have done a common mistake:
3035     installing GRUB to my internal hard drive. Such mistake would have caused
3036     two problems:
3038     * Inability to boot GNU/Linux at any computer expect the one which was
3039     used for installing
3040     * Inability to boot Windows when the external drive isn't connected
3042     In this page, I simulate that situation in a virtual machine and fix
3043     both problems.
3045     Symptoms
3046     ****************************************
3047     What happens when I try to boot the external hard drive on another computer
3048     depends on the BIOS of the computer. For example, on my computer I see a
3049     Black Screen of Death {{ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Screen_of_Death
3050     }} when I try booting from a disk with empty Master Boot Record. Other
3051     BIOSes may boot the local operating system or display an error message
3052     (for example "Disk boot failure", "Missing operating system" or "Operating
3053     system not found").
3055     The other problem is very easy to determine. When external drive is
3056     disconnected and I try to boot, I'll see this:
3058     [[ error-21.png ]]
3060     Goals
3061     ****************************************
3062     Because I still want to separate my operating systems completely,
3063     I try to restore NTLDR to the Master Boot Record of the internal disk,
3064     if possible. If that's not possible, I install there another bootloader
3065     that chainloads Windows.
3067     I could reinstall GNU/Linux completely and make sure that the GRUB is
3068     installed to the right disk this time, but it's not a good idea if I only
3069     need to overwrite the first 446 bytes (yes, bytes, not kilo- or megabytes)
3070     of the disk. So, I only install GRUB to the external disk, by using Super
3071     Grub Disk.
3073     Your problem (if you have one at all) most likely is different, but goals
3074     are often the same.
3076     You need to restore NTLDR if you...
3078     * ...just installed GNU/Linux, but the boot menu doesn't mention Windows
3079     at all. You're not willing to learn how Windows can be added to the boot
3080     menu, you just need to make your computer to boot Windows again right now.
3081     * ...cloned your Windows partition to your brand new computer but didn't
3082     clone the Master Boot Record.
3083     * ...are about to uninstall GNU/Linux and aren't willing to use GRUB as
3084     your bootloader.
3086     You need to install GRUB if you...
3088     * ...just installed Windows and want to make GNU/Linux bootable again.
3089     * ...cloned your GNU/Linux partition to your brand new computer but didn't
3090     clone the Master Boot Record.
3091     * ...just installed GNU/Linux but installed GRUB to a non-first hard drive
3092     by accident. (The symptom is that your computer still boots to the operating
3093     system you had installed already.)
3095     [[ info.png ]]
3096     The following pressentation has been made usingSuper Grub Disk v0.9799
3098     Restoring NTLDR
3099     ****************************************
3100     There are a lot of ways to restore NTLDR. However, sometimes there is no
3101     legal way to restore it, and I'm NOT telling about the illegal ones. The
3102     last resort is using syslinux to chainload Windows; there is usually no
3103     way to notice that syslinux is used instead of NTLDR.
3105     I've listed here the most important options in order I'd use them.
3107     Restoring NTLDR from a backup
3108     ---------------------
3109     If you've been smart enough to use Clonezilla Live to create a disk image
3110     of your first hard drive, it's very easy to restore NTLDR.
3112     Your NTLDR is safe in a file called hda-mbr or sda-mbr. You can use dd to
3113     overwrite your existing Master Boot Record.
3115     [[ important.png ]]
3116     Don't restore all 512 bytes of your Master Boot Record.The MBR contains
3117     your partition table and restoring it afterrepartitioning your disk erases
3118     all the data on the disk.
3120     If you normally use GNU/Linux, open terminal and run these commands as root:
3122     mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/usb
3123     dd if=/mnt/usb/Backup/sda-mbr of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1
3125     Note: In the commands I have assumed that your first hard drive is /dev/sda
3126     and that your disk image resides in the folder Backup in partition
3127     /dev/sdc1. You will have to replace them with the correct pieces of
3128     information.
3130     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
3131     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above
3132     the command. For example, the latter of the above commands can be executed
3133     by typing "sudo dd if=/mnt/usb/Backup/sda-mbr of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1"
3135     If you normally use another operating system, boot into SystemRescueCD and
3136     run the above commands. In SystemRescueCD all commands are run as root,
3137     so you don't need to add any prefix to the commands.
3139     If you don't know the name of the partition, run this command as root:
3141     fdisk -l
3143     It tells how many hard drives you have, how many partitions they contain
3144     and what filesystems the partitions use. If you know, for example, that
3145     the disk where you've saved the disk image contains only one partition,
3146     look for such disks.
3148     Using Bootrec.exe (Windows Vista/7 only)
3149     ---------------------
3150     You need Windows Vista/7 install disc for this. If you don't have one (for
3151     example, if you bought a laptop that was bundled with preinstalled Windows
3152     and manufacturer's recovery disc), download a recovery disc from here.
3154     Then boot from the disc. After selecting language, time, currency and
3155     keyboard, click Repair your computer. You'll get a list of operating systems
3156     you're able to repair. Choose any of them; that choice doesn't matter.
3158     After that, you'll see a dialog box named System Recovery Options. Click
3159     Command Prompt. Then you only need to execute one command:
3161     Bootrec /FixMbr
3163     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example,
3164     "bootrec /fixmbr".
3166     Using FIXMBR (Windows XP only)
3167     ---------------------
3168     You need Windows XP install disc. Boot from it, and when you see the screen
3169     "Windows XP Home Edition Setup" or "Windows XP Professional Setup", press
3170     R to enter the Recovery Console. Then choose the Windows installation you
3171     want to log onto. If you have only one copy of Windows installed, press
3172     1 and ENTER. After that, enter the administator password and press ENTER.
3174     There is only one command to run:
3176     FIXMBR
3178     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example, "fixmbr".
3180     Using FDISK (Windows 95/98/Me only)
3181     ---------------------
3182     For this, you need a floppy drive. You also need to run a Windows-only
3183     program, so your first challenge is to boot Windows without NTLDR.
3185     Don't worry, Super Grub Disk makes it possible. Boot into it.
3187     [[ supergrubdisk-01.png ]]
3188     Just choose the option "!WIN! :(((" and press ENTER.
3190     When you have Windows up and running, download the boot disk
3191     image appropriate to your version of Windows from Bootdisk.Com {{
3192     http://www.bootdisk.com/bootdisk.htm }}. Then put a floppy to your floppy
3193     drive.
3195     If the floppy isn't already formatted, open My Computer, right-click the
3196     floppy drive and select Format....
3198     At the format window, choose the capacity of 1,44 megabytes and Full format
3199     type. You can enter any label (it means the name of the floppy you can see
3200     next to the floppy drive letter) and disable the summary if you wish. Keep
3201     the Copy system files option disabled.
3203     When you have a formatted floppy in your drive, double-click the boot disk
3204     image you downloaded. When it's done, shut Windows down and check your
3205     BIOS settings to be able to boot from the floppy. Some BIOSes contain a
3206     boot menu, others require editing settings pernamently. Details can be
3207     found on the manual of the motherboard or laptop.
3209     Then boot from the floppy. When you're given three boot options, choose
3210     the option 2. Start computer without CD-ROM support. Wait a moment to
3211     enter command line and run this command:
3213     FDISK /MBR
3215     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example,
3216     "fdisk /mbr".
3218     Installing syslinux using Super Grub Disk
3219     ---------------------
3220     The above four are the only legal ways I know to restore NTLDR to the
3221     Master Boot Record. Unfortunately, sometimes none of them can be used. If
3222     that's the case, it's time to switch bootloader. GRUB can be configured to
3223     chainload Windows, and usually it even does that automatically, but this
3224     page isn't intended to help configuring GRUB. I assume that if you're
3225     primarily a Windows user and reading this page, you don't want to learn
3226     how to use GNU/Linux, you just want to make Windows bootable again.
3228     Maybe the easiest way to do so is installing syslinux using Super Grub
3229     Disk. Super Grub Disk configures it automatically to chainload the first
3230     active partition. The partition should contain Windows, Windows can't boot
3231     if its partition isn't active.
3233     Boot into Super Grub Disk.
3235     [[ supergrubdisk-01a.png ]]
3236     Choose the option "WIN => MBR & !WIN! :(((((((((((((((((((((" and
3237     press ENTER. Windows will be booted automatically right after installing
3238     syslinux.
3240     Installing GRUB
3241     ****************************************
3242     Contrary to various ways to restore NTLDR, there is only one way to install
3243     GRUB I recommend. That's Super Grub Disk, because it contains GRUB no
3244     matter what has happened to the hard drive(s). First, I boot into it.
3246     [[ supergrubdisk-01b.png ]]
3247     I select "Choose Language & HELP :-)))" and press ENTER.
3249     Screen "S.G.D. Language Selection."
3250     ---------------------
3251     [[ supergrubdisk-02.png ]]
3252     I select "English Super Grub Disk" and press ENTER.
3254     [[ supergrubdisk-03.png ]]
3255     I press ENTER...
3257     [[ supergrubdisk-04.png ]]
3258     ...and then ENTER again...
3260     [[ supergrubdisk-05.png ]]
3261     ...and then ENTER once again...
3263     [[ supergrubdisk-06.png ]]
3264     ...and finally ENTER one more time.
3266     Screen "English Super Grub Disk (Help)"
3267     ---------------------
3268     [[ supergrubdisk-07.png ]]
3269     I select "Advanced".
3271     Screen "Advanced (Help)"
3272     ---------------------
3273     [[ supergrubdisk-08.png ]]
3274     I select "GRUB" and press ENTER.
3276     Screen "GRUB (Help)"
3277     ---------------------
3278     [[ supergrubdisk-09.png ]]
3279     I select "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)" and press ENTER...
3281     [[ supergrubdisk-10.png ]]
3282     ...and ENTER.
3284     Screen "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)"
3285     ---------------------
3286     [[ supergrubdisk-11.png ]]
3287     I select "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)" and press ENTER. If you
3288     want to install GRUB to the Master Boot Record of the first hard drive,
3289     "Automatically Install" is a better choice. If you don't know if you
3290     want GRUB to the first or some other disk, you most likely want it to the
3291     first disk.
3293     Screen "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)"
3294     ---------------------
3295     [[ supergrubdisk-12.png ]]
3296     I confirm my decision by selecting "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)"
3297     again and pressing ENTER.
3299     Screen "Partition of GRUB"
3300     ---------------------
3301     [[ supergrubdisk-13.png ]]
3302     In this screen I can select the disk that contains the partition that
3303     contains the files needed by GRUB. In this case, that disk is the external
3304     hard drive. As you can see, the disk is only three megabytes in size -
3305     because the computer used for screenshots is still virtual. Actually, the
3306     "disk" where I'm installing GRUB is just a file.
3308     Next Screen
3309     ---------------------
3310     [[ supergrubdisk-14.png ]]
3311     This is where I choose the partition where GRUB files reside. This disk
3312     contains only one partition.
3314     Screen "Restore to MBR of Hard Disk"
3315     ---------------------
3316     [[ supergrubdisk-15.png ]]
3317     I select the external hard drive to install GRUB to its Master Boot Record.
3319     [[ supergrubdisk-12.png ]]
3320     Some text scrolled in the screen (too fast to read or take a screenshot)
3321     and I was back at this screen. I rebooted the computer. (In this situation,
3322     you can safely do a "hard reboot" by pressing reset button once or power
3323     button twice.)
3325     [[ grub-loading.png ]]
3326     GRUB booted successfully.
3331     Booting an old PC
3332     ==============================================================================
3334     Intro
3335     ****************************************
3336     Have you ever tried to boot an old PC off a CD-ROM, and found out it
3337     wouldn't, because its BIOS does not support it, or it's faulty or for any
3338     other reason? Well, I have. So this page is an effort to solve this problem.
3340     The only way to do it, is to boot of a floppy disk which will help me
3341     "load" whatever operation system I want from a CD. This means that I will
3342     have to write a boot loader to the floppy disk.
3344     The software I will use is Smart Boot Manager {{
3345     http://sourceforge.net/projects/btmgr/ }}, a small boot manager with a
3346     nice TUI (Text User Interface). Its floppy image, already accessible from
3347     the "Tools" menu, can be found in the bootdisk folder of the CD under the
3348     name sbm.img.
3350     Writing the image to a floppy disk
3351     ****************************************
3352     All you have to do is get to a PC equipped with a floppy drive, get a
3353     floppy disk which is in excellent condition (no bad sectors/blocks),
3354     and copy the image file to it.
3356     1. From Linux
3357     ---------------------
3358     You can either boot Clonezilla Live or SystemRescueCD, and when the system
3359     is fully up, execute the command:
3361     dd if=/path/to/sbm.img of=/dev/fd0
3363     where /path/to is
3364     /live/image/bootdisk for Clonezilla Live
3365     /mnt/livecd/bootdisk for SystemRescueCD
3367     2. From DOS
3368     ---------------------
3369     You can get into any DOS (boot FreeDOS from the CD, for example), and use
3370     any of the following programs found in the rawrite folder of the CD:
3372     * rawrite.exe: is just here for completeness, as it may be needed for someone
3373     * rawrite2.exe: should be the fastest
3374     * rawrite3.com: should work if rawrite2 fails for some reason
3375     * fdimage.exe: rawrite alternative
3377     I found these programms at the FreeDOS web site {{
3378     http://www.fdos.org/ripcord/rawrite/ }}, where the following info is
3379     included:
3381     Basic Usage (Rawrite):
3382     Depending on the exact version, the output and command line support may
3383     vary, i.e. not work
3384     Usage:
3385     MS-DOS prompt> RAWRITE
3386     and follow the prompts, -or-
3388     MS-DOS prompt> RAWRITE [-f ] [-d ] [-n(owait)] [-h(elp)]
3389     where: -f - name of disk image file
3390     -d - diskette drive to use, must be A or B
3391     -n - don't prompt for user to insert diskette
3392     -h - print usage information to stdout
3394     The diskette must be formatted or rawrite will not work.
3395     The contents of the disk do not matter and will be overwritten.
3396     When ran interactively (without command line options) you will be prompted
3397     for the disk image filename (you must remember this as there is no file
3398     chooser).
3399     You will also be prompted for the target/destination drive, either A or
3400     B for A: or B: respectively.
3401     Basic Usage (FDImage):
3402     fdimage is an updated DOS program meant to replace rawrite. It does not
3403     require a pre-formatted floppy diskette.
3405     FDIMAGE - Write disk image to floppy disk
3406     Version 1.5 Copyright (c) 1996-7 Robert Nordier
3408     Usage: fdimage [-dqsv] [-f size] [-r count] file drive
3410     -d Debug mode
3411     -f size Specify the floppy disk format by capacity, eg:
3412     160K, 180K, 320K, 360K, 720K, 1.2M, 1.44M, 2.88M
3413     -q Quick mode: don't format the disk
3414     -r count Retry count for format/write operations
3415     -s Single-sector I/O
3416     -v Verbose
3418     In order to write the image file to a pre-formatted diskette, execute
3419     the commands:
3421     X:
3422     cd rawrite
3423     rawrite2 -f X:bootdisksbm.img -d b:
3425     In order to write the image file and format the diskette at the same time,
3426     execute the commands:
3428     X:
3429     cd rawrite
3430     fdimage -f 1.44M X:bootdisksbm.img b:
3432     where X: is the drive name in DOS
3434     3. From Windows
3435     ---------------------
3436     The final alternative is to use Windows program rawwritewin.exe (found in
3437     the utils\rawrite folder of the CD), as shown in the following image:
3439     [[ rawwritewin.png ]]
3444     Using SystemRescueCD
3445     ==============================================================================
3447     Intro
3448     ****************************************
3449     SystemRescueCD is an excellent Live CD. It contains cloning software too
3450     (FSArchiver {{ http://www.fsarchiver.org/Main_Page }} and partimage,
3451     to be spesific), but is unable to clone a whole disk, instead of only
3452     individual partitions.
3454     Clonezilla Live is a great cloning solution, but it is unable to do anything
3455     but clone. For general system administration, you need a lot more functions
3456     - like these offered by SystemRescueCD.
3458     Clonezilla-SysRescCD has all of the functions of both discs. It's a
3459     multi boot CD, so switching between CDs requires a reboot, but using
3460     both individual discs requires switching the physical disc - in addition
3461     to rebooting.
3463     But, of course, to be able to use SystemRescueCD's functions, you need to
3464     know how to use them. We don't have permission to redistribute SystemRescueCD
3465     documentation, so this page contains only just enough information to allow
3466     you to look for more help in SystemRescueCD documentation.
3468     Which boot option to pick?
3469     ****************************************
3470     You may be confused because of the number of boot options you have. After
3471     choosing "CD 2: System Rescue CD" you have a total of 15 options to boot
3472     SystemRescueCD. Here is a table of them.
3474     kernel Normal To RAM Graphical Environment VESA Mini Shell
3475     32-bit xxx +++
3476     32-bit (alt)
3477     64-bit xxx +++
3479     In the table, I have marked the options you most likely need. You should
3480     choose either of the options marked with a '+++' if you have no idea and/or
3481     time to read the next sections.
3483     Choosing the column
3484     ---------------------
3485     If you're accustomed to graphical environment, choose Graphical
3486     Environment. In Graphical Environment you're able to use graphical programs,
3487     like GParted and Mozilla Firefox. Terminals are also available, so using
3488     Graphical Environment doesn't prevent using command line. The only negative
3489     thing of Graphical Environment is that it slows booting process down a bit -
3490     and it's often just plain unneeded.
3492     Try VESA, if normal Graphical Environment doesn't work. VESA uses Xvesa
3493     graphical environment instead of X.Org that sometimes doesn't work. The
3494     drawbacks of Xvesa compared to X.Org are that Xvesa isn't optimized to
3495     any hardware (which means poorer performance) and Xvesa requires 32-bit
3496     kernel. Thus, if you use this option, do NOT choose 64-bit kernel, the
3497     combination leaves you at command line.
3499     If you're accustomed to command line and know already that you're not going
3500     to use any graphical program, choose one of the normal options (just below
3501     "System Rescue CD Menu"). Booting to command line is a bit faster process
3502     than booting to graphical environment, and you can start X manually later.
3504     You need the option To RAM if you plan to burn discs while using
3505     SystemRescueCD. The option copies the whole SystemRescueCD to the memory of
3506     the computer during the boot process, allowing you to put another disc to
3507     your CD/DVD writer while using SystemRescueCD. The negative thing is that
3508     reading all the contents of the disc slows boot process down a lot. There
3509     is no option which copies the disc to the memory and starts graphical
3510     environment automatically, but you can easily start it manually.
3512     Mini Shell is probably the least used option. It enters BusyBox
3513     shell after booting. BusyBox is an application that "combines
3514     tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a single small
3515     executable." However, SystemRescueCD contains most of these utilities
3516     anyway, so there is not much need to use this option. some information {{
3517     http://www.busybox.net/about.html }} about BusyBox
3519     Choosing the row (kernel)
3520     ---------------------
3521     After having chosen the column of the above table, you still have three
3522     options. Now you need to choose the kernel.
3524     The optimal kernel depends on the processor of your computer. If it's an
3525     IA-32 processor, like Intel Pentium 4 or AMD Athlon XP, you should choose
3526     32-bit kernel, because 64-bit kernel doesn't work at all. If you have
3527     a x86-64 processor, like AMD Athlon 64 or Intel Core 2, you can choose
3528     any kernel - the processor can run all of them. 64-bit kernel should be
3529     preferred, because it allows chrooting on an existing GNU/Linux partition
3530     containing 64-bit programs. Note, though, that you can't use 64-bit kernel
3531     with VESA option.
3533     If you don't know your processor architecture, try 64-bit kernel. If your
3534     processor architecture is IA-32, you'll see the following error message:
3536     This kernel requires an x86-64 CPU, but only detected an i686 CPU. Unable
3537     to boot - please use a kernel appropriate for your CPU.
3539     At this stage, simply press Ctrl-Alt-Del to reboot and use always 32-bit
3540     kernel on the machine.
3542     There is one more kernel - 32-bit kernel (alternative). It's designed to
3543     support more recent hardware than the regular kernel. Try it if standard
3544     32-bit kernel doesn't work.
3546     After booting
3547     ****************************************
3548     HELP!!! Where are the desktop and Start menu?
3549     ---------------------
3550     You should have read this section if you're looking for them. However,
3551     you don't need to reboot in order to enter graphical environment. Simply
3552     type this command and press ENTER:
3554     wizard
3556     The command asks you to choose a graphical environment. Try first X.Org,
3557     and if it fails, run the command again and choose Xvesa.
3559     Connecting to the Internet
3560     ---------------------
3561     The CD doesn't contain any SystemRescueCD documentation, because we don't
3562     have permission to redistribute it. In addition, our time is limited and
3563     we can't rewrite it all. So, you need to connect to the Internet to be
3564     able to read SystemRescueCD's official online documentation.
3566     Luckily, establishing Internet connection should be easy, if you're in a
3567     network using DHCP. Nowadays, most people are. If you're using graphical
3568     mode and terminal isn't already open, open it via the menu that opens when
3569     you click the leftmost icon in the bottom pane.
3571     Then, type this command and press ENTER:
3573     dhcpcd eth0
3575     If the network doesn't use DHCP, you can also configure Internet settings
3576     by hand. You should be able to do so if you've previously configured your
3577     settings in the operating system you normally use. The command to run is
3579     net-setup
3581     When you're done
3582     ****************************************
3583     When you're done, you naturally want to either shut the computer down or
3584     reboot. Wait! Don't do it yet!
3586     Both I and Spiros have found out that letting a live CD to automatically
3587     unmount partitions is often a bad idea. It can damage the filesystems
3588     of the partitions which were mounted when the computer was shut down and
3589     destroy any files in the partitions, even them you didn't use within the CD.
3591     So, I recommend unmounting them refore shutdown or reboot. Just run these
3592     commands when you're done.
3594     If you want to reboot:
3596     cd
3597     umount -a
3598     reboot
3600     If you want to shut down:
3601     cd
3602     umount -a
3603     poweroff
3605     More info
3606     ****************************************
3607     Here are some links to the official SystemRescueCD resources.
3609     SystemRescueCD - http://www.sysresccd.org/Main_Page
3610     Detailed packages list- http://www.sysresccd.org/Detailed-packages-list
3611     Manual - http://www.sysresccd.org/Online-Manual-EN
3612     FAQ - http://www.sysresccd.org/FAQ
3613     Howto - http://www.sysresccd.org/Howto
3614     Forum - http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/
3619     Managing partitions
3620     ==============================================================================
3622     Intro
3623     ****************************************
3624     One of the most important maintenance tasks that can only be done by using
3625     a live CD is partitioning. No operating system allows partitioning the
3626     same disk where the OS itself resides. Trying to do so is like attempting
3627     to repair a car while its engine is turned on.
3629     Of course, SystemRescueCD contains multiple programs that are related to
3630     partitioning. Most important are GParted (graphical partitioning program),
3631     GNU Parted (text-based partitioning program), fdisk and sfdisk (partition
3632     table editors) and various filesystem tools (like ntfsprogs and e2fsprogs).
3634     This page contains some theory about partitions and filesystems, advice for
3635     choosing the right filesystem and a partitioning example by using GParted.
3637     [[ important.png ]]
3638     While partitioning, an user error or a bug can damage your
3639     partitions.Creating a disk image of the disk to bepartitioned beforehand
3640     is highly recommended.
3642     [[ info.png ]]
3643     The following pressentation has been made usingSystemRescueCD v 1.4.0
3645     Some theory
3646     ****************************************
3647     What is a partition?
3648     ---------------------
3649     A partition is a logical division of a hard disk created so that you can
3650     have different operating systems on the same hard disk or to create the
3651     appearance of having separate hard drives for file management, multiple
3652     users, or other purposes.
3654     In Windows, a one-partition hard disk is labelled the "C:" drive ("A:" and
3655     "B:" are typically reserved for diskette drives). A two-partition hard drive
3656     would typically contain "C:" and "D:" drives. (CD-ROM drives typically are
3657     assigned the last letter in whatever sequence of letters have been used
3658     as a result of hard disk formatting, or typically with a two-partition,
3659     the "E:" drive.).
3661     In UNIX-based systems, a partition is used to host the / (root) file system,
3662     and optionally the /opt, /usr and /home file systems. There may also be
3663     a swap partition, which doesn't host any file system.
3665     Each operatin system provides some kind of tool to create and manage
3666     partitions. Examples of such tools are fdisk in DOS/Windows, fdisk, sfdisk
3667     and parted in Linux, etc.
3669     What is the difference between primary, extended and logical partitions?
3670     ---------------------
3671     Information about partitions is saved in so-called partition table
3672     in Master Boot Record. MBR itself is only 512 bytes in size,
3673     and only 64 bytes are reserved for partition table. That's not
3674     enough, and there are many workarounds to bypass limitations
3675     caused by the size, for example logical block addressing {{
3676     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_block_addressing#LBA.2C_ATA_devices_and_Enhanced_BIOS
3677     }}. Extended partitions are another workaround.
3679     Partition table can only store information about four partitions. If one
3680     has, for example, two GNU/Linux distributions on the same disk, both of
3681     them having separate root partitions, shared /home and shared swap, the
3682     partition number limit has been hit already.
3684     A partition that is mentioned in the partition table is called primary
3685     partition. Because of the limit, one disk can only contain 1-4 primary
3686     partitions.
3688     An extended partition fixes the problem simply by containing more boot
3689     records, called Extended Boot Records (EBR). Each EBR contains information
3690     about one logical partition and, if the extended partition contains multiple
3691     logical partitions, link to the next EBR. Thus, an extended partition can
3692     contain unlimited amount of logical partitions.
3694     Extended partition contains only EBRs and logical partitions (and maybe
3695     unallocated space). Extended partition doesn't contain any filesystem and
3696     files can't be stored in it. Of course, logical partition can contain any
3697     filesystem (or be unformatted).
3699     Extended partition itself must be primary partition: an extended partition
3700     can't be within another extended partition. In addition, a disk can contain
3701     only one extended partition.
3703     Logical partitions can always be used for storing data: any operating system
3704     can see logical partitions. GNU/Linux distributions can be installed to
3705     logical partitions as well, but Windows requires a lot of tweaking. See
3706     this outdated guide {{ http://www.goodells.net/multiboot/index.htm }}.
3708     What is LVM?
3709     ---------------------
3710     LVM means "Logical Volume Manager". It allows creating volume groups on top
3711     of hard drives and logical volumes within volume groups. Logical volumes
3712     are NOT the same thing as logical partitions!
3714     Volume groups can be created very flexibly: a volume group can allocate,
3715     for example, the first half of the first hard drive and the second half
3716     of the third drive. One can even create a massive volume group containing
3717     all storage he/she has.
3719     The computer sees a logical volume as a partition: logical volume can be
3720     left unformatted or contain any filesystem.
3722     LVM has many benefits: for example, if one has three hard drives 60 gigabytes
3723     each, he/she can create a 160-gigabyte partition for storing massive files
3724     and/or saving some disk space. In addition, logical volumes can be resized
3725     even when they're in use, so when creating logical volumes one doesn't need
3726     to worry if they're too small or big - if they are, he/she can resize them
3727     at any time.
3729     However, resizing a logical volume doesn't resize the filesystem in
3730     it, so using a filesystem that can be resized in use (online resizing)
3731     is recommended. Very few filesystems can be shrinked online, but most
3732     GNU/Linux filesystems (including ext3/4, ReiserFS, XFS and btrfs) can be
3733     grown online. It's generally a good idea to leave unallocated space within
3734     volume group, so logical volumes can later be grown without shrinking any
3735     other logical volume.
3737     Here come bad news for people who dualboot: Windows doesn't support LVM, it
3738     sees volume groups as unformatted partitions. If you try to access volume
3739     group within Windows, you're just prompted to format the partition. That
3740     prompt is annoying at best and dangerous at worst.
3742     More information about LVM can be found here (almost everything about LVM
3743     in a single page) and here (official SystemRescueCD documentation about LVM).
3745     What is a file system?
3746     ---------------------
3747     A file system is the way in which files are named and where they are placed
3748     logically for storage and retrieval. The DOS, Windows, OS/2, Macintosh,
3749     and UNIX-based operating systems all have file systems in which files are
3750     placed somewhere in a hierarchical (tree) structure. A file is placed in
3751     a directory (folder in Windows) or subdirectory at the desired place in
3752     the tree structure.
3754     The most important difference between filesystems is operating system
3755     support. Some filesystems are supported by all modern operating systems,
3756     but especially the newest filesystems are very rarely supported. Other
3757     important limits are maximum file size, journaling support and file
3758     permission metadata support.
3760     The reason that file size limits exist is that all filesystems reserve a
3761     fixed number of bits for storing the file size. If the size of the file,
3762     in bytes, is bigger than the biggest number that can be stored in file
3763     size bits, the operating system must refuse to store the file at all in
3764     order to prevent data corruption.
3766     File permission metadata means that the filesystem stores in the metadata
3767     of the file, among other things, information about who owns the file and
3768     what different users are allowed to do with the file. That metadata is
3769     especially useful in multi-user environment because it mostly prevents
3770     users from reading each other's files. Permissions can be bypassed, however.
3772     What is journaling?
3773     ---------------------
3774     Ideally, data in a partition never corrupts. But, in the real world,
3775     there are power failures and operating system freezes. And if a computer
3776     is forcefully shut down while something is written to the drive, the write
3777     operation can't be finished. That can damage the filesystem and destroy
3778     any files in the partition.
3780     Journaling partially fixes that problem by writing most changes to the
3781     disk twice: first to a special area called journal and, after that, to
3782     the filesystem itself. If power is lost while writing to the journal was
3783     in progress, the partial change is just ignored and never committed to the
3784     filesystem itself. If power failure or OS freeze happened while writing to
3785     filesystem itself, the write operation is finished by using the information
3786     in journal.
3788     Journaling helps most of the time when the computer has been forcefully
3789     shut down, but not always. Due to performance reasons, only some
3790     write operations are written to the journal, mostly the biggest
3791     operations. Of course, journaling doesn't help if that particular
3792     operation that was in progress while power was lost didn't go
3793     through the journal. Journaling also doesn't protect from everything:
3794     for example, using ext4 filesystem in conjuction with programs that
3795     write a lot of files in a short time can result in massive data loss {{
3796     http://www.h-online.com/open/news/item/Possible-data-loss-in-Ext4-740467.html
3797     }}, regardless if journaling is enabled or not.
3799     In addition, journaling reduces performance. It causes more writes to
3800     the disk. That's not a big problem on mechanical hard drives, but on SSDs
3801     (Solid State Drives) and thumb drives write speed is much slower than read
3802     speed. They also have a limited number of writing cycles, so journaling
3803     reduces their lifetime. I (Jyrki) actually use ext2 and FAT32 filesystems
3804     on my external SSD drive because they do NOT support journaling at all.
3806     What are the differences between most popular filesystems?
3807     ---------------------
3808     The following table quickly describes the most important differences
3809     between them.
3811     Operating system support
3812     #############################################################################
3813     Under Under Maximum Journaling Permissions
3814     Windows GNU/Linux file size
3815     #############################################################################
3816     FAT32 Native Built-in 4 GB No No
3817     NTFS Native Included 16 EB Yes Yes
3818     ext2 3rd party driver Native 16 GB-2 TB* No Yes
3819     ext3 3rd party driver Native 16 GB-2 TB* Yes Yes
3820     ext4 No Native 16 GB-16 TB* Yes Yes
3821     exFAT Native (Vista/7)** No 64 ZB No Yes
3823     * Depends on cluster size
3824     ** This update {{ http://support.microsoft.com/kb/955704 }} adds exFAT