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1 sng 28 Installing on USB
2     ==============================================================================
4     Installation to USB made easy
5     ****************************************
6     Until recently installing Clonezilla-SysRescCD on a USB disk would not
7     be such a great idea, because of its size. But since USB devices become
8     cheaper and cheaper, it is an interesting alternative.
10     Starting with version 3.1.0, Clonezilla-SysRescCD provides an iso
11     file that's ISO-Hybrided. This means (as we read at the isolynux site {{
12     http://syslinux.zytor.com/wiki/index.php/Doc/isolinux#HYBRID_CD-ROM.2FHARD_DISK_MODE
13     }}) that
15     "the iso file can be booted from either CD-ROM or from a device which BIOS
16     considers a hard disk or ZIP disk, e.g. a USB key or similar. This image can
17     then be copied using any raw disk writing tool (on Unix systems, typically
18     "dd" or "cat") to a USB disk, or written to a CD-ROM using standard CD
19     burning tools.
21     The ISO 9660 filesystem is encapsulated in a partition (which starts at
22     offset zero, which may confuse some systems.) This makes it possible for
23     the operating system, once booted, to use the remainder of the device for
24     persistent storage by creating a second partition."
26     [[ important.png ]]
27     Incorrect use of any raw disk writing tool could cause your operating system
28     (GNU/Linux / Windows) not to boot. Confirm the command before you run it.
30     So, from any linux box, assuming Clonezilla-SysRescCD iso file is in
31     your home directory, and your USB device name is sdc4, you just execute
32     the commands:
34     umount /dev/sdc4
35 sng 77 dd if=~/clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-"myVersion".iso of=/dev/sdc bs=512
36 sng 28
37     And that's it. Your usb device is ready to boot!!!
39 sng 77 Using the extra space
40     ---------------------
41     If your usb device is more than 400MB in size, the above command will
42     leave the remaining space unused. To verify it, execute the command:
44     fdisk -l /dev/sdc
46     You should get something similar to this:
48     Disk /dev/sdc: 1048 MB, 1048576000 bytes
49     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 1000 cylinders, total 2048000 sectors
50     Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
51     Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
52     I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
53     Disk identifier: 0x77a5188f
55     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
56     /dev/sdc1 * 1 384 393216 17 Hidden HPFS/NTFS
58     As you can see, we are currently using 348 out of 1000 cylinders of the
59     disk. The remaining disk space (~600MB) can still be used, executing the
60     following commands:
62     fdisk /dev/sdc
63     command (m for help): n (create new partition)
64     command action
65     e extended
66     p primary partition (1-4)
67     p
68     partition number (1-4): 4 (create partition sdc4)
69     first cylinder (385-1000, default 385):
70     using default value 385
71     last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{k,m,g} (385-1000, default 1000):
72     using default value 1000
74     command (m for help): p (display partition table)
76     disk /dev/sdc: 1048 mb, 1048576000 bytes
77     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 1000 cylinders
78     units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
79     sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
80     i/o size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
81     disk identifier: 0x77a5188f
83     device boot start end blocks id system
84     /dev/sdc1 * 1 384 393216 17 hidden hpfs/ntfs
85     /dev/sdc4 385 1000 630784 83 linux
87     command (m for help): t (change partition type)
88     partition number (1-4): 4
89     hex code (type l to list codes): b
90     changed system type of partition 4 to b (w95 fat32)
92     command (m for help): p (display partition table)
94     disk /dev/sdc: 1048 mb, 1048576000 bytes
95     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 1000 cylinders
96     units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
97     sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
98     i/o size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
99     disk identifier: 0x77a5188f
101     device boot start end blocks id system
102     /dev/sdc1 * 1 384 393216 17 hidden hpfs/ntfs
103     /dev/sdc4 385 1000 630784 b w95 fat32
105     command (m for help): w (write partition table to disk and exit)
106     The partition table has been altered!
108     Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
110     WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or
111     resource busy.
112     The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at
113     the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)
114     Syncing disks.
116     At this point you should disconnect and reconnect your usb device. When
117     it's recognised, you can format the partition you've just created
119     mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdc4
121     The partition is now ready for use!!!
123 sng 28 Installing the "hard" way
124     ****************************************
125     If the "easy" way does not work there is an alternative; you will use
126     the Clonezilla-SysRescCD ISO file (or CD) to copy and modify a couple of
127     files on the USB disk, and finally make it bootable, using syslinux {{
128     http://syslinux.zytor.com }} and its configuration file syslinux.cfg.
130     [[ important.png ]]
131     Incorrect use of syslinux could cause your operating system (GNU/Linux /
132     Windows) not to boot. Confirm the command before you run it.
134     The only thing that's important is that your USB disk must contain a VFAT
135     (Windows 98 or DOS) file system. If this is not the case, refer to the
136     section "Troubleshooting", to find out how you can format it, before
137     copying files to it.
139     The bootable USB disk creation procedure can be performed either from
140     Linux or Windows.
142     [[ info.png ]]
143     If you want to create a bootable USB flash drive for this version
144     or later, remember to use the syslinux command from syslinux
145     3.71 or later. Otherwise the boot menu won't work.
147     Installation from Linux
148     ---------------------
149     There are two ways you can proceed, if you are going to use Linux to
150     perform the USB installation, either using a running linux box, or using
151     Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
153     I will assume that you have saved clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-3.1.0.iso
154     in your home directory (~).
156     Using a linux box
157     ---------------------
158     If you already have a linux box up and running, you can use it to create
159     your Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB, without even having to burn it to CD
160     beforehand. The only thing here is that you have to have syslinux {{
161     http://syslinux.zytor.com }} installed.
163     I will assume that your CD drive is /dev/sr0 and that your USB device
164     is /dev/sdc4. You may have to change any of them to reflect your system
165     configuration.
167     Boot into linux, connect your USB device and execute the following commands:
168     mkdir /mnt/mycd
169     mount ~/clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-3.1.0.iso /mnt/mycd -o loop
170     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
171     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
172     cp -r /mnt/mycd/* /mnt/usbdevice
173     umount /mnt/mycd; rmdir /mnt/mycd
174     cd /mnt/usbdevice
175     rm isolinux/*.cfg
176     mv isolinux/* .
177     rmdir isolinux
178     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
179     rmdir /mnt/usbdevice
181     Finally make your USB device bootable, by executing
182     syslinux /dev/sdc4
183     and you are done.
185     > Using Clonezilla-SysRescCD
186     If you already burnt Clonezilla-SysRescCD to CD, you can use it to create
187     your Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB.
189     I will assume that your CD drive is /dev/sr0 and that your USB device
190     is /dev/sdc4. You may have to change any of them to reflect your system
191     configuration.
193     Boot SystemRescueCD using the option To RAM, and when it is fully loaded,
194     execute the following commands:
195     mkdir /mnt/mycd
196     mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/mycd
197     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
198     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
199     cp -r /mnt/mycd/* /mnt/usbdevice
200     umount /mnt/mycd
201     cd /mnt/usbdevice
202     rm isolinux/*.cfg
203     mv isolinux/* .
204     rmdir isolinux
205     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
207     Finally make your USB device bootable, by executing
208     syslinux /dev/sdc4
209     and you are done.
211     Installation from Windows
212     ---------------------
213     Installing Clonezilla-SysRescCD from Windows is as easy as
214     it is in Linux. You have to burn Clonezilla-SysRescCD to CD
215     or use a CD/DVD ROM emulator software like Daemon Tools {{
216     http://www.daemon-tools.cc/dtcc/announcements.php }} to mount the ISO file.
218     I will assume that your USB device is drive K: and your CD drive or mounted
219     ISO file is drive
220     D:. You may have to change any of them, in order to reflect your system
221     configuration.
223     You will have to
225     * Copy all files from drive D: (CD or mounted ISO file) to drive K:
226     (USB disk)
227     * Delete all cfg files from K:isolinux
228     * Move all files from K:isolinux to K:
229     * Delete folder K:isolinux
231     Now all you have to do is make your USB disk bootable. In order to do
232     that you have to open a DOS window (in Windows XP press "Start / Run "
233     and type cmd). Then type at DOS prompt:
234     K:
235     cd bootprog
236     syslinux -ma K:
238     Booting from USB
239     ---------------------
240     Before trying to boot from your USB device, you have to set your boot device
241     at your BIOS. This means you have to reboot having your USB device connected,
242     get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL) and make the appropriate settings
243     in the BOOT section.
245     Booting Clonezilla Live should not be a problem. Just select the desired
246     option and press ENTER to boot.
248     Booting SystemRescueCD has been made equally simple with SystemRescueCD
249     v 1.0.0, so you shouldn't have any problem (option cdroot is not required
250     any more).
252     If you have any problems here, you may try adding any of these boot
253     parameters:
254     usbstick
255     doscsi
257     Troubleshooting
258     ---------------------
259     Whether you can successfully boot from a USB disk or not, depends mainly on
260     your BIOS. Chances are that you will not be able to boot on an old computer,
261     with an old (and possibly buggy) BIOS. So I would recommend testing your
262     Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB on a new computer.
264     * I can't boot (I don't even see the splash screen)
265     or Clonezilla Live does not boot
267     The first thing you should do is double check your BIOS settings. Reboot
268     having your USB device connected, get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL)
269     and make the appropriate settings in the BOOT section.
271     If you are on linux, check that the partition on the USB disk is active
272     (bootable), executing:
273     fdisk -l /dev/sdc
274     You should get something similar to this:
276     Disk /dev/sdc: 1031 MB, 1031798272 bytes
277     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 983 cylinders
278     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
280 sng 77 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
281     /dev/sdc4 * 1 983 1006576 6 FAT16
282 sng 28
283     If the partition is not active (no astrisk), execute:
284     fdisk /dev/sdc
285     and issue "Command: " a (toggle a bootable flag) and "Partition number:"
286     4 (for /dev/sdc4).
288     If you are on Windows, this is taken care of by syslinux (parameters -ma).
290     If you still have problems booting, you should try to execute
291     syslinux -s /dev/sdc4
292     from Linux, or
293     syslinux -sma K:
294     from Windows (from folder K:syslinux).
296     syslinux man page reads:
298     (Option) -s
299     Install a "safe, slow and stupid" version of syslinux. This version may work
300     on some very buggy BIOSes on which syslinux would otherwise fail. If you find
301     a machine on which the -s option is required to make it boot reliably, please
302     send as much info about your machine as you can, and include the failure
303     mode.
305     * I still can't boot
306     In this case you will have to format your USB disk.
308     If you are using linux to perform the installation, execute the command:
309 sng 77
310 sng 28 mkdosfs -F 16 /dev/sdc4
311 sng 77
312 sng 28 to create a FAT16 file system, or
313 sng 77
314 sng 28 mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdc4
315 sng 77
316 sng 28 to create a FAT32 file system.
318     When you are done go back to section "Installation from Linux".
320     If you are on Windows, you should download the HP-USB Format tool {{
321     http://h50178.www5.hp.com/local_drivers/17550/SP27608.exe }}, install it
322     and format your USB drive using the Fat or Fat32 option. This program can
323     be used to format USB devices that won't boot properly when formatted with
324     Windows format tool.
326     When you are done go back to section "Installation from Windows".
328     * I still can't boot (after formating)
329     Things are getting tough!!! Try to format your USB disk using the option you
330     did not use previously. So, if you have created a FAT32 file system, create
331     a FAT16 file system this time, and recreate Clonezilla-SysRescCD on USB.
333     If nothing works, you are out of luck; you will not be able to use
334     Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB on this computer... If you do manage to boot it,
335     please send me a message.
337     * SystemRescueCD does not boot
338     Ok, you have managed to get to the splash screen and successfully booted
339     Clonezilla Live. But you still can't boot SystemRescueCD.
341     Refer to section Booting from USB to find out the boot parameters you can
342     use with SystemRescueCD.
344     Customizing sysresc.cfg
345     ---------------------
346     As stated previously, Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB is booted by syslinux through
347     its configuration file syslinux.cfg. This file loads sysresc.cfg in order
348     to boot SystemRescueCD.
350     If you have to specify any additional boot parameters for SystemRescueCD,
351     you may want to write these changes to the configuration file, so that
352     you don't have to insert them by hand every time.
354     The procedure to do that is the following:
356     Boot SystemRescueCD (or if that's not possible yet, bot Clonezilla Linux
357     and get to the command line) using the option To RAM, and when it is fully
358     loaded, execute the following commands:
359     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
360     mount /dev/[device] /mnt/usbdevice
361     cd /mnt/usbdevice
362     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
363     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=x [additional params]|'
364     sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
365     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
366     cd; umount /dev/[device]
367     syslinux /dev/[device]
368     reboot
370     where x is a number from 1 to 10.
372     After executing these commands, you will have a new sysresc.cfg file,
373     and a backup file called sysresc.bak (in case things go wrong).
375     If, for example, you want to increase the device scan delay to maximum,
376     the above commands would become:
377     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
378     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
379     cd /mnt/usbdevice
380     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
381     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=10|' sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
382     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
383     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
384     syslinux /dev/sdc4
385     reboot
387     If, in addition to that, you had to use the boot parameter usbstick,
388     then it would be:
389     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
390     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
391     cd /mnt/usbdevice
392     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
393     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=10 usbstick|' sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
394     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
395     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
396     syslinux /dev/sdc4
397     reboot
399     In case something goes wrong with your new settings, you can always rename
400     sysresc.bak to sysresc.cfg, either from linux or Windows.
405     Boot parameters
406     ==============================================================================
408     Intro
409     ****************************************
410     Booting a linux system means loading a kernel, which is actually the
411     operating system. Well, this is not exactly true, and it is not the only
412     thing that happens during boot up phase, but it is not my intension to
413     explain it here.
415     The kernel is loaded by Isolinux (the CD boot manager), which is able to pass
416     a number of parameters to it, through its configuration file isolinux.cfg.
418     These parameters, called boot parameters, are documented by the kernel
419     itself, and can differentiate its behavior dramatically. In our case,
420     each CD (SystemRescueCD and Clonezilla Live) accept a different set of
421     parameters, because they are based on gentoo {{ http://www.gentoo.org/ }}
422     and debian, respectively.
424     While in the splash screen of Clonezilla-SysRescCD, you can edit the boot
425     parameters by pressing TAB. They will be presented to you, and you can
426     add or remove what you want. You must be careful not to change or remove
427     the parameters that are dedicated to the CD itself, as altering them will
428     certainty make it unbootable. When you are done, just press ENTER to boot.
430     SystemRescueCD boot parameters
431     ****************************************
432     [[ info.png ]]
433 sng 75 The following info applies to SystemRescueCD v. 1.5.5. In case
434 sng 28 you need to get info for a more recent version of SystemRescueCD
435     please see the page "Sysresccd-manual-en Booting the CD-ROM {{
436     http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Booting_the_CD-ROM }}"
438     A typical sysresccd isolinux entry is:
440     kernel rescuecd
441     append initrd=initram.igz video=ofonly
443     The kernel used is rescuecd, and anything after the word append is a
444     boot parameter.
446     Available kernels (boot images):
448 sng 60 * rescuecd Default for 32bit systems, with Framebuffer disabled, best choice.
449     * rescue64 Default 64 bit kernel. Use it if you want to chroot to a 64bit
450     linux system installed on your hard disk, or if you have to run 64 bits
451     programs. This kernel is able to boot with 32bit programs, and it requires
452     a processor with 64bit instructions (amd64 / em64t).
453     * altker32 an alternative kernel for 32bit systems. Boot with this kernel
454     if you have problems with rescuecd
455     * altker64 an alternative kernel for 64bit systems. Boot with this kernel
456     in case you have problems with rescue64.
457 sng 28
458     The boot parameters you can use are:
460 sng 43 General boot options
461 sng 75 Press <TAB> to add additional options (in SystemRescueCd-1.5 and more recent)
462 sng 28
463 sng 43 * docache: causes the CD-ROM will be fully loaded into memory. A slower
464     start but once complete, programs start faster and the CD drive will be
465     released allowing normal access to other CDs. This requires 400MB of memory
466     to cache everything (including the bootdisks and isolinux directories). Add
467     lowmem if you have less that 400MB of memory of to prevent these directories
468     to be copied.
469     * setkmap=kk: which defines the keymap to load where kk (example: setkmap=de
470 sng 75 for German keyboards). This way you won't be prompted for the keyboard
471     configuration during the boot.
472 sng 60 * root=/dev/xdnp: the root=<device> option boots an existing linux
473     system. For example, if you have linux Gentoo installed on /dev/sda6,
474     use rescuecd root=/dev/sda6 to start it. Keep in mind that you must use a
475     64bit kernel if your system is made of 64bit programs. This option works
476     with LVM volumes. Use rescuecd root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00. Support
477     is also provided for root=auto, which scans all the block devices tfor
478     a linux system. The first linux system found will be started. So with
479     root=auto let you start the system installed from the CD-ROM in case
480     you have problem with your boot loader or kernel. It's also possible
481     to specify a partition using its filesystem label or filesystem
482     uuid. If the label of the partition where linux is installed is
483     mylinux, then boot it using rescuecd root=LABEL=mylinux. Similarly
484 sng 43 root=UUID=b3d3bec5-997a-413e-8449-0d0ec41ccba7. See more details.
485     * initscript=service:action: This options allows start/stop a service
486     at boot time. For instance if you need the samba service to be started,
487     you can boot with: initscript=samba:start. This does the same thing as
488     /etc/init.d/samba start. Use this option multiple times for different
489     services. All the actions that are supported by an initscript can be used.
490 sng 60 * backstore=xxx: SystemRescueCd comes with support for the backing-stores. A
491     backing-store saves all the changes you can make. so that you keep these
492     changes the next time you boot it. By default, sysresccd automatically
493     scan removable devices (eg: USB sticks) at boot time and uses the first
494     backing-store it finds. A backing-store is not mandatory and it the
495     scan fails it will store the files which change in memory. To disable
496     the disks scan at boot time specify backstore=off on the boot command
497 sng 43 line. If you want to save your backing-store file on an harddisk, boot with
498     backstore=alldev to scan all devices (not just removable devices). The
499     default location for backing-stores file is any file named sysrcd.bs
500     located at the root of a disk which is often an USB stick. Change the path
501     by using backstore=/sysrcd/mybackstore.bs. See backing-stores.
502     * isoloop=xxx: Grub2 (currently in development: grub-1.98) provides a new
503     feature to boot from an ISO image which is stored from the hard disk. If you
504     put a copy of systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso on a partition that Grub2 can read
505     then you can boot SystemRescueCd directly from the ISO image stored on your
506     hard drive. This is very convenient if you frequently update SystemRescueCd
507     and you want to boot it directly from Grub2. Grub2 knows what an ISO image
508     is and it will load the kernel image (rescuecd/rescue64) and the initramfs
509     (initram.igz) from the ISO into memory. It will then do its normal job and
510     execute the kernel. The SystemRescueCd init script must then be aware that
511     its sysrcd.dat file is in an ISO and not directly on the partition. For that
512     reason, this isoloop=xxx boot option is required so you must use it in your
513     grub.cfg. This option is only supported in SystemRescueCd-1.4.0 and more
514 sng 60 recent. This option specifies the path of the ISO image in the partition that
515     grub considers as its root partition. It's important to understand that the
516     path of the ISO image may be different from the path on your linux system. If
517     you have a separate boot partition mounted on /boot and if you copy this
518     ISO image to /boot/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso then the option has
519     to be isoloop=/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso. This is because the
520     boot partition is what Grub2 will consider as its root partition during
521     the boot process. Please read the section about isoloop for more details.
522 sng 28
523 sng 43 Hardware, drivers and troubleshooting options
524     * dodebug: Enables verbose messages in linuxrc
525 sng 28
526 sng 75 * doload=xxx: loads needed kernel modules, multiple comma separated
527     occurrences are permitted (example: doload=3c59x,e1000)
528     * noload=xxx: prevents loading kernel modules, multiple comma separated
529     occurrences are permitted (example: noload=3c59x,e1000). Use this option
530     if you have a problem when the system loads a particular module.
531 sng 28 * nonet: this will disable the network auto detection at startup
532 sng 43
533 sng 28 * scandelay=x: pauses x seconds during the startup to allow slow devices
534 sng 43 to initialize. This is required when you boot an USB device. A delay of
535 sng 28 only few seconds should be enough.
536 sng 43
537 sng 28 * doxdetect: Since version 0.3.5 the auto-configuration is done in X.Org
538 sng 43 itself, mkxf86config is disabled by default. This option forces the system to
539     run the mkxf86config startup script and to run the hardware auto-detection
540     from this script. Use this option if you have problems with the graphical
541     environment configuration. This option replaces the option noxdetect that
542     was useful in previous versions.
543     * nodetect: prevents generic hardware auto-detection. Use this option if
544     you have problems with the hardware auto-detection.
546     * dostartx: load the X.Org graphical environment.
547     * forcevesa: Forces X.Org to use the safe VESA driver instead of the best
548     video driver detected for your video card. Use this option if you cannot
549     get the graphical environment working with the default options.
550     * forcevesa=xxx: The startx command will load the Xvesa server instead
551     of Xorg, and use the screen resolution given as parameter (eg: 1024x768,
552     1280x1024x32).
554 sng 28 * all-generic-ide: In case of problems related to your hard disk, try to
555     enable this option (eg rescuecd all-generic-ide)
556 sng 43 * nodmraid: Disable dmraid, for some motherboards with built-in RAID
557     controller.
558     * nomdadm: Disable mdadm, for software RAID.
560     * acpi-off / noapic / irqpool: use these options if you have problem when
561     the kernel boots: if it hangs on a driver or if it crashes, ...
563     * lowmem: For systems with smaller memory, some daemons are not started
564     including sshd and nfsd.
566 sng 28 * skipmount=/dev/xxx: The system mounts all the storage devices at boot
567 sng 43 time to find the sysrcd.dat file. If your hard disk is broken it should
568     be mounted. Boot with skipmount=/dev/sda1 skipmount=/dev/sda2 to ignore
569     these two partitions.
570 sng 28
571 sng 43 Network configuration and remote access
572 sng 75 * nonm: to disable the Network-Manager service that conflicts with the
573     standard network command line tools such as ifconfig and ip. You can use
574     this option if you want to configure the network using these commands. This
575     option is not necessary when SystemRescueCd is booting from the network
576     since the service is automatically stopped in that case. This option
577     requires SystemRescueCd-1.5.5 or more recent.
578 sng 43 * dodhcp: to request a DHCP server provide network attributes including
579 sng 75 an IP address, gateway...
580     * nodhcp: never run the dhcp client in the initramfs boot
581     script. May be useful if you use PXE boot on a computer with
582     several ethernet interfaces. Support for this option is available in
583     SystemRescueCd-1.5.5-beta2 and more recent
584 sng 43 * ethx=ipaddr/cidr: Sets the static IP address of all the ethernet
585     interfaces on the system. The /cidr extension is optional. For instance,
586     if you use option ethx= on a machine with two ethernet adapters,
587     both eth0 and eth1 will be configured with You can use the
588     format ethx= (using the cidr notation) if you don't use the
589     default netmask.
590     * eth0=ipaddr/cidr: This option is similar to ethx=ipaddr/cidr but it
591     configures only one interface at a time. To configure the network on a
592     server that has two interfaces, use: eth0= eth1=
593 sng 28 * dns=ipaddr: Sets the static IP address of the DNS nameserver you want
594     to use to resolve the names. For instance dns= means that
595     you want to use as the DNS server.
596     * gateway=ipaddr: Sets the static IP address of the default route on your
597     network. For instance gateway= means that the computer can
598     connect to a computer outside of the local network via
599     * dhcphostname=myhost: Sets the hostname that the DHCP client will send
600     to the DHCP server. This may be required if the default hostname cannot
601     be used with your DHCP configuration. This option has been introduced
602     in SystemRescueCd-1.3.5.
603     * rootpass=123456: Sets the root password of the system running on the
604     livecd to 1234. That way you can connect from the network and ssh on the
605     livecd and give 123456 password as the root password.
606 sng 60 * vncserver=x:123456: The vncserver boot option has been introduced in
607     SystemRescueCd-1.0.2. This options forces the system to configure the
608     VNC-server and to start it automatically at boot time. You have to replace
609     x with the number of displays you want, and 123456 with your password The
610     password must be between 5 and 8 characters, else the boot option will be
611     ignored. In other words the vncserver=2:MyPaSsWd option will give you access
612     to two displays (display=1 on tcp/5901 and display=2 on tcp/5902). Display
613     0 is reserved for X.Org since SystemRescueCd-1.1.0.
614     * nameif=xxx: You can can specify what interface name to give to a
615     particular interface using the mac address. You need SystemRescueCd-1.1.0
616     or newer to do that. Here is how you can specify which interface
617     is using which mac address on a machine with two network interfaces:
618     nameif=eth0!00:0C:29:57:D0:6E,eth1!00:0C:29:57:D0:64. Be careful, you have
619     to respect the separator (comma between the interfaces and exclamation
620 sng 75 marks between the name and the mac address). You can also use the magic
621     keyword BOOTIF with SystemRescueCd-1.5.4 and more recent when you boot from
622     pxelinux. The pxeboot loader will set BOOTIF to the name of the interface
623     used to boot. You can then use something like nameif=eth0!BOOTIF if you
624     want the boot interface to be called eth0 on a computer with several
625     Ethernet interfaces.
626 sng 28
627 sng 43 Network boot using PXE
628     SystemRescueCd provides several options for booting from the network
629     using PXE.
630 sng 60 These options can be combined with other network boot options such as ethx
631     (cf previous section). See PXE network booting to get a global overview
632     of SystemRescueCd and PXE and Manage remote servers using PXE.
633 sng 43 The second stage downloads the kernel + initramfs using DHCP/TFTP.
634     The third stage of the PXE boot process acquires the root files system.
635     Several protocols are available.
636 sng 28
637 sng 43 * netboot=tftp://ip/path/sysrcd.dat: from a TFTP server. The filesystem
638     is loaded into memory. As a consequence computers with less than 400MB of
639     memory won't be able to boot this way. The system will continue to work
640     if the network is disconnected after the boot process.
641     * netboot=http://ip:port/path/sysrcd.dat: from a Web server. The file system
642     is loaded into memory. Computers with smaller memory won't be able to boot
643     this way. The the system continues to work if the network is disconnected
644     after the boot process.
645     * netboot=nfs://ip:/path: mount an NFSv3 directory. The NFS url must be
646     the path of the directory that contains sysrcd.dat. Only NFSv3 can be used,
647     NFSv4 is not supported. NFS it allows computers with smaller memory to boot
648     SystemRescueCd from the network. After the boot process, the connection
649     is required or you will loose the access to the root file system.
650     * netboot=nbd://ip:port: connect to an NBD server configured with sysrcd.dat
651     on ip:port. NBD is easier to configure than NFS (only one TCP port involved)
652     and it allows computers with smaller memort to boot SystemRescueCd from
653     the network. After the boot process, the connection is required the access
654     to the root system.
656 sng 60 For information on activating speakup, see the speakup info page.
657 sng 43
658     Options provided for autorun
659 sng 28 * ar_source=xxx: place where the autorun are stored. It may
660     be the root directory of a partition (/dev/sda1), an nfs
661     share (nfs://, a samba share
662     (smb://, or an http directory
663     (
664 sng 43 * autoruns=[0-9]: comma separated list of the autorun scrip to be run. For
665     example autoruns=0,2,7 the autorun sc autorun0, autorun2, autorun7 are
666     run. Use autoruns=no to disable all the autorun scripts with a number.
667 sng 28 * ar_ignorefail: continue to execute the scripts chain even if a script
668     failed (returned a non-zero status)
669     * ar_nodel: do not delete the temporary copy of the autorun scripts located
670     in /var/autorun/tmp after execution
671     * ar_disable: completely disable autorun, the simple autorun script will
672     not be executed
673     * ar_nowait: do not wait for a keypress after the autorun script have
674     been executed.
676     Clonezilla Live boot parameters
677     ****************************************
678     [[ info.png ]]
679 sng 60 The following info applies to Clonezilla Live v. 1.2.5-17
680 sng 28 In case you need to get info for a more recent version of Clonezilla Live
681     please see the page "The boot parameters for Clonezilla live {{
682     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/fine-print.php?path=./99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc
683     }}"
685     A typical Clonezilla Live isolinux entry is:
687     kernel /live/vmlinuz1
688     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
689     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"
690     ocs_live_extra_param="" ocs_live_keymap="" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang=""
691     vga=791 nolocales
693     The kernel used is vmlinuz, and anything after the word append is a boot
694     parameter.
696     The following info comes from the
697     page titled The boot parameters for Clonezilla live {{
698     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/fine-print.php?path=./99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc
699     }}.
701 sng 60 Clonezilla live is based on Debian live with clonezilla installed. Therefore
702     there are 2 kinds of boot parameters:
703 sng 28
704     * Boot parameters from live-initramfs. You can refer to this manual of
705     live-initramfs.
706     * Boot parameters specially for Clonezilla. All of them are named as
707     "ocs_*", e.g. ocs_live_run, ocs_live_extra_param, ocs_live_batch, ocs_lang.
708     * ocs_live_run is the main program to run in Clonezilla live to save
709     or restore. or other command. Available program: ocs-live-general,
710     ocs-live-restore or any command you write. Use the Absolute path in
711     Clonezilla live.
712     e.g. ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"
713 sng 43 //NOTE// You might have to use "sudo" command inside your own script,
714     or you can assign it like: ocs_live_run="sudo bash /my-clonezilla"
715 sng 28 * ocs_live_extra_param will be used only when ocs_live_run=ocs-live-restore
716     (not for ocs-live-general or any other), then it will be passed to
717     ocs-sr. Therefore these parameters are actually those of ocs-sr.
718     e.g. ocs_live_extra_param="-b -c restoredisk sarge-r5 hda"
719     * ocs_live_keymap is for keymap used in Clonezilla live. Man install-keymap
720     for more details.
721     e.g. ocs_live_keymap="NONE" (won't change the default layout)
722     ocs_live_keymap="/usr/share/keymaps/i386/azerty/fr-latin9.kmap.gz"
723     (French keyboard)
724     * batch mode or not (yes/no), if no, will run interactively.
725     e.g. ocs_live_batch="no"
726     * ocs_lang is the language used in Clonezilla live. Available value:
727     en_US.UTF-8, zh_TW.UTF-8... (see $DRBL_SCRIPT_PATH/lang/bash/)
728     e.g. ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8"
729     * ocs_debug (or ocs-debug) is for you to enter command line prompt before
730     any clonezilla-related action is run. This is easier for you to debug.
731     * ocs_daemonon, ocs_daemonoff, ocs_numlk, ocs_capslk.
732     Ex. for the first 2 parameters, ocs_daemonon="ssh", then ssh service will
733     be turned on when booting. For the last 2 parameters, use "on" or "off",
734     e.g. ocs_numlk=on to turn on numberlock when booting.
735     * ocs_prerun, ocs_prerun1, ocs_prerun2... is for you to run a shell script
736     before Clonezilla is started. E.g. ocs_prerun="/live/image/myscript.sh". If
737     you have more commands to run, you can assign them in the order:
738     ocs_prerun=..., ocs_prerun1=..., ocs_prerun2=.... If more than 10
739     parameters, remember to use ocs_prerun01, ocs_prerun02..., ocs_prerun11
740     to make it in order.
741     * ocs_live_run_tty. This option allows you to specify the tty where
742     $ocs_live_run is run. By default $ocs_live_run is run on /dev/tty1
743     only. (It was also on /dev/ttyS0 before, but since Clonezilla live >=
744     1.2.3-22 no more this due to a problem). If you want to use ttyS0, for
745     example, add live-getty and console=ttyS0,38400n81 in the boot parameter.
746 sng 43 //NOTE//
747     * This parameter was added in Clonezilla live 1.2.3-22 or later.
748     * If "live-getty console=$tty,38400n81" are assigned in the boot parameters,
749     ocs_live_run_tty will honor $tty, even other value is assigned to
750     ocs_live_run_tty in boot parameter.
751     * It's recommended to assign ocs_lang and ocs_live_keymap in the boot
752     parameters too.
753     * ip, this option allows you to specify the network parameters for
754     network card. In Clonezilla live a patched live-initramfs is used, which
755     is different from the original live-initramfs so that you can assign
756     DNS server, too. Its format is: ip=ethernet port,IP address, netmask,
757     gateway, DNS. E.g. If you want to assing eth0 with IP address,
758     netmask, gateway, DNS server, you can
759     assign the following in the boot parameter:
760     ip=eth0,,,,
761     If more than one network card, you can use ":" to separate them, e.g.:
762     ip=eth0,,,,,,,,,
763 sng 28 * Besides, "live-netdev" (yes, not ocs_live_netdev) can be used when
764     using PXE booting, you can force to assign the network device to get
765     filesystem.squashfs. This is useful when there are two or more NICs are
766     linked. E.g. live-netdev="eth1" allows you to force the live-initramfs
767     to use eth1 to fetch the root file system filesystem.squashfs.
769     With the above options, we have the following examples:
771     * A PXE config example for you to boot Clonezilla live via PXE, and ssh
772     service is on, the password of account "user" is assigned:
773     ----------------------------------------
774     label Clonezilla Live
775     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live
777     kernel vmlinuz1
778     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788
779     fetch=tftp:// usercrypted=bkuQxLqLRuDW6
780     ocs_numlk="on" ocs_daemonon="ssh"
781     ----------------------------------------
782     The usercrypted password is created by:
783     echo YOUR_PASSWORD | mkpasswd -s
784     ("mkpasswd" is from package "whois" in Debian or Ubuntu. Check your
785     GNU/Linux to see which package provides this command if you are not using
786     Debian or Ubuntu. Replace YOUR_PASSWORD with your plain text password,
787     and remember do not put any " in the boot parameters of live-initramfs
788     (while it's ok for those ocs_* boot parameters), i.e. do NOT use something
789     like usercrypted="bkuQxLqLRuDW6").
790     //NOTE// If you do not assign salt to mkpasswd, the encrypted password
791     will not be the same every time you create it.
792     For more about usercrypted discussion, please check the here.
794     * How to put your own binary driver in Clonezilla live without modifying
795     /live/filesystem.squashfs:
797     * Boot clonezilla live
798     * Become root by running "sudo su -"
799     * Copy the dir lsi, which contains a precompiled kernel module matching
800     the running kernel in Clonezilla live and a script to run it, to a working
801     dir, e.g.:
802     cp -r /live/image/lsi /home/partimag
803     * cd /home/partimag
804     * /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-live-dev -c -s -i lsi -u lsi -x
805     "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
806     * /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-iso -s -i lsi -u lsi -x
807     "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
808     * ///NOTE/// In this example, the 2 files in dir lsi are: megasr.ko (the
809     binary driver) and prep-lsi.sh. The contents of prep-lsi.sh:
811     ------------------------
812     #!/bin/bash
813     cp -f /live/image/lsi/megasr.ko /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/
814     chown root.root /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/megasr.ko
815     depmod -a modprobe megasr
816     sleep 1
817     ------------------------
818     * To put your customized script with a PXE version of Clonezilla live
819     (You have to use Clonezilla live version 1.2.2-2 or later):
820     In this example, we assume (1) The IP address of your PXE server is
821, (2) the customized script (custom-ocs-2) is put on
822     your PXE server's tftpd root dir (E.g. On DRBL server, the path is
823     /tftpboot/nbi_img/. It might be different in your case if you are not use
824     DRBL server as a PXE server).
825     Therefor your pxelinux.cfg/default file is like:
826     ------------------------
827     label Clonezilla Live
829     # MENU HIDE
830     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live
831     # MENU PASSWD
832     kernel vmlinuz1
833     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788
834     ip=frommedia fetch=tftp://
835     ocs_prerun="busybox tftp -g -b 10240 -r custom-ocs-2 -l
836     /tmp/custom-ocs-2" ocs_live_run="bash /tmp/custom-ocs-2"
837     ocs_live_keymap="NONE" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" nolocales
838     TEXT HELP
839     Boot Clonezilla live via network
840     ENDTEXT
841     ------------------------
842     The content of custom-ocs-2 can be like:
844     ------------------------
845     #!/bin/bash
846     . /opt/drbl/sbin/drbl-conf-functions
847     . /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-functions
848     . /etc/ocs/ocs-live.conf
850     # Load language file
851     ask_and_load_lang_set en_US.UTF-8
853     # 1. Mount the clonezilla image home.
854     # Types: local_dev, ssh_server, samba_server, nfs_server
855     prep-ocsroot -t nfs_server
857     # 2. Restore the image
858     if mountpoint /home/partimag/ &>/dev/null; then
859     ocs-sr -l en_US.UTF-8 -c -p choose restoredisk ask_user ask_user
860     else
861     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] & $SETCOLOR_FAILURE
862     echo "Fail to find the Clonezilla image home /home/partimag!"
863     echo "Program terminated!"
864     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] & $SETCOLOR_NORMAL
865     fi
866     ------------------------
867     live-initramfs manual
868     ---------------------
869     This is the manual of live-initramfs {{
870     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/live-initramfs-param.php }}
872     live-initramfs(7)
873     =================
875     Name
876     ----
877     live-initramfs - Debian Live initramfs hook
879     Synopsis
880     --------
881     BOOT=live
883     as kernel parameter at boot prompt.
885     Description
886     -----------
888     live-initramfs is a hook for the initramfs-tools, used to generate
889     a initramfs
890     capable to boot live systems, such as those created by *live-helper*(7).
891     This includes the Debian Live isos, netboot tarballs, and usb stick images.
893     At boot time it will look for a (read-only) media containing a "/live"
894     directory where a root filesystems (often a compressed filesystem image like
895     squashfs) is stored. If found, it will create a writable environment, using
896     aufs, for Debian like systems to boot from.
898     You probably do not want to install this package onto a non-live system,
899     although it will do no harm.
901 sng 60 live-initramfs is a fork of casper.
902     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen
903     &lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
904     and Matt Zimmerman &lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
905 sng 28
906     Boot options
907     ------------
909     Here is the complete list of recognized boot parameters by live-initramfs.
911     access=*ACCESS*::
913     Set the accessibility level for physically or visually impared users. ACCESS
914     must be one of v1, v2, v3, m1, or m2. v1=lesser visual impairment,
915     v2=moderate
916     visual impairment, v3=blindness, m1=minor motor difficulties, m2=moderate
917     motor
918     difficulties.
920     console=*TTY,SPEED*::
922     Set the default console to be used with the "live-getty" option. Example:
923     "console=ttyS0,115200"
925     debug::
927     Makes initramfs boot process more verbose.
929     fetch=*URL*::
931     Another form of netboot by downloading a squashfs image from a given url,
932     copying to ram and booting it.
934     hostname=*HOSTNAME*, username=*USER*, userfullname=*USERFULLNAME*::
936     Those parameters lets you override values read from the config file.
938     ignore_uuid
940     Do not check that any UUID embedded in the initramfs matches the discovered
941     medium. live-initramfs may be told to generate a UUID by setting
942     LIVE_GENERATE_UUID=1 when building the initramfs.
944     integrity-check::
946     If specified, an MD5 sum is calculated on the live media during boot and
947     compared to the value found in md5sum.txt found in the root directory of the
948     live media.
953     [DEVICE]:[AUTOCONF]]***::
954 sng 28
955     Let you specify the name(s) and the options of the interface(s) that
956     should be
957     configured at boot time. Do not specify this if you want to use dhcp
958     (default).
959     It will be changed in a future release to mimick official kernel boot param
960     specification
961     (e.g. ip=,:::::eth1:dhcp).
963     ip[=**frommedia**]::
965     If this variable is set, dhcp and static configuration are just skipped
966     and the
967     system will use the (must be) media-preconfigured /etc/network/interfaces
968     instead.
970     {keyb|kbd-chooser/method}=**KEYBOARD**,
971     {klayout|console-setup/layoutcode}=**LAYOUT**,
972     {kvariant|console-setup/variantcode}=**VARIANT**,
973 sng 60 {kmodel|console-setup/modelcode}=
974     **CODE**, koptions=**OPTIONS**::
975 sng 28
976     Configure the running keyboard as specified, if this one misses
977     live-initramfs
978     behaves as if "keyb=us" was specified. It will be interfered from
979     "locale=" if
980     locale is only 2 lowecase letters as a special case. You could also specify
981     console layout, variant, code, and options (no defaults).
983     live-getty::
985     This changes the auto-login on virtual terminals to use the (experimental)
986     live-getty code. With this option set the standard kernel argument
987     "console=" is
988     parsed and if a serial console is specified then live-getty is used to
989     autologin
990     on the serial console.
992     {live-media|bootfrom}=**DEVICE**::
994     If you specify one of this two equivalent forms, live-initramfs will
995     first try
996     to find this device for the "/live" directory where the read-only root
997     filesystem should reside. If it did not find something usable, the
998     normal scan
999     for block devices is performed.
1001     {live-media-encryption|encryption}=**TYPE**::
1003     live-initramfs will mount the encrypted rootfs TYPE, asking the passphrase,
1004     useful to build paranoid live systems :-). TYPE supported so far are
1005     "aes" for
1006     loop-aes encryption type.
1008     live-media-offset=**BYTES**::
1010     This way you could tell live-initramfs that your image starts at offset
1011     BYTES in
1012     the above specified or autodiscovered device, this could be useful to
1013     hide the
1014     Debian Live iso or image inside another iso or image, to create "clean"
1015     images.
1017     live-media-path=**PATH**::
1019     Sets the path to the live filesystem on the medium. By default, it is set to
1020     '/live' and you should not change that unless you have customized your media
1021     accordingly.
1023     live-media-timeout=**SECONDS**::
1025     Set the timeout in seconds for the device specified by "live-media="
1026     to become
1027     ready before giving up.
1029     {locale|debian-installer/locale}=**LOCALE**::
1031     Configure the running locale as specified, if not present the live-media
1032     rootfs
1033     configured locale will be used and if also this one misses live-initramfs
1034     behave
1035     as "locale=en_US.UTF-8" was specified. If only 2 lowercase letter are
1036     specified
1037     (like "it"), the "maybe wanted" locale is generated (like en:EN.UTF-8),
1038     in this
1039     case if also "keyb=" is unspecified is set with those 2 lowercase letters
1040     (keyb=us). Beside that facility, only UTF8 locales are supported by
1041     live-initramfs.
1043     module=**NAME**::
1045     Instead of using the default optional file "filesystem.module" (see below)
1046     another file could be specified without the extension ".module"; it should be
1047     placed on "/live" directory of the live medium.
1049     netboot[=**nfs**|**cifs**]::
1051     This tells live-initramfs to perform a network mount. The parameter
1052     "nfsroot="
1053     (with optional "nfsopts="), should specify where is the location of the root
1054     filesystem. With no args, will try cifs first, and if it fails nfs.
1056     nfsopts=::
1058     This lets you specify custom nfs options.
1060     noautologin::
1062     This parameter disables the automatic terminal login only, not touching
1063     gdk/kdm.
1065     noxautologin::
1067     This parameter disables the automatic login of gdm/kdm only, not touching
1068     terminals.
1070     nofastboot::
1072     This parameter disables the default disabling of filesystem checks in
1073     /etc/fstab. If you have static filesystems on your harddisk and you want
1074     them to
1075     be checked at boot time, use this parameter, otherwise they are skipped.
1077     nopersistent::
1079     disables the "persistent" feature, useful if the bootloader (like syslinux)
1080     has
1081     been installed with persistent enabled.
1083     noprompt
1085     Do not prompt to eject the CD on reboot.
1087     nosudo::
1089     This parameter disables the automatic configuration of sudo.
1091     swapon::
1093     This parameter enables usage of local swap partitions.
1095     nouser::
1097     This parameter disables the creation of the default user completely.
1099     noxautoconfig::
1101     This parameter disables Xorg auto-reconfiguration at boot time. This
1102     is valuable
1103     if you either do the detection on your own, or, if you want to ship a custom,
1104     premade xorg.conf in your live system.
1106     persistent[=nofiles]::
1108     live-initramfs will look for persistent and snapshot partitions or files
1109     labeled
1110     "live-rw", "home-rw", and files called "live-sn*", "home-sn*" and will
1111     try to,
1112     in order: mount as /cow the first, mount the second in /home, and just
1113     copy the
1114     contents of the latter in appropriate locations (snapshots). Snapshots
1115     will be
1116     tried to be updated on reboot/shutdown. Look at live-snapshot(1) for more
1117     informations. If "nofiles" is specified, only filesystems with matching
1118     labels
1119     will be searched; no filesystems will be traversed looking for archives
1120     or image
1121     files. This results in shorter boot times.
1123     {preseed/file|file}=**FILE**::
1125     A path to a file present on the rootfs could be used to preseed debconf
1126     database.
1128     package/question=**VALUE**::
1130     All debian installed packages could be preseeded from command-line that way,
1131     beware of blanks spaces, they will interfere with parsing, use a preseed
1132     file in
1133     this case.
1135     quickreboot::
1137     This option causes live-initramfs to reboot without attempting to eject the
1138     media and without asking the user to remove the boot media.
1140     showmounts::
1142     This parameter will make live-initramfs to show on "/" the ro filesystems
1143     (mostly compressed) on "/live". This is not enabled by default because could
1144     lead to problems by applications like "mono" which store binary paths on
1145     installation.
1147     textonly
1149     Start up to text-mode shell prompts, disabling the graphical user interface.
1151     timezone=**TIMEZONE**::
1153     By default, timezone is set to UTC. Using the timezone parameter, you can
1154     set it
1155     to your local zone, e.g. Europe/Zurich.
1157     todisk=**DEVICE**::
1159     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the entire read-only
1160     media to the specified device before mounting the root filesystem. It
1161     probably
1162     needs a lot of free space. Subsequent boots should then skip this step
1163     and just
1164     specify the "live-media=DEVICE" boot parameter with the same DEVICE used this
1165     time.
1167     toram::
1169     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the whole read-only
1170     media
1171     to the computer's RAM before mounting the root filesystem. This could need
1172     a lot
1173     of ram, according to the space used by the read-only media.
1175     union=**aufs**|**unionfs**::
1177     By default, live-initramfs uses aufs. With this parameter, you can switch to
1178     unionfs.
1180     utc=**yes**|**no**::
1182     By default, Debian systems do assume that the hardware clock is set to
1183     UTC. You
1184     can change or explicitly set it with this parameter.
1186     xdebconf::
1188     Uses xdebconfigurator, if present on the rootfs, to configure X instead
1189     of the
1190     standard procedure (experimental).
1192     xvideomode=**RESOLUTION**::
1194     Doesn't do xorg autodetection, but enforces a given resolution.
1196     Files
1197     -----
1199     /etc/live.conf
1201     Some variables can be configured via this config file (inside the live
1202     system).
1204     /live/filesystem.module
1206     This optional file (inside the live media) contains a list of white-space or
1207     carriage-return-separated file names corresponding to disk images in the
1208     "/live"
1209     directory. If this file exists, only images listed here will be merged
1210     into the
1211     root aufs, and they will be loaded in the order listed here. The first entry
1212     in this file will be the "lowest" point in the aufs, and the last file in
1213     this list will be on the "top" of the aufs, directly below /cow. Without
1214     this file, any images in the "/live" directory are loaded in alphanumeric
1215     order.
1217 sng 60 /etc/live-persistence.binds
1218 sng 28
1219     This optional file (which resides in the rootfs system, not in the live
1220     media)
1221     is used as a list of directories which not need be persistent: ie. their
1222     content does not need to survive reboots when using the persistence features.
1224     This saves expensive writes and speeds up operations on volatile data such as
1225     web caches and temporary files (like e.g. /tmp and .mozilla) which are
1226     regenerated each time. This is achieved by bind mounting each listed
1227     directory
1228     with a tmpfs on the original path.
1230     See also
1231     --------
1233     live-snapshot(1), initramfs-tools(8), live-helper(7), live-initscripts(7),
1234     live-webhelper(7)
1236     Bugs
1237     ----
1239     Report bugs against live-initramfs
1240 sng 60 http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs.
1241 sng 28
1242     Homepage
1243     --------
1245     More information about the Debian Live project can be found at
1246 sng 60 http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/ and
1247     http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/.
1248 sng 28
1249     Authors
1250     -------
1252 sng 60 live-initramfs is maintained by Daniel Baumann &lt;daniel@debian.org&amp;gt;
1253 sng 28 for the Debian project.
1255 sng 60 live-initramfs is a fork of casper.
1256     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen
1257     &lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
1258     and Matt Zimmerman &lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
1259 sng 28
1263     About Clonezilla Live
1264     ==============================================================================
1266     Intro
1267     ****************************************
1268     The DRBL-based PXEBoot Clonezilla is used to clone many computers
1269     simultaneously. It is an extremely useful tool, however, it does have several
1270     limitations. In order to use it, you must first prepare a DRBL server AND
1271     the machine to be cloned must boot from a network (e.g. PXE/Etherboot).
1273     To address these limitations, the Free Software Lab at the NCHC has combined
1274     Debian Live {{ http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/ }} with Clonezilla
1275     to produce "Clonezilla Live", a new software that can be used to easily
1276     clone individual machines.
1278     Clonezilla Live provides two modes of operation:
1280     * device-image
1281     In this mode of operation, a disk/partition can be saved to an
1282     image file. This image file can be used to restore the original
1283     disk/partition. With Clonezilla-SysRescCD, it can also be used to create an
1284     automated restore CD/DVD. This is the mode of operation we will discuss here.
1286     * device-device (cloning)
1287     This mode of operation creates an exact copy of the original disk/partition
1288     on the fly.
1290     When working in device-image mode, you will always have to specify three
1291     things:
1293     * The location of the image file
1294     * The working parameters for the operation
1295     * The disk/partition that will be saved/restored
1297     Clonezilla Live provides a user friendly interface in order to insert
1298     this data.
1300     When Clonezilla Live is booted up, either normally or copied to RAM, the
1301     contents of the whole CD/DVD can be found in folder /live/image. This
1302     is where you will find any extra files, such as the restorecd and the
1303     doc folders.
1305     Starting and stopping Clonezilla Live
1306     ****************************************
1307     When you boot into Clonezilla Live, the program (actually a script) starts
1308     automatically. There are many places where you can stop it, by selecting
1309     Cancel or answering N(o) to a question. When you do that you will probably
1310     get the following:
1311     Now you can choose to:
1312     (0) Poweroff
1313     (1) Reboot
1314     (2) Enter command line prompt
1315     (3) Start over
1316     [2]
1318     Select Poweroff or Reboot, only if you haven't already mounted a disk
1319     partition. I found out by experience, it is not always safe to let any live
1320     CD automatically unmount my partitions. So if you have already specified
1321     the image partition and/or the partition to save/restore, you should enter
1322     command line prompt and type:
1323     sudo su -
1324     mount | grep /dev/[sh]d
1325     and then unmount the partitions shown by the last command. So if the
1326     results of this command is for example:
1327     /dev/hda1 on /home/partimag type vfat (rw)
1328     just type the command:
1329     umount /dev/hda1
1330     and it's now safe to Poweroff of Reboot.
1332     If, on the other hand, you just want to restart the program, type:
1333     ocs-live
1335     About the Image file
1336     ****************************************
1337     One thing should be made clear about the image file: it is not a file,
1338     it is a folder, containing the actual image file and some data about the
1339     disk/partition it is associated with. So when you insert the image file name,
1340     you actually insert the folder name where the image will be saved/restored.
1342     Before you are able to insert the image file name, a list of partitions
1343     will be presented to you, so that you can choose where it should be
1344 sng 75 saved/found. When you select one of them, it will be mounted and a list
1345     of folders will be presented to you, so you can select the base image
1346     directory (first level directory within the partition), which will then
1347     be mounted under /home/partimag. This way you can, for example, create a
1348     folder called all_my_images in one of your disk partitions, and move all
1349     your image files in there; Clonezilla Live will be able to find them!!!
1350 sng 28
1351     Another thing that should be pointed out is that only unmounted partitions
1352     will be included in the above list. This means that if you have stopped
1353     the program at some point after specifying the partition where the image
1354     file resides, and it has been mounted, it will not be present in the list
1355     the next time it is presented to you, and you will not be able to use it.
1357     There are two things you can do in this case; either unmount the partition,
1358     as stated above, or select
1359     skip Use existing /home/partimag
1361     instead of any other option, when you restart the program. The later of
1362     course means that you still want to use the previously specified partition
1363     as the image file location.
1365     Fianlly I should say that Clonezilla Live is able to use a remote
1366     disk/partition as the location of the image file, mounted through ssh,
1367     samba or nfs. Using any of these options is a more advanced topic, way
1368     beyond the scope of this presentation.
1370     Scripts' options
1371     ****************************************
1372     This section presents the options which are available at the "Clonezilla
1373     advanced extra parameters" screens, if the "Expert" mode is selected. For
1374     other options, see Getting backups and Restoring data.
1376     Backup options
1377     ---------------------
1378     > Imaging program priority
1380     -q2 Priority: partclone > partimage > dd
1381     -q1 Priority: Only dd (supports all filesystem, but inefficient)
1382     -q Priority: ntfsclone > partimage > dd
1383     Priority: partimage > dd (no ntfsclone)
1385     This option chooses which imaging programs are preferred. By default,
1386     Clonezilla Live uses partclone for nearly all filesystems, including
1387     ext2/3/4, NTFS and FAT32. If a filesystem isn't supported by partclone,
1388     but is supported by partimage (spesifically: if the filesystem is HFS,
1389     HPFS or JFS), it is cloned by partimage. If it isn't supported by either
1390     (for example Linux swap, though it doesn't make any sense to clone swap
1391     partitions), it is cloned by dd. Unlike partclone or partimage, dd copies
1392     all blocks of the partition instead of only used, resulting in slower
1393     imaging process and bigger images.
1395     Normally the default option -q2 should be preferred. Try another option
1396     if you have problems and believe they are caused by the imaging program used.
1398     > Various parameters
1400     These options are available at the second "Clonezilla advanced extra
1401     parameters" screen.
1402     -c Client waits for confirmation before cloning
1403     This option causes Clonezilla Live to ask if you really want to clone the
1404     disk/partition just before it starts cloning. It is enabled by default.
1406     -j2 Clone the hidden data between MBR and 1st partition
1407     If this option is set, the 15 hidden sectors between Master Boot Record
1408     and the first partition are copied. This area usually contains some data
1409     necessary for booting. The option is enabled by default and should be kept
1410     enabled if you are cloning a bootable disk.
1412     -nogui Use text output only, no TUI/GUI output
1413     Causes Clonezilla Live to force the used programs to use only command-line
1414     interface even if text-based or graphical user interface is available.
1416     -a Do NOT force to turn on HD DMA
1417     Prevents Clonezilla Live from using DMA for communicating with hard
1418     drives. Slows cloning down but in some conditions cloning without this
1419     option can be impossible.
1421     -rm-win-swap-hib Remove page and hibernation files in Win if exists
1422     This option prevents Clonezilla Live from cloning your page file if you
1423     are cloning a partition containing Windows. Often the page file is big
1424     and unneeded, and skipping it may speed cloning up without causing any
1425     harm. Mind you, this option is disabled by default because sometimes the
1426     page file may be necessary.
1428     -ntfs-ok Skip checking NTFS integrity, even bad sectors (ntfsclone only)
1429     This option works only if you selected the -q option and you're cloning
1430     a NTFS partition. It prevents the integrity check of NTFS partitions and
1431     speeds the cloning process up a little. However, if the check is disabled,
1432     there is a risk that the filesystem is damaged and the image created from
1433     it is useless.
1435 sng 75 -rescue Continue reading next one when disk blocks read errors
1436     If this option is set, Clonezilla Live continues cloning even if a read
1437     error occurs. If there is one, the disk image will be corrupted, but
1438     failing hard drives can only be cloned with this option enabled.
1440     -fsck-src-part Check and repair source file system before saving
1441     This option causes Clonezilla Live to check the integrity of the partition(s)
1442     to be cloned. If the filesystem of the partition is damaged, Clonezilla Live
1443     also attempts to repair it automatically. Enabling this option reduces the
1444     risk that the image contains a damaged filesystem. However, the option is
1445     disabled by default because the automatic filesystem repair attempt may
1446     cause data loss.
1448 sng 28 -gm Generate image MD5 checksums
1449     Causes Clonezilla Live to calculate MD5 checksum(s) of image(s) created. If
1450 sng 75 the image gets corrupted afterwards, the checksum allows to notice the
1451 sng 28 corruption before the image is restored. Mind you, calculating the checksum
1452     takes some time and slows the process down a little.
1454     -gs Generate image SHA1 checksums
1455     This option is identical to the above, but creates SHA1 checksum(s) instead
1456     of MD5. SHA1 is considered to be more accurate checksum algorithm than MD5,
1457     but MD5 is more popular.
1459     > Compression method
1461 sng 75 -z1p Use parallel gzip compression (testing), for multicore/CPU
1462 sng 28 -z1 gzip compression (fast with a smaller image)
1463 sng 75 -z2p Use parallel bzip2 compression (testing), for multicore/CPU
1464 sng 28 -z2 bzip2 compression (slowest but smallest image)
1465     -z3 lzo compression (faster with image size approx. to that of
1466     gzip)(NOTE!!)
1467 sng 75 -z4
1468     lzma_compression_(slowest_but_also_small_image,_faster_decompression_than_bzip2)
1469     -z5p Use_parallel_xz_compression_(testing),_for_multicore/CPU
1470     -z5
1471     xz_compression_(slowest_but_also_small_image,_faster_decompression_than_bzip2)
1472     -z6p Use_parallel_lzip_compression_(testing),_for_multicore/CPU
1473     -z6
1474     lzip_compression_(slowest_but_also_small_image,_faster_decompression_than_bzip2)
1475 sng 28 -z0 No compression (fastest but largest image size)
1477     This option chooses the method which is used to compress the image while
1478     creating it.
1480     If no compression is used at all, there won't be any negative speed impact
1481     caused by compression. However, the image file size is the size of all the
1482     data backed up - for example, if you clone a 160 GB hard drive containing
1483     60 gigabytes of data, the resulting disk image will be 60 gigabytes in size.
1485     Gzip and lzop are fast compression methods. Lzop is many times faster than
1486     gzip, but creates slightly larger images. Clonezilla Live warns that lzop
1487     requires good-quality RAM, but I (the contributor who wrote this chapter)
1488     think other compression methods require good RAM too.
1490 sng 75 Bzip2, lzma, xz and lzip are powerful compression methods. Lzma creates a
1491     little smaller images than bzip2, and decompressing lzma-compressed images
1492     is faster than decompressing bzip2 images. But there is no free lunch:
1493     lzma compression method is very slow compared even to bzip2, which isn't
1494     fast method either.
1495 sng 28
1496 sng 75 Lzma method is becoming obsolete, and both xz and lzip are attempting to
1497     become its successor. They are a bit less powerful compression methods than
1498     lzma, but much faster. The differences between xz and lzip are virtually
1499     non-existent.
1501     If you don't use the i486 version of Clonezilla-SysRescCD and your
1502     processor contains multiple cores and/or supports Hyper-Threading, parallel
1503     gzip, bzip2, xz and lzip compression methods are also available. Parallel
1504     compression means that each processor core compresses a different part of the
1505     image at a time. Without parallel compression one core compresses everything.
1507     The speed impact caused by parallel compression depends on the number
1508     of processor cores available. In addition, Hyper-Threading increases the
1509     speed by about 30 % if parallel compression is used. For example, if your
1510     processor contains four cores and supports Hyper-Threading, speed with
1511     parallel compression is nearly 5,2 times as high as without. However,
1512     parallel compression is currently an experimental feature.
1514 sng 28 > Splitting
1516     This option (command line: -i [number]) decides if the created image files
1517     are splitted into smaller pieces, and if yes, how large the pieces are. This
1518     setting doesn't usually matter, but some filesystems (most importantly
1519     FAT32) don't allow files larger than four gigabytes. If you're saving the
1520     disk image to a FAT32 partition, enter 4000 or less. (Value 0 disables
1521     splitting, so don't use it in that case.) If the filesystem allows files
1522     big enough, enter any value which isn't too small (you don't want to split
1523     the image into too many pieces, do you?)
1525 sng 75 Clonezilla Live warns that it is no longer safe to disable splitting because
1526     value 0 can confuse init. I (the contributor) don't know what the warning
1527     exactly means and haven't been able to reproduce the problem. Anyway,
1528     entering a very big value, for example 999999999999, is a safe way to keep
1529     the image in one piece.
1531 sng 28 > Postaction
1533     -p true Do nothing when the clone finishes
1534     -p reboot Reboot client when the clone finishes
1535     -p poweroff Shutdown client when the clone finishes
1537     In this screen you can decide what Clonezilla Live does when the
1538     disk/partition is cloned.
1540     Spiros told above that he has found out that it's not always safe to allow
1541     Live CDs automatically unmount partitions, and I have lost data when trying
1542     auto-unmount with a script. So, avoid -p reboot and -p poweroff options
1543     if possible. You have been warned.
1545     Restore options (script ocs-sr)
1546     ---------------------
1547     > Various parameters
1549     These options are available at the first "Clonezilla advanced extra
1550     parameters" screen.
1551     -g auto Reinstall grub in client disk MBR (only if grub config exists)
1552     Causes Clonezilla Live to reinstall GRUB into the Master Boot Record
1553     of the disk if at least one partition contains GRUB config file
1554     (/boot/grub/menu.lst). The option is enabled by default and shouldn't
1555     cause any harm. However, it should be disabled if you for example have
1556     another bootloader in MBR and chainload GRUB with it.
1558     -e1 auto Automatically adjust filesystem geometry for a NTFS boot partition
1559     if exists
1560     The NTLDR bootloader used by Windows isn't able to determine automatically
1561     where the files it needs are stored. It only knows their physical locations,
1562     which sometimes change when the disk or partition is copied. If the locations
1563     are changed and this option is selected, the location information of the
1564     files is changed accordingly. This option is enabled by default and if
1565     it's disabled, the cloned Windows will fail to boot.
1567     -e2 sfdisk uses CHS of hard drive from EDD(for non-grub boot loader)
1568     This option requires that the -e1 auto option is selected. It causes
1569     Clonezilla Live to use disk read interface named EDD for determining the
1570     physical locations of the files when updating the location information
1571     used by NTLDR. The option is enabled by default because it reduces the
1572     risk that Windows doesn't boot.
1574     -hn0 PC Change MS Win hostname (based on IP address) after clone
1575     If this option is selected and a partition containing Microsoft Windows is
1576     cloned, its IP address -based hostname is changed after cloning. Computers
1577     which are on any network simultaneously need to have different hostnames,
1578     so this option is needed if a Windows system is cloned to another computer
1579     and the original computer is still used in addition to the one where the
1580     image was restored to.
1582     -hn1 PC Change MS Win hostname (based on MAC address) after clone
1583     This option causes the MAC address -based hostname of Windows to change. This
1584     option needs also be enabled in the above condition.
1586     -v Prints verbose messages (especially for udpcast)
1587     Causes Clonezilla Live to tell more information of what it does.
1589     -nogui Use text output only, no TUI/GUI output
1590     Causes Clonezilla Live to force the used programs to use only command-line
1591     interface even if text-based or graphical user interface is available.
1593     -b Run clone in batch mode (DANGEROUS!)
1594     Causes Clonezilla Live to run in batch mode. According to Clonezilla
1595     Live reference card, this option is dangerous, though I (the contributor)
1596     don't know why.
1598     -c Client waits for confirmation before cloning
1599     This option causes Clonezilla Live to ask if you really want to clone the
1600     disk/partition just before it starts cloning. It is enabled by default.
1602     -t Client does not restore the MBR (Mater Boot Record)
1603     Do NOT restore the MBR (Mater Boot Record) when restoring image. If this
1604     option is set, you must make sure there is an existing MBR in the current
1605     restored harddisk. Default is Yes.
1607     -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For Windows only)
1608     If this option is set, the MBR is overwritten by prebuilt one which
1609     chainloads Windows. Use this option if you have to restore Windows and
1610     make it bootable, but don't have the original MBR or backup of it.
1612     -r Try to resize the filesystem to fit partition size
1613     This option is useful if you are cloning a small disk to larger one. It
1614     tries to resize the restored filesystem to the size of the partition where
1615     it was restored to. It allows you to use the whole size of your new disk
1616     without resizing the partition afterwards. The option requires that the
1617     disk where the image is copied already contains a partition where the
1618     image is restored or that the option -k1 is enabled.
1620     -e sfdisk uses the CHS value of hard drive from the saved image
1621     Force to use the saved CHS (cylinders, heads, sectors) when using sfdisk. Of
1622     cource, there is no use of it when using any of -j0, -k or -k2 options.
1624 sng 75 -icrc Ignore CRC checking of partclone
1625     This option causes partclone to skip checking the CRC32 checksums of
1626     the image. Enabling this option speeds the restore process up. However,
1627     if this option is enabled and the -cm and -cs options are disabled, there
1628     is no way to notice if the image has corrupted.
1630 sng 28 -j1 Write MBR (512 B) again after image is restored. Not OK for partition
1631     table diffe
1632     When a disk image is restored, the partition table must be updated to
1633     reflect the actual partitions in the disk. If you don't want it to happen,
1634     enable this option. Then the Master Boot Record (including the partition
1635     table) is restored again after restoring the image. Note that using this
1636     option can destroy all the data in the target drive.
1638     -j2 Clone the hidden data between MBR and 1st partition
1639     If this option is set, the 15 hidden sectors between Master Boot Record
1640     and the first partition are restored. This area usually contains some data
1641     necessary for booting. The option is enabled by default and should be kept
1642     enabled if you are cloning a bootable disk.
1644     -cm Check image by MD5 checksums
1645     If the image folder contains MD5 checksum(s), this option causes Clonezilla
1646     Live to check if the image has corrupted by calculating its checksum and
1647     comparing it to the precalculated one. Mind you, calculating the checksum
1648     takes some time and slows the process down a little.
1650     -cs Check image by SHA1 checksums
1651     This option is identical to the above, but checks SHA1 checksum(s) instead
1652     of MD5.
1654     -a Do NOT force to turn on HD DMA
1655     Prevents Clonezilla Live from using DMA for communicating with hard
1656     drives. Slows cloning down but in some conditions cloning without this
1657     option can be impossible.
1659     -o0 Run script in $OCS_PRERUN_DIR before clone starts
1660     Run the scripts in the directory $OCS_PRERUN_DIR before clone is
1661     started. The location of the directory can be determined by editing the
1662     file drbl-ocs.conf. By default it is /opt/drbl/share/ocs/prerun.
1664     -o1 Run script in $OCS_POSTRUN_DIR as clone finishes
1665     Run the scripts in the directory $OCS_POSTRUN_DIR when clone is
1666     finished. The location of the directory can be determined by editing the
1667     file drbl-ocs.conf. By default it is /opt/drbl/share/ocs/postrun. The
1668     command will be run before that assigned in -p.
1670     The scripts will be executed by the program "run-parts". run-parts only
1671     accepts that the name of the scripts must consist entirely of upper and
1672     lower case letters, digits and underscores. So if your file name has an
1673     illegal character ".", run-parts won't run it. You can test which files
1674     will be executed by entering the command:
1675     run-parts --test /opt/drbl/share/ocs/postrun
1677     > Partition table
1679     This option decides what is done to the partition table of the target drive.
1680     Use the partition table from the image
1681     This option causes Clonezilla Live to copy the partition table from the
1682     image. Use this option if you are cloning a whole disk or somehow know that
1683     the partition tables are identical (for example, if you are restoring a
1684     partition to the same disk where it was copied from and haven't repartitioned
1685     the drive after creating the backup). This is the default option.
1687     -k Do NOT create a partition table on the target disk
1688     Do NOT create partition in target harddisk. If this option is set,
1689     you must make sure there is an existing partition table in the current
1690     restored harddisk.
1692     -k1 Create partition table proportionally (OK for MRB format, not GPT)
1693     Causes Clonezilla Live to create the partition table automatically using
1694     sfdisk after restoring the images. This option works nearly always, but
1695     sometimes cloned Windows don't boot. Note that this option doesn't work if
1696     you have GUID Partition Table on your disk. (Most likely you don't have one.)
1698     -k2 Enter command line prompt to create partition manually later
1699     Like the -k option, this option doesn't create the partition table
1700     automatically. However, after restoring the image you are led to command
1701     line prompt where you can create the partition table manually. Don't use
1702     this option if you don't know how the partition table can be created.
1704     -j0 Use dd to create partition (NOT OK if logical drives exist)
1705     Use dd to dump the partition table from saved image instead of sfdisk.
1707     We read in DRBL FAQ/Q&A {{
1708     http://drbl.sourceforge.net/faq/fine-print.php?path=./2_System/23_Missing_OS.faq#23_Missing_OS.faq
1709     }}:
1711     When I use clonezilla to clone M$ windows, there is no any problem
1712     when saving an image from template machine. However, after the image
1713     is restored to another machine, it fails to boot, the error message is
1714     "Missing Operating System". What's going on ?
1716     Usually this is because GNU/Linux and M$ windows interpret the CHS (cylinder,
1717     head, sector) value of harddrive differently. Some possible solutions:
1718     1. Maybe you can change the IDE harddrive setting in BIOS, try to use
1719     LBA instead of auto mode.
1720     2. Try to choose
1721     [ ] -j0 Use dd to create partition table instead of sfdisk
1722     and
1723     [ ] -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For Windows only)
1724     when you restore the image.
1725     3. You can try to boot the machine with MS Windows 9x bootable floppy,
1726     and in the DOS command prompt, run: "fdisk /mbr".
1727     4. You can try to boot the machine with MS Windows XP installation
1728     CD, enter recovery mode (by pressing F10 key in MS XP, for example),
1729     then in the console, run "fixmbr" to fix it. Maybe another command
1730     "fixboot" will help, too. For more info, refer to this doc {{
1731     http://support.microsoft.com/?scid=kb%3Ben-us%3B314058&x=7&y=14 }}
1732     5. Use ntfsreloc to adjust FS geometry on NTFS partitions. For more info,
1733     refer to http://www.linux-ntfs.org/doku.php?id=contrib:ntfsreloc
1735     It has been confirmed that activating the -j0 option, fixes the problem.
1737     This option doesn't work if you use LVM (Logical Volume Manager).
1739     exit Exit
1740     This option ends the restore process and enters command line prompt.
1742     > Postaction
1744     -p true Do nothing when the clone finishes
1745     -p reboot Reboot client when the clone finishes
1746     -p poweroff Shutdown client when the clone finishes
1748     When image restoration finishes, do one of the following: choose action
1749     (default), poweroff or reboot.
1751     Saving image files in NTFS partitions
1752     ****************************************
1753     Although not recomended, you may find yourself having to save your image
1754     file in a NTFS (Windows XP) partition. You may never have a problem doing
1755     this, but you may get a message like the following one, when the partition
1756     gets mounted:
1757     Volume is scheduled for check
1758     Please boot into Windows TWICE, or use 'force' mount option"
1759     and the backup procedure fails. There are two things you can do here:
1761     * Exit the program, reboot and use Windows XP Recovery Console to fix the
1762     NTFS file system. From Recovery Console
1763     prompt, execute the command:
1764     chkdsk /f X:
1766     where X: is the drive letter of the disk. When done, boot back into
1767     Clonezilla Live and repeat the backup procedure.
1769 sng 75 If the disk/partition you are trying to backup is not the Windows System
1770     disk (usually C:), you can boot Windows, and execute the command in a DOS
1771     window. To open a DOS window click Start / Run... and at the prompt Open:
1772     type cmd.
1774     If the Windows version you use is not XP and you're trying to backup the
1775     Windows System drive, boot into SystemRescueCD (graphical mode is not
1776     needed) and run the following command:
1777 sng 28 ntfsfix /dev/hda1
1779     where /dev/hda1 is the partition name in GNU/Linux. When done, boot back
1780     into Clonezilla Live and repeat the backup procedure.
1782     * If Windows XP Recovery Console is not available, you don't have the time
1783     to execute the procedure described above, or even if you have executed it
1784     but you still get the same message, and you are absolutely sure that you
1785     get this message because the NTFS partition is really scheduled for check,
1786     and it's not because Windows crushed or have become corrupt, you can mount
1787     the patririon by hand and tell Clonezilla Live to use it. Assuming the
1788     partition is /dev/hda1, exit the program and execute the commands:
1789     sudo su -
1790     ntfs-3g -o force /dev/hda1 /home/partimag
1791     ocs-live
1793     and when you get to the screen "Mount clonezilla image directory", select
1794     skip Use existing /home/partimag
1799     Getting backups
1800     ==============================================================================
1802     Intro
1803     ****************************************
1804     In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting
1805 sng 75 a backup of a virtual partition (/dev/sdb1). The image file will be saved
1806     in another virtual partition (/dev/sda1).
1807 sng 28
1808     The first thing you do when you want to get a backup of a disk/partition,
1809     is make sure both the souce (to be backed up) and target (to hold the
1810     image file) partitions are in excellent condition (error free). This is the
1811     logical thing to do, cause I wouldn't want to backup a corrupt partition,
1812     or end up with a corrupt image file.
1814     There is one more step I would want to take: I should check that my BIOS
1815     boot settings are correct, in order to boot from my CD/DVD drive.
1817     Having done all of the above, I am ready to boot from Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
1819     [[ info.png ]]
1820 sng 75 The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.5-17
1821 sng 28
1822     Getting the backup
1823     ****************************************
1824     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
1825     ---------------------
1826     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
1827     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
1828     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
1829     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
1830     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
1831     that continue from this step.
1833     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
1834     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
1835     displayed.
1837     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
1838     are the following:
1840     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
1841     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1842     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1843     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
1845     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
1846     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
1847     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
1849     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
1850     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1851     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1852     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
1854     Screen "Choose Language"
1855     ---------------------
1856     [[ backup-00.png ]]
1857     I select "en_US.UTF-8 English" and press ENTER.
1859     Screen "Configuring console-data"
1860     ---------------------
1861     [[ backup-01.png ]]
1862     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
1863     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
1865     Screen "Configuring console-data"
1866     ---------------------
1867     [[ backup-02.png ]]
1868     As I (the contributor who wrote a great deal of this page) use Finnish
1869     keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish / Standard / Standard". Because
1870     you most likely use a different keyboard, choose the one you use.
1872     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
1873     ---------------------
1874     [[ backup-03.png ]]
1875     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
1877     Screen "Clonezilla"
1878     ---------------------
1879     [[ backup-04.png ]]
1880     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
1882     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
1883     ---------------------
1884     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory will be saved.
1885     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
1886     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
1887     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
1889     [[ backup-05.png ]]
1890     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
1892     Next screen
1893     ---------------------
1894     This is where I choose the location of the image file. It will be saved
1895     at the root directory of the selected partition.
1897     [[ backup-06.png ]]
1898 sng 75 I select partition sda1 and press ENTER.
1899 sng 28
1900     [[ backup-07.png ]]
1901     and then ENTER again.
1903     [[ backup-08.png ]]
1904     This screen displays the mounting result.
1905 sng 75 As we can see, /dev/sda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
1906 sng 28
1907     Next Screen
1908     ---------------------
1909     [[ backup-09.png ]]
1910     I select Beginer mode to accept the default backup options. If you select
1911     Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
1912     found here.
1914     Screen "Select mode"
1915     ---------------------
1916     Here I can select the desired operation.
1918     [[ backup-10.png ]]
1919     I select "savedisk" and press ENTER.
1921     Next Screen
1922     ---------------------
1923     [[ backup-11.png ]]
1924     In this screen I select the image name.
1925 sng 75 I type "Backup_22-2010_sdb", which in my opinion is more informative name
1926 sng 28 than the default.
1928     Next Screen
1929     ---------------------
1930     [[ backup-12.png ]]
1931     Finally I am asked to select the partition to save.
1932     I just press ENTER again.
1934     Starting the backup
1935     ---------------------
1936     [[ backup-13.png ]]
1937     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
1938     ask me to press ENTER.
1939     Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
1941     [[ backup-14.png ]]
1942     After that, the backup begins
1944     [[ backup-15.png ]]
1945 sng 75 and when it's successfully completed, I press ENTER to get to the
1946     shell. Then, I execute the commands:
1947     sudo su -
1948     cd
1949     umount -a
1950     reboot
1951 sng 28
1952 sng 75 to reboot the system.
1953 sng 28
1956 sng 75
1957 sng 28 Getting backups on Samba
1958     ==============================================================================
1960     Intro
1961     ****************************************
1962     What if you don't have a spare local disk or partition or a USB disk? How
1963     will you be able to get a backup of your system? Well, if your PC is on
1964     the same LAN with another PC running Windows (or linux), you can use Samba
1965     to save your image file on that remote PC (which we will call Samba server
1966     from now on).
1968     Using Samba you will be able to mount a Windows share resource (or
1969     Samba share resource), from within Clonezilla Live, and save the image
1970     file there. Then you can boot that PC using SystemRescueCD and create a
1971     restore DVD.
1973 sng 75 In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting
1974     a backup of my second disk (/dev/sdb). The image file will be save in my
1975     Samba server which is my laptop (ip:, Windows share resource name:
1976     all_my_images).
1977 sng 28
1978     What is Samba?
1979     ---------------------
1980     We read at http://us1.samba.org/samba/:
1982     Samba is an Open Source/Free Software suite that provides seamless file
1983     and print services to SMB/CIFS clients. Samba is freely available, unlike
1984     other SMB/CIFS implementations, and allows for interoperability between
1985     Linux/Unix servers and Windows-based clients.
1987     Samba is software that can be run on a platform other than Microsoft
1988     Windows, for example, UNIX, Linux, IBM System 390, OpenVMS, and other
1989     operating systems. Samba uses the TCP/IP protocol that is installed on the
1990     host server. When correctly configured, it allows that host to interact
1991     with a Microsoft Windows client or server as if it is a Windows file and
1992     print server.
1994     Gathering info
1995     ****************************************
1996     Before you can use this approach to get a backup, you have to get some
1997     info about the Samba server.
1999     The Samba server I have used for this example was my laptop, so I already
2000     knew most of the info required. If this is not the case for you, just ask
2001     the owner, user or system admin.
2003     The info required is:
2005     * The IP address of the Samba server
2006     * The domain on the Samba server
2007     This may exist if your PC is connected to a larger LAN (a corporation
2008     network, for example). In my case this is empty.
2009     * The user name and password you can use
2010     * The directory on the Samba server you can use to save your backup
2011     This is the name of the Windows share resource (Samba share resource)
2012     as it is known in the network, which is not necessarily the same as the
2013     local directory name. The user whose account will be used to login to the
2014     Samba server, must have write permission to this directory.
2016     Getting the backup
2017     ****************************************
2018     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2019     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2020     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2021     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2022     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup.
2024     If you need to change these settings, go to the Getting backups page for
2025     instructions .
2027     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2028     ---------------------
2029 sng 75 [[ backup-03.png ]]
2030 sng 28 I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2032     Screen "Clonezilla"
2033     ---------------------
2034 sng 75 [[ backup-04.png ]]
2035 sng 28 I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2037 sng 75 Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2038 sng 28 ---------------------
2039     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory will be saved.
2040     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2041     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2042     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2044 sng 75 [[ backup-smb-05.png ]]
2045 sng 28 I select "samba server" and press ENTER.
2047     Screen "Mount Samba Server"
2048     ---------------------
2049 sng 75 This is where I have to enter the IP address of my Samba server.
2050     [[ backup-smb-06.png ]]
2051     I type "" and press ENTER.
2052 sng 28
2053     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (second time)
2054     ---------------------
2055 sng 75 This is where I have to enter the domain name on my Samba server.
2056     [[ backup-smb-07.png ]]
2057     I just press ENTER, as there is no domain in my LAN. If there is a domain
2058     in your network, you have to type its name (something like my_company.com)
2059     and press ENTER.
2060 sng 28
2061     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (third time)
2062     ---------------------
2063 sng 75 This is where I have to enter the account (user) name on my Samba server.
2064     [[ backup-smb-08.png ]]
2065     I type "spiros" and press ENTER.
2066 sng 28
2067     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (fourth time)
2068     ---------------------
2069 sng 75 This is where I have to enter the directory name on my Samba server, in
2070     which the image file will be saved. I type "/all_my_images" and press ENTER.
2071     [[ backup-smb-09.png ]]
2072 sng 28
2073 sng 75 At this point I'm informed I'm going to be asked for the password for
2074     user spiros.
2075     [[ backup-smb-10.png ]]
2076     I will be able to continue only after entering it correctly.
2077     [[ backup-smb-11.png ]]
2078 sng 28
2079     Screen "Clonezilla - Opensource Clone System (OCS)"
2080     ---------------------
2081 sng 75 [[ backup-09.png ]]
2082     I select Beginer mode to accept the default backup options. If you select
2083 sng 28 Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
2084     found here.
2086 sng 75 Screen "Select mode"
2087 sng 28 ---------------------
2088 sng 75 Here I can select the desired operation.
2089 sng 28
2090 sng 75 [[ backup-10.png ]]
2091     I select "savedisk" and press ENTER.
2092 sng 28
2093 sng 75 Next Screen
2094     ---------------------
2095     [[ backup-11.png ]]
2096     In this screen I select the image name.
2097     I type "Backup_22-2010_sdb", which in my opinion is more informative name
2098     than the default.
2099 sng 28
2100 sng 75 Next Screen
2101 sng 28 ---------------------
2102 sng 75 [[ backup-12.png ]]
2103     Finally I am asked to select the partition to save.
2104     I just press ENTER again.
2105 sng 28
2106 sng 75 Starting the backup
2107 sng 28 ---------------------
2108 sng 75 [[ backup-13.png ]]
2109     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2110     ask me to press ENTER.
2111     Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
2112 sng 28
2113 sng 75 [[ backup-14.png ]]
2114     After that, the backup begins
2115 sng 28
2116 sng 75 [[ backup-15.png ]]
2117     and when it's successfully completed, I press ENTER to get to the
2118     shell. Then, I execute the commands:
2119 sng 28 sudo su -
2120     cd
2121     umount -a
2122     reboot
2124 sng 75 to reboot the system.
2125 sng 28
2128 sng 75
2129 sng 28 Restoring data
2130     ==============================================================================
2132     Intro
2133     ****************************************
2134     Image files are always created for one purpose: restoring the data they
2135     contain. Images can be, for example, a backup solution: as long as hardware
2136     works, the computer can be restored to the state it was when creating the
2137     image. Another usage scenario is changing the hard drive: files can be
2138     copy-pasted from the old drive to the new, but that method doesn't make
2139     the new drive bootable. Disk images do.
2141     This page contains a demonstration of the latter case. On the Getting backups
2142     page, a 500 MB virtual disk containing 160 megabytes of data was copied
2143     to a 2 GB virtual disk which was empty. Now the 500 MB disk is changed to
2144     an empty 2 GB disk (still virtual) and I'll restore the data to that disk.
2146     When creating a disk image, one needs to check that both the source and
2147     target partitions are error free. That's not required when the image is
2148     restored, because restoration process can't damage the disk image. Note,
2149     however, that restoring an image erases all the data in the target
2150     disk/partition.
2152     You also need to check the BIOS settings to be able to boot from
2153     Clonezilla-SysRescCD. Some BIOSes contain a boot menu, others require
2154     editing settings pernamently. Details can be found on the manual of the
2155     motherboard or laptop.
2157     Now let's boot.
2159     [[ important.png ]]
2160     Restore process erases all the data on the target disk/partition.Before
2161     restoring make sure you have backup of all the data on the target
2162     disk/partition, even if the filesystem is corrupted.
2164     [[ info.png ]]
2165 sng 77 The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.5-17
2166 sng 28
2167     Restoring data
2168     ****************************************
2169     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
2170     ---------------------
2171     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2172     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2173     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2174     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2175     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
2176     that continue from this step.
2178     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
2179     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
2180     displayed.
2182     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
2183     are the following:
2185     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2186     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2187     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2188     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
2190     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
2191     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
2192     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
2194     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2195     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2196     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2197     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
2199     Screen "Choose Language"
2200     ---------------------
2201     [[ backup-00.png ]]
2202     This is where the language can be selected. I select "en_US.UTF-8 English"
2203     and press ENTER.
2205     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2206     ---------------------
2207     [[ backup-01.png ]]
2208     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
2209     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
2211     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2212     ---------------------
2213     [[ backup-02.png ]]
2214     Because I haven't changed my keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish /
2215     Standard / Standard". Because you most likely use a different keyboard,
2216     choose the one you use.
2218     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2219     ---------------------
2220     [[ backup-03.png ]]
2221     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2223     Screen "Clonezilla"
2224     ---------------------
2225     [[ backup-04.png ]]
2226     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2228     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2229     ---------------------
2230     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory has been saved.
2231     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2232     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2233     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2235     [[ backup-05.png ]]
2236     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
2238     Next screen
2239     ---------------------
2240     This is where I choose the location of the image file.
2241     [[ restoration-06.png ]]
2242 sng 77 I select partition sda1 and press ENTER.
2243 sng 28
2244     [[ backup-07.png ]]
2246     [[ restoration-08.png ]]
2247     This screen displays the mounting result.
2248 sng 77 As we can see, /dev/sda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
2249 sng 28
2250     Next Screen
2251     ---------------------
2252     [[ backup-09.png ]]
2253     I select Beginer mode to accept the default restore options. If you select
2254     Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
2255     found here.
2257     Screen "Select mode"
2258     ---------------------
2259     Here I can select the desired operation.
2261     [[ restoration-10.png ]]
2262     I select "restoredisk" and press ENTER.
2264     Next Screen
2265     ---------------------
2266     [[ restoration-11.png ]]
2267     In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only
2268     one image.
2270     Next Screen
2271     ---------------------
2272     [[ restoration-12.png ]]
2273     Finally I am asked to select which partition the image will be restored
2274     to. After double-checking the disk doesn't contain anything important,
2275     I press ENTER.
2277     Starting the restoration
2278     ---------------------
2279     [[ restoration-13.png ]]
2280     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2281     ask me to press ENTER.
2282     Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
2284     [[ restoration-14.png ]]
2286     [[ important.png ]]
2287     This is the last confirmation Clonezilla Live asks.After this step there
2288     is no coming back.
2289     Then my confirmation is asked one last time. After checking one more time
2290     the disk doesn't contain any important data, I press y and ENTER.
2292     [[ restoration-15.png ]]
2293     After that, the restore process begins
2295     [[ restoration-16.png ]]
2296 sng 77 and when it's successfully completed, I press ENTER to get to the
2297     shell. Then, I execute the commands:
2298     sudo su -
2299     cd
2300     umount -a
2301     reboot
2302 sng 28
2303 sng 77 to reboot the system.
2304 sng 28
2307 sng 77
2308 sng 28 Creating a Restore DVD - Part 1
2309     ==============================================================================
2311     Intro
2312     ****************************************
2313     Assuming you have used Clonezilla Live to make a backup of your Windows XP
2314     system (partition /dev/hda1), which you have saved as win_img, you will
2315     probably be wondering what to do with it now. Well, one option would be
2316     to keep it to the disk you used to save it in, store the disk, and use it
2317     whenever you need it. Another option would be to create a DVD you can use
2318     to restore this image.
2320     Before, up to Clonezilla-SysRescCD 2.6.0, the process to create an automated
2321     restore DVD required entering command line prompt and writing some commands,
2322     that can be uncomfortable or even difficult for many people.
2324     Later, a TUI option to create an automated recovery disc was added to
2325     Clonezilla Live, and ocs-iso script included in Clonezilla-SysRescCD
2326     3.1.0 and newer has a TUI too. Old command-line options are no longer
2327     supported. This page walks you through the creation of an automated restore
2328     DVD via TUI.
2330     Assuming you have saved your image file win_img in partition hdb4, you
2331     have to boot Clonezilla Live, using Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
2333     [[ info.png ]]
2334     The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.3-27
2336     Creating the disk image
2337     ****************************************
2338     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
2339     ---------------------
2340     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2341     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2342     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2343     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2344     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
2345     that continue from this step.
2347     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
2348     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
2349     displayed.
2351     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
2352     are the following:
2354     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2355     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2356     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2357     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
2359     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
2360     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
2361     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
2363     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2364     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2365     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2366     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
2368     Screen "Choose Language"
2369     ---------------------
2370     [[ backup-00.png ]]
2371     I select "en_US.UTF-8 English" and press ENTER.
2373     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2374     ---------------------
2375     [[ backup-01.png ]]
2376     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
2377     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
2379     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2380     ---------------------
2381     [[ backup-02.png ]]
2382     Because I haven't changed my keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish /
2383     Standard / Standard". Because you most likely use a different keyboard,
2384     choose the one you use.
2386     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2387     ---------------------
2388     [[ backup-03.png ]]
2389     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2391     Screen "Clonezilla"
2392     ---------------------
2393     [[ backup-04.png ]]
2394     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2396     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2397     ---------------------
2398     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory has been saved.
2399     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2400     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2401     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2403     [[ backup-05.png ]]
2404     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
2406     Next screen
2407     ---------------------
2408     This is where I choose the location of the image file.
2409     [[ restore-06.png ]]
2410     I select partition hda1 and press ENTER.
2412     [[ backup-07.png ]]
2413     and then ENTER again.
2415     [[ restore-08.png ]]
2416     This screen displays the mounting result.
2417     As we can see, /dev/hda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
2419     Next Screen
2420     ---------------------
2421     [[ backup-09.png ]]
2422     I select Beginer mode to accept the default restore options, which are
2423     used if the recovery disk is ever used. If you select Expert mode, you
2424     can choose the options yourself. More details can be found here.
2426     Screen "Clonezilla: Select mode"
2427     ---------------------
2428     Here I can select the desired operation.
2430     [[ restore-10.png ]]
2431     I select "recovery-iso-zip" and press ENTER.
2433     Next Screen
2434     ---------------------
2435     [[ restore-11.png ]]
2436     In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only
2437     one image.
2439     Next Screen
2440     ---------------------
2441     [[ restore-12.png ]]
2442     Now I am asked to select which disk the image will be restored to, if the
2443     recovery disc is used. Because this image is a backup, I choose the same
2444     disk where the original data resides. If you're upgrading your hard drive,
2445     choose the new drive.
2447     Next Screen
2448     ---------------------
2449     [[ restore-13.png ]]
2450     In this screen I can select the language that the recovery disc uses. I
2451     choose "en_US.UTF-8".
2453     Next Screen
2454     ---------------------
2455     [[ restore-14.png ]]
2456     This screen allows me to select the keymap that the recovery disc
2457     uses. Unfortunately, changing the keymap requires knowing where the keymap
2458     file resides in Debian GNU/Linux. Because I don't know it, I just press
2459     ENTER to accept US keymap.
2461     Next Screen
2462     ---------------------
2463     [[ restore-15.png ]]
2464     I select "iso" to create a CD/DVD disk image which I can burn to a recordable
2465     CD/DVD disc. The good thing about recordable discs is that overwriting
2466     the backup by accident is impossible. The "zip" option creates a ZIP file
2467     which can be used to create a bootable pendrive or external hard drive.
2469     [[ restore-16.png ]]
2470     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2471     ask me to press ENTER.
2473     [[ cust-menu-01.png ]]
2474     Due to limitations of mkisofs, the script can't create a ISO file which
2475     is over 4,5 gigabytes in size. It causes problems if the size of your
2476     image is over 4,4 gigabytes. Clonezilla-SysRescCD contains a workaround
2477     that creates a ISO file that contains no image, so you can add the image
2478     manually later. This dialog asks if you want to do so. Note that if you
2479     see this dialog, you most likely need a dual layer DVD+R or Blu-ray disc
2480     to burn the image. Growisofs doesn't support multisession burning on dual
2481     layer DVD-R discs, so such disc can't be used either.
2483     Screen "Customization section"
2484     ---------------------
2485     [[ cust-menu-02.png ]]
2486     Now I am asked if I want to customize the boot menu of the disc. I answer
2487     "Yes". If you don't want to customize the menu, continue from this step.
2489     Screen "DVD Title"
2490     ---------------------
2491     [[ cust-menu-03.png ]]
2492     In this screen I select the title of the boot menu. I type "Home PC
2493     Restore DVD".
2495     Screen "Menu Items Caption"
2496     ---------------------
2497     [[ cust-menu-04.png ]]
2498     This screen allows me to select the caption for all menu items. I enter
2499     "Restore Win XP".
2501     Screen "Boot delay"
2502     ---------------------
2503     [[ cust-menu-05.png ]]
2504     I press ENTER to accept the default delay of 30 seconds. It means that
2505     when a computer is booted from the restore disc, it waits 30 seconds
2506     before choosing the default option automatically. You may want to reduce
2507     this delay if, for example, your keyboard doesn't work in boot menu and
2508     you must wait until the delay ends.
2510     Screen "Default Boot Item"
2511     ---------------------
2512     [[ cust-menu-06.png ]]
2513     In this screen I can select the default option of the menu. Selecting one
2514     of the options that restore the image makes using the disc even easier,
2515     but also raises the risk that the image is restored accidentally. Another
2516     reason to select such option may be that your keyboard doesn't work in
2517     boot menu, preventing you from choosing any non-default option. I select
2518     the first option that restores the image using pixel dimensions of 1024*768.
2520     Screen "Boot Screen Image"
2521     ---------------------
2522     [[ cust-menu-07.png ]]
2523     This screen allows me to select the background picture of the menu. Note
2524     that the picture must be in the same partition that contains the disk
2525     image, if you don't mind entering command line and mounting the right
2526     partition manually. I choose picture mysplash.png in the root of the
2527     partition. Because the partition has been mounted in /home/partimag,
2528     the full path of the picture is /home/partimag/mysplash.png.
2530     Screen "ISO Label"
2531     ---------------------
2532     [[ cust-menu-08.png ]]
2533     In this screen I can select the volume label of the disc. Volume label is
2534     the name of the disc you may see in various situations, for example in the
2535     notification you see when you insert the disc into your DVD writer. I type
2536     "Backup_52-2009_hdb".
2538     Screen "Publisher ID"
2539     ---------------------
2540     [[ cust-menu-09.png ]]
2541     This is where I choose the publisher ID of the ISO file
2542     and the disc. Publisher ID means the person or company who
2543     created the disc. However, at least in GNU/Linux reading
2544     the publisher ID is, strictly speaking, a challenge. Here {{
2545     http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/getting-volume-information-from-cds-iso- }}
2546     are instructions to read the publisher ID of a ISO file. I didn't find
2547     any working instructions to read the ID from the disc.
2549     Starting the creation of the disk image
2550     ---------------------
2551     [[ restore-17.png ]]
2552     After that, creation of the disk image begins. Note that no confirmation
2553     is asked it the disk image is small enough to fit to a CD.
2555     [[ cust-menu-10.png ]]
2557     If you have above enabled the workaround to create a ISO file without any
2558     image, you get the info screen, which explains the actions to be taken
2559     in order to burn the ISO file and add the iamge file to the DVD. A script
2560     file is also saved as /tmp/burnISO.
2562     [[ restore-18.png ]]
2563     When the disk image is successfully created, I must reboot in order to
2564     burn the disc because my DVD burner is still in use. Clonezilla Live can
2565     be loaded into computer memory during boot in order to be able to burn
2566     disc(s) within it. However, due to a known bug, the disk image can't
2567     be created if Clonezilla Live has been loaded into memory. (source {{
2568     http://free.nchc.org.tw/clonezilla-live/stable/Known-issues-Clonezilla-live.txt
2569     }}) Thus, I press 1 and ENTER to reboot to another operating system and
2570     burn the image using graphical burning program. For instructions, follow
2571     one of these links:
2573     If the ISO file contains the disk image
2574     If the ISO file contains no image
2575     If you've created a ZIP file
2580     Creating a Restore DVD - Part 2
2581     ==============================================================================
2583     What to do with the disk image
2584     ****************************************
2585     The previous page contains partial instructions to create an automated
2586     recovery DVD. They're partial because they only tell how the disk image
2587     can be created, not what one should do with the image. Of course, partial
2588     instructions are not enough, but don't worry - this page is the other part.
2590     Earlier versions of Clonezilla Live allowed creating the DVD without
2591     reboot, but it's no longer possible due to a known bug. The disk image
2592     can't be created if Clonezilla Live has been loaded into memory (source {{
2593     http://free.nchc.org.tw/clonezilla-live/stable/Known-issues-Clonezilla-live.txt
2594     }}) and the image can't be burned to disc if Clonezilla Live isn't in
2595     memory. And if the computer must be rebooted anyway, it's a good idea to
2596     use one's favorite operating system and a graphical burning program for
2597     burning the disc. Doing so also allows reading these instructions while
2598     burning the disc.
2600     This page walks through burning the disc by using ImgBurn and K3b. The
2601     instructions can be adapted for many other burning programs as well. If
2602     your burning program is too different, download either of the programs
2603     mentioned - they both can be downloaded for free.
2605     In addition to a DVD, bootable pendrive or external hard drive can be
2606     created as well. If you want to do so, follow instructions below.
2608     Before following these instructions, insert a writable DVD or Blu-ray disc
2609     to your burner.
2611     Burning the disc
2612     ****************************************
2613     If the ISO file contains the disk image
2614     ---------------------
2615     > Using ImgBurn
2617     ImgBurn {{ http://www.imgburn.com/ }} is a lightweight but very feature-rich
2618     disc burning program. It only requires about two megabytes disk space
2619     and contains a lot of settings. ImgBurn is closed-source freeware and -
2620     unfortunately - Windows-only software. I (Jyrki) personally use ImgBurn
2621     when burning discs within Windows.
2623     Launch ImgBurn and press Write image file to disc. Select the disk image
2624     you just created.
2626     At the settings window, keep Test Mode disabled. I also recommend
2627     keeping the Verify option enabled. Verifying the integrity of the disc
2628     after burning requires time and doesn't prevent the disc from becoming a
2629     so-called coaster, but it allows you to know immediately if the burning
2630     attempt failed, so you can try burning the disc again.
2632     Keep the number of copies as 1 (or increase it, if you really
2633     want multiple copies of the disc). Use your best judgment while
2634     choosing the burning speed: according to this forum thread {{
2635     http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/ }} lowering
2636     the burning speed gives very mixed results in quality. I personally use
2637     ¾ of the maximum speed of the disc, for example 12x on a disc rated 16x.
2639     After choosing the settings, press the big picture at the bottom-left of
2640     the window. Don't do anything that requires much computer resources while
2641     burning, because doing so increases the likelihood of burning failure.
2643     That's it. You own now an automated recovery disc.
2645     > Using K3b
2647     K3b (KDE Burn Baby Burn) is the disc burning program included in KDE
2648     Software Compilation. It comes with most, if not all, KDE-based GNU/Linux
2649     distributions. It can also be installed on other distributions, but I
2650     recommend against doing so - K3b requires KDE base packages to be installed,
2651     and it doesn't make much sense to install KDE base only for K3b.
2653     [[ k3b-00.png ]]
2654     I launch K3b and navigate to the folder where the disk image resides.
2656     [[ k3b-01.png ]]
2657     I double-click the file clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hda.iso.
2659     [[ k3b-02.png ]]
2660     This window allows me to choose burning settings. I don't touch Image Type or
2661     Burn Medium, because they're auto-detected anyway. The maximum burning speed
2662     allowed by the disc is 16x, so I choose speed 12x. According to this forum
2663     thread {{ http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/
2664     }} low burning speed can decrease burning quality, so I always use speed
2665     near the maximum speed of the disc.
2667     I keep Writing Mode as Auto and number of copies as 1. I also keep the
2668     Simulate option disabled and enable the Verify written data option. The
2669     latter allows me to notice immediately if the burning attempt failed, so
2670     I can try burning the disc again, rather than owning a so-called coaster
2671     and relying on it if something happens to my data...
2673     [[ k3b-03.png ]]
2674     I click Start and the burning process begins.
2676     [[ k3b-04.png ]]
2677     Because I enabled the Verify written data option, K3b starts verifying
2678     the integrity of the disc right after burning.
2680     [[ k3b-05.png ]]
2681     The burning attempt succeeded.
2683     If the ISO file contains no image
2684     ---------------------
2685     If you have enabled the workaround to create a ISO file that contains
2686     no disk image (required if the size of the image is over 4,4 gigabytes),
2687     things become much more problematic. The ISO file and the image can't be
2688     burned to the disc simultaneously, they must be written one-by-one. That
2689     requires two burning sessions: the first for writing the ISO file to the
2690     disc and the second for adding the disk image. Many burning programs don't
2691     even support multisession burning at all. About the programs I've mentioned
2692     in this page: K3b supports multisession burning, ImgBurn doesn't.
2694     I didn't find any instructions for adding an additional file to a
2695     spesific directory by using K3b. Actually, I don't even know if that's
2696     possible at all. Thus, I recommend using growisofs for burning the disc
2697     if the workaround has been enabled, because growisofs allows adding
2698     any file to any directory. However, there's one more limitation:
2699     growisofs doesn't support multisession burning on dual layer DVD-R
2700     discs, so you must use dual layer DVD+R or Blu-ray disc. (source {{
2701     http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/-RW/#nomultisess }})
2703     Growisofs is a command-line program and a part of dvd+rw-tools that is
2704     installed on most GNU/Linux distributions. Dvd+rw-tools is Linux-only
2705     software, so if you use a competing operating system, you must boot into
2706     SystemRescueCD (graphical mode is not needed) in order to burn the disc.
2708     Open terminal and mount the partition that contains the image. The commands
2709     below must be run as root.
2711     mkdir /media/usb
2712     mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb
2714     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
2715     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above the
2716     command. For example, the latter of the above commands can be executed by
2717     typing "sudo mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb". If you're using SystemRescueCD,
2718     all commands are run as root, so you don't need to add any prefix to
2719     the commands.
2721     Note: In the command replace /dev/sdc1 with the partition where the disk
2722     image resides. It's the same partition you mounted as /home/partimag when
2723     creating the image.
2725     Go to root of the partition:
2727     cd /media/usb
2729     Burn the ISO file to the disc:
2731     growisofs -Z /dev/dvd=clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.iso
2733     Note: In the last command I have assumed your ISO file is
2734     clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.iso. You will have to replace this with
2735     the actual name of the file.
2737     Note: If your computer has multiple DVD drives, replace /dev/dvd with the
2738     name of your DVD writer.
2740     The disc must be ejected because it's the only known way to force the
2741     drive to reread the disc. Do it:
2743     eject /dev/dvd
2745     Note: If your drive can't reload the disc, insert the disc back right
2746     after ejecting it.
2748     Finally, add the image file to the disc:
2750 sng 75 growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J -V "Backup_5-2010_hdb" \
2751     --publisher "Your Name" -graft-points \
2752     /Backup_5-2010_hdb/=/media/usb/Backup_5-2010_hdb
2753 sng 28
2754     Note: In the command replace Your Name with anything you want to be the
2755     publisher ID of the disc. If you don't want the disc to have any publisher
2756     ID, run this command instead:
2758 sng 75 growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J -V "Backup_5-2010_hdb" \
2759     -graft-points /Backup_5-2010_hdb/=/media/usb/Backup_5-2010_hdb
2760 sng 28
2761     [[ restore-20.png ]]
2763     ZIP file instructions
2764     ****************************************
2765     Often the image file is way too big to fit to even 8 GB DVD. Some people may
2766     also want to be able to overwrite the backup when it becomes outdated. In
2767     addition, netbooks don't have optical drives at all.
2769     One option is using recovery thumb drive or external hard drive instead
2770     of DVD. If the external HD is big enough, the disk image can be even over
2771     a terabyte in size. Recovery USB drive can also be used on netbooks and
2772     overwritten at will.
2774     Clonezilla Live allows creating a ZIP file instead of disk image. If you
2775     want to do so, follow this step-by-step guide.
2777     Before creating the disk image, make sure it is split to pieces of four
2778     gigabytes or less. It is split automatically if you use Beginner mode,
2779     and if you use Expert mode, you should already know how the splitting
2780     setting can be changed.
2782     Using GNU/Linux
2783     ---------------------
2784     After creating the disk image and booting into GNU/Linux, make sure that the
2785     filesystem of the partition where you plan to put the disk image is FAT32. If
2786     you don't know the filesystem, open terminal and run this command as root:
2788     fdisk -l /dev/sdc
2790     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
2791     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above
2792     the command. For example, the above command can be executed by typing
2793     "sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdc"
2795     Note: In the command replace /dev/sdc with the name of your USB disk.
2797     Note: The l in parameter -l is lowercase L, not number 1.
2799     If your disk doesn't contain any FAT32 partition, but it contains a
2800     partition which is big enough and doesn't contain any important data,
2801     format the partition as FAT32. The command below needs root access too.
2803     [[ important.png ]]
2804     The command below erases all the data on the target partition.Make sure
2805     you don't format a wrong partition by accident.
2807     mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sdc1
2809     After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32,
2810     extract the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Also these commands
2811     need root rights.
2813     mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb
2814     unzip clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.zip -d /media/usb/
2816     Note: In the last command I have assumed your image file is
2817     clonezilla-live-Backup_5-2010_hdb.zip. You will have to replace this with
2818     the actual name of the file.
2820     ZIP package contains a script to make the USB drive bootable. Let's run
2821     it. The latter of these commands needs root access.
2823     [[ important.png ]]
2824     The latter of the commands below replaces theexisting bootloader of the
2825     target disk, if there is one.Make sure you don't select a wrong disk
2826     by accident.
2828     cd /media/usb/utils/linux
2829     ./makeboot.sh /dev/sdc1
2831     That's all. Your thumb drive or external hard drive should be now an
2832     automatic recovery disk.
2834     Using Windows
2835     ---------------------
2836     If the Windows version you use is not Vista or 7, you need to be logged in
2837     as administrator. If you're not, but you have access to an admin account,
2838     log out and then log again in as admin.
2840     If you don't have admin rights at all, boot into SystemRescueCD (you don't
2841     need graphical mode this time) and follow the instructions for GNU/Linux. In
2842     SystemRescueCD all commands are run as root, so you don't need to add any
2843     prefix to the commands.
2845     If you normally use Windows, you maybe don't know the name of your USB
2846     disk in GNU/Linux. If that's the case, don't specify any disk in the first
2847     command. It causes fdisk to tell about all disks in the computer and you
2848     should be able to identify both the right disk and the right partition.
2850     After creating the disk image and booting into Windows, make sure that
2851     the filesystem of the partition where you plan to put the disk image is
2852     FAT32. If you don't know the filesystem, open My Computer, right-click the
2853     partition and select Properties. Then read the "File system" column. If
2854     there reads anything but FAT32, check other partitions of the disk too,
2855     if the disk contains multiple partitions. If you have a suitable FAT32
2856     partition, continue from this step.
2858     If your disk doesn't contain any FAT32 partition, but it contains a
2859     partition which is big enough and doesn't contain any important data,
2860     format the partition as FAT32.
2862     [[ important.png ]]
2863     Formatting erases all the data on the target partition.Make sure the
2864     partition contains nothing important.
2866     Right-click the partition and select Format.... If the Windows version
2867     you use is Vista or 7, an UAC prompt asks for admin password. Enter it.
2869     At the format window, choose the FAT32 filesystem. You can enter any volume
2870     label (it means the name of the partition you can see next to the partition
2871     letter) and enable Quick Format if you're in a hurry. If Quick Format is
2872     disabled, Windows checks if the partition is physically OK after formatting
2873     it. Enabling Quick Format makes the formatting process many times faster
2874     and, contrary to popular belief, hardly ever causes any harm.
2876     After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32, extract
2877     the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Navigate to the folder where
2878     you've saved the ZIP file and right-click it. Choose Extract all..., and when
2879     you're asked for location where the archive is extracted, enter the letter
2880     of the partition, for example H:\. Do NOT choose any folder in the partition!
2882     After that, browse to the folder X:\utils\win32, where X: is the letter
2883     of the partition. Then, double-click makeboot.bat. If the Windows version
2884     you use is Vista or 7, another UAC prompt appears. Enter the password
2885     again. Then just follow the prompts to make the USB drive bootable.
2887     Now you're done. Your thumb drive or external hard drive should be an
2888     automatic recovery disk.
2893     Restoring to a different location
2894     ==============================================================================
2896     Intro
2897     ****************************************
2898     In the past restoring to a different location was not supported by
2899     Clonezilla Live at all. Because of that, a script called reloc-img was
2900     added to Clonezilla-SysRescCD, which would help the user perform this task.
2902     Recent versions of Clonezilla Live partly support restoring to a
2903     different location, so the reloc-img script is obsolete, and has been
2904     removed. Clonezilla Live now supports:
2906     * Relocation of a disk image (restoring a whole disk)
2907     * Relocation of a partition image (restoring a partition)
2909     Clonezilla Live does not support:
2911     * Relocation of a single partition contained into a disk image.
2913     Imagine you have a disk backup image named hda-2009-02-02. The image
2914     contains three partitions, hda1 (operating system), hda2 (user data)
2915     and hda3 (other data).
2917     You want to restore your other data partition (hda3), to a different system
2918     (partition sdb2) but there is no way to restore (extract) a single partition
2919     from a disk image - you can only restore the whole disk.
2921     In order to address this situation, two new scripts have been written for
2922     Clonezilla-SysRescCD: imginfo and imgconvert
2924     Script imginfo
2925     ****************************************
2926     The script will be used to print info about existing image files.
2928     Its help screen is:
2930     # imginfo -h
2931     Clonezilla Live Image Information
2932     imginfo v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
2934     Usage: imginfo <options> <directory>
2936     Available options:
2937     s Search in sub-directories too
2938     i [name] Pring info for image [name]
2939     v Print version info and exit
2940     h Print this screen and exit
2942     Script imgconvert
2943     ****************************************
2944     The script will be used to convert an existing disk image file to a new
2945     partition image file.
2947     imgconvert can create two type of images:
2949     * Temporary image
2950     This type of image is created by linking the data files of the existing
2951     disk image to the new partition image. This means that the original image
2952     must be present for the new image to be used. This is the default image
2953     type created by imgconvert.
2955     * Permanent image
2956     This type of image is created by copying the data files from the existing
2957     disk image to the new partition image. This means that the original image is
2958     not needed in order to use the new one. Permenant image files are created
2959     using the command line parameter -p.
2961     Its help screen is:
2963     # imgconvert -h
2964     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2965     imgconvert v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
2967     Usage: imgconvert <options> [image] [partition] <new partition>
2969     Parameters are:
2970     [image] Disk image to be converted to partition image
2971     [partition] Partition name to convert. It must be a valid device name
2973     Available options:
2974     o [image] Save new imag as [image]
2975     p Save new partition instead of making a link to the old one
2976     v Print version info and exit
2977     h Print this screen and exit
2979     Using the scripts
2980     ****************************************
2981     Restoring to a partition
2982     ---------------------
2983     After booting into Clonezilla Live, I select
2985     Enter_shell Enter command line prompt
2987     when the menu is displayed and then I press 2 to exit to the shell.
2989     At this point I will mount my images partition (in this example /dev/sdc4),
2990     and use script imginfo to get info about my image files.
2992     $ sudo su -
2993     # mount /dev/sdc4 /home/partimag
2994     # cd /home/partimag
2995     # imginfo
2996     Image files found in: /home/partimag
2997     Image: usb250-img, disk: sda, size: 259MB, parts: 1
2998     part: sda4, size: 247.00MB, type: FAT16
2999     Image: sys-bck, disk: hda, size: 320.0GB, parts: 3
3000     part: hda1, size: 22.36GB, type: Linux
3001     part: hda2, size: 39.06GB, type: Linux
3002     part: hda3, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
3004     As you can see there are two disk images under /home/partimag: usb250-img
3005     and sys-bck.
3007     sys-bck is a backup of my old system, which had three partitions. What
3008     I need to do now is "copy" the hda3 partition to my current system, by
3009     transfering its data to partition sdb2.
3011     The way to proceed is:
3013     * Create a new partition image (containing hda3's data) based on the
3014     existing disk image file, by executing the command:
3016     # imgconvert sys-bck hda3 sdb2
3017     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
3018     imgconvert v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras
3020     Determining input image
3021     Input image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck"
3022     Validating image... ok
3023     Determining input partition
3024     Input partition: "hda3"
3025     Validating input partition... ok
3026     Determining output image
3027     Output image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck-cnv"
3028     Validating output image... ok
3029     Checking permissions... ok
3030     Determining output partition
3031     Output partition: "sda2"
3032     Validating output partition... ok
3033     Creating output image: /home/partimag/sys-bck-cnv
3034     Linking files... done
3035     Fixing info files... done
3037     This command will create a temporary partition image file (automatically
3038     named sys-bck-cnv), which contains sdb2 only, as you can see by executing:
3040     # imginfo -i sys-bck-cnv
3041     Image: sys-bck-cnv, part: sdb2, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
3043     * Restart Clonezilla Live by pressing Control-D twice.
3045     * Restore the new image file into sdb2, by selecting
3047     Screen 1: Start_Clonezilla Start Clonezilla
3049     Screen 2: device-image disk/partition to/from image
3051     Screen 3: skip use existing /home/partimag
3053     Screen 4: Beginer / Expert
3055     Screen 5: restoreparts
3056     Restore_an_image_to_local_partition
3058     and continue as usual to restore the partition.
3060     Converting image files
3061     ---------------------
3062     # imgconvert -p -o other_data sys-bck hda3 sdb2
3063     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
3064     imgconvert v. 0.1 - (C) 2009 S. Georgaras
3066     Determining input image
3067     Input image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck"
3068     Validating image... ok
3069     Determining input partition
3070     Input partition: "hda3"
3071     Validating input partition... ok
3072     Determining output image
3073     Output image: "/home/partimag/other_data"
3074     Validating output image... ok
3075     Checking permissions... ok
3076     Determining output partition
3077     Output partition: "sda2"
3078     Validating output partition... ok
3079     Creating output image: /home/partimag/other_data
3080     Copying files... done
3081     Fixing info files... done
3083     # imginfo -i other_data
3084     Image: other_data, part: sdb2, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
3086     # ls -la sys-bck
3087     total 1111972
3088     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-11-22 03:21 .
3089     drwxr-xr-x. 34 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:28 ..
3090     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4 2007-11-20 20:33 disk
3091     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1081716736 2007-11-20 20:32 hda1.aa
3092     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 45453312 2007-11-20 20:33 hda2.aa
3093     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10317824 2007-11-20 20:33 hda3.aa
3094     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2007-11-21 18:56 hda-chs.sf
3095     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2007-11-21 18:50 hda-chs.sf.orig
3096     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 512 2007-11-20 20:31 hda-mbr
3097     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 259 2007-11-21 18:59 hda-pt.sf
3098     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 259 2007-11-21 18:50 hda-pt.sf.orig
3099     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 15 2007-11-20 20:33 parts
3100     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17 2007-11-20 20:33 swappt-hda4.info
3101     #
3102     #
3103     # ls -la other_data
3104     total 24
3105     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:27 .
3106     drwxr-xr-x. 35 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:27 ..
3107     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5 2009-04-06 21:27 parts
3108     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10317824 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb2.aa
3109     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb-chs.sf
3110     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 106 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb-pt.sf
3112     Booting a restored Linux system
3113     ****************************************
3114     A Linux system that has been restored to a new disk/partition, is usually
3115     not ready to be booted right after the restoration procedure is finished.
3117     There are two more steps that you may have to take:
3119     * Fix /etc/fstab
3120     * Reinstall GRUB.
3121     I will assume GRUB is your boot manager, as it is the usual case nowadays.
3123     For this example I will assume that you have restored a Linux system
3124     (that used to be in sdb), to a new disk (hda), and that it contains three
3125     partitions, / (the root partition), /home (user's partition) and a swap
3126     partition. You must be really careful here, as the name of the new disk
3127     depends on the system to be booted. If it uses one of the newest Linux
3128     kernels (using the libata disk driver), ALL your disks will be recognised
3129     as SCSI. More info: "Identifying devices in Linux" section "SCSI disks
3130     when there are none!!!".
3132     This is what we have:
3134     root partition home partition swap partition
3135     Old system /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdb3
3136     New system /dev/hda1 /dev/hda2 /dev/hda3
3138     Fixing /etc/fstab
3139     ---------------------
3140     Since we are still in Clonezilla Live, right after the restore procedure
3141     has finished, we will use it to mount our restored root partition, and
3142     edit its /etc/fstab. We issue the commands:
3144     mkdir /new-root
3145     mount /dev/hda1 /new-root
3146     vi /new-root/etc/fstab
3148     The contents of /etc/fstab could be something like
3150     /dev/sdb1 / reiserfs acl,user_xattr 1 1
3151     /dev/sdb2 /home reiserfs defaults 1 2
3152     /dev/sdb3 swap swap defaults 0 0
3154     and we have to change ti to
3156     /dev/hda1 / reiserfs acl,user_xattr 1 1
3157     /dev/hda2 /home reiserfs defaults 1 2
3158     /dev/hda3 swap swap defaults 0 0
3160     Finally, we unmount the partition, and we are ready to reboot
3162     umount /new-root
3163     reboot
3165     Reinstalling GRUB
3166     ---------------------
3167     When Clonezilla-SysRescCD menu appears, we select Tools > Super Grub Disk
3169     Then we select Super Grub Disk > Super Grub Disk (WITH HELP) > English
3170     Super Grub Disk > Gnu/Linux > Fix Boot of Gnu/Linux (GRUB). From this
3171     entry we will be able to reinstall GRUB to our hard disk.
3173     You may also want to have a look at Super Grub Disk "documentation {{
3174     http://www.supergrubdisk.org/wiki/SuperGrubDiskDocumentation }}".
3179     Fixing boot problems
3180     ==============================================================================
3182     Intro
3183     ****************************************
3184     Boot problems are probably the most feared computer problems. Without an
3185     operating system you can't access your data, get the work done or even
3186     google for help. That's why it's often a good idea to have an alternative
3187     operating system available for searching help if the main OS doesn't
3188     work. Also a copy of Clonezilla-SysRescCD can be invaluable help.
3190     Actually, the initial reason why I (Jyrki) installed GNU/Linux at all was
3191     that I wanted to be able to fix Windows boot problems if they occur. I
3192     installed both GNU/Linux and GRUB to my external hard drive, completely
3193     separating operating systems. Even if either bootloader stopped working,
3194     I'd still be able to boot one of my OSes.
3196     But such configuration is not easy to create, and when I installed GNU/Linux,
3197     I knew very little about it. If I didn't read the instructions I found
3198     here and there very carefully, I probably would have done a common mistake:
3199     installing GRUB to my internal hard drive. Such mistake would have caused
3200     two problems:
3202     * Inability to boot GNU/Linux at any computer expect the one which was
3203     used for installing
3204     * Inability to boot Windows when the external drive isn't connected
3206     In this page, I simulate that situation in a virtual machine and fix
3207     both problems.
3209     Symptoms
3210     ****************************************
3211     What happens when I try to boot the external hard drive on another computer
3212     depends on the BIOS of the computer. For example, on my computer I see a
3213     Black Screen of Death {{ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Screen_of_Death
3214     }} when I try booting from a disk with empty Master Boot Record. Other
3215     BIOSes may boot the local operating system or display an error message
3216     (for example "Disk boot failure", "Missing operating system" or "Operating
3217     system not found").
3219     The other problem is very easy to determine. When external drive is
3220     disconnected and I try to boot, I'll see this:
3222     [[ error-21.png ]]
3224     Goals
3225     ****************************************
3226     Because I still want to separate my operating systems completely,
3227     I try to restore NTLDR to the Master Boot Record of the internal disk,
3228     if possible. If that's not possible, I install there another bootloader
3229     that chainloads Windows.
3231     I could reinstall GNU/Linux completely and make sure that the GRUB is
3232     installed to the right disk this time, but it's not a good idea if I only
3233     need to overwrite the first 446 bytes (yes, bytes, not kilo- or megabytes)
3234     of the disk. So, I only install GRUB to the external disk, by using Super
3235     Grub Disk.
3237     Your problem (if you have one at all) most likely is different, but goals
3238     are often the same.
3240     You need to restore NTLDR if you...
3242     * ...just installed GNU/Linux, but the boot menu doesn't mention Windows
3243     at all. You're not willing to learn how Windows can be added to the boot
3244     menu, you just need to make your computer to boot Windows again right now.
3245     * ...cloned your Windows partition to your brand new computer but didn't
3246     clone the Master Boot Record.
3247     * ...are about to uninstall GNU/Linux and aren't willing to use GRUB as
3248     your bootloader.
3250     You need to install GRUB if you...
3252     * ...just installed Windows and want to make GNU/Linux bootable again.
3253     * ...cloned your GNU/Linux partition to your brand new computer but didn't
3254     clone the Master Boot Record.
3255     * ...just installed GNU/Linux but installed GRUB to a non-first hard drive
3256     by accident. (The symptom is that your computer still boots to the operating
3257     system you had installed already.)
3259     [[ info.png ]]
3260     The following pressentation has been made usingSuper Grub Disk v0.9799
3262     Restoring NTLDR
3263     ****************************************
3264     There are a lot of ways to restore NTLDR. However, sometimes there is no
3265     legal way to restore it, and I'm NOT telling about the illegal ones. The
3266     last resort is using syslinux to chainload Windows; there is usually no
3267     way to notice that syslinux is used instead of NTLDR.
3269     I've listed here the most important options in order I'd use them.
3271     Restoring NTLDR from a backup
3272     ---------------------
3273     If you've been smart enough to use Clonezilla Live to create a disk image
3274     of your first hard drive, it's very easy to restore NTLDR.
3276     Your NTLDR is safe in a file called hda-mbr or sda-mbr. You can use dd to
3277     overwrite your existing Master Boot Record.
3279     [[ important.png ]]
3280     Don't restore all 512 bytes of your Master Boot Record.The MBR contains
3281     your partition table and restoring it afterrepartitioning your disk erases
3282     all the data on the disk.
3284     If you normally use GNU/Linux, open terminal and run these commands as root:
3286     mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/usb
3287     dd if=/mnt/usb/Backup/sda-mbr of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1
3289     Note: In the commands I have assumed that your first hard drive is /dev/sda
3290     and that your disk image resides in the folder Backup in partition
3291     /dev/sdc1. You will have to replace them with the correct pieces of
3292     information.
3294     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
3295     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above
3296     the command. For example, the latter of the above commands can be executed
3297     by typing "sudo dd if=/mnt/usb/Backup/sda-mbr of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1"
3299     If you normally use another operating system, boot into SystemRescueCD and
3300     run the above commands. In SystemRescueCD all commands are run as root,
3301     so you don't need to add any prefix to the commands.
3303     If you don't know the name of the partition, run this command as root:
3305     fdisk -l
3307     It tells how many hard drives you have, how many partitions they contain
3308     and what filesystems the partitions use. If you know, for example, that
3309     the disk where you've saved the disk image contains only one partition,
3310     look for such disks.
3312     Using Bootrec.exe (Windows Vista/7 only)
3313     ---------------------
3314     You need Windows Vista/7 install disc for this. If you don't have one (for
3315     example, if you bought a laptop that was bundled with preinstalled Windows
3316     and manufacturer's recovery disc), download a recovery disc from here.
3318     Then boot from the disc. After selecting language, time, currency and
3319     keyboard, click Repair your computer. You'll get a list of operating systems
3320     you're able to repair. Choose any of them; that choice doesn't matter.
3322     After that, you'll see a dialog box named System Recovery Options. Click
3323     Command Prompt. Then you only need to execute one command:
3325     Bootrec /FixMbr
3327     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example,
3328     "bootrec /fixmbr".
3330     Using FIXMBR (Windows XP only)
3331     ---------------------
3332     You need Windows XP install disc. Boot from it, and when you see the screen
3333     "Windows XP Home Edition Setup" or "Windows XP Professional Setup", press
3334     R to enter the Recovery Console. Then choose the Windows installation you
3335     want to log onto. If you have only one copy of Windows installed, press
3336     1 and ENTER. After that, enter the administator password and press ENTER.
3338     There is only one command to run:
3340     FIXMBR
3342     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example, "fixmbr".
3344     Using FDISK (Windows 95/98/Me only)
3345     ---------------------
3346     For this, you need a floppy drive. You also need to run a Windows-only
3347     program, so your first challenge is to boot Windows without NTLDR.
3349     Don't worry, Super Grub Disk makes it possible. Boot into it.
3351     [[ supergrubdisk-01.png ]]
3352     Just choose the option "!WIN! :(((" and press ENTER.
3354     When you have Windows up and running, download the boot disk
3355     image appropriate to your version of Windows from Bootdisk.Com {{
3356     http://www.bootdisk.com/bootdisk.htm }}. Then put a floppy to your floppy
3357     drive.
3359     If the floppy isn't already formatted, open My Computer, right-click the
3360     floppy drive and select Format....
3362     At the format window, choose the capacity of 1,44 megabytes and Full format
3363     type. You can enter any label (it means the name of the floppy you can see
3364     next to the floppy drive letter) and disable the summary if you wish. Keep
3365     the Copy system files option disabled.
3367     When you have a formatted floppy in your drive, double-click the boot disk
3368     image you downloaded. When it's done, shut Windows down and check your
3369     BIOS settings to be able to boot from the floppy. Some BIOSes contain a
3370     boot menu, others require editing settings pernamently. Details can be
3371     found on the manual of the motherboard or laptop.
3373     Then boot from the floppy. When you're given three boot options, choose
3374     the option 2. Start computer without CD-ROM support. Wait a moment to
3375     enter command line and run this command:
3377     FDISK /MBR
3379     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example,
3380     "fdisk /mbr".
3382     Installing syslinux using Super Grub Disk
3383     ---------------------
3384     The above four are the only legal ways I know to restore NTLDR to the
3385     Master Boot Record. Unfortunately, sometimes none of them can be used. If
3386     that's the case, it's time to switch bootloader. GRUB can be configured to
3387     chainload Windows, and usually it even does that automatically, but this
3388     page isn't intended to help configuring GRUB. I assume that if you're
3389     primarily a Windows user and reading this page, you don't want to learn
3390     how to use GNU/Linux, you just want to make Windows bootable again.
3392     Maybe the easiest way to do so is installing syslinux using Super Grub
3393     Disk. Super Grub Disk configures it automatically to chainload the first
3394     active partition. The partition should contain Windows, Windows can't boot
3395     if its partition isn't active.
3397     Boot into Super Grub Disk.
3399     [[ supergrubdisk-01a.png ]]
3400     Choose the option "WIN => MBR & !WIN! :(((((((((((((((((((((" and
3401     press ENTER. Windows will be booted automatically right after installing
3402     syslinux.
3404     Installing GRUB
3405     ****************************************
3406     Contrary to various ways to restore NTLDR, there is only one way to install
3407     GRUB I recommend. That's Super Grub Disk, because it contains GRUB no
3408     matter what has happened to the hard drive(s). First, I boot into it.
3410     [[ supergrubdisk-01b.png ]]
3411     I select "Choose Language & HELP :-)))" and press ENTER.
3413     Screen "S.G.D. Language Selection."
3414     ---------------------
3415     [[ supergrubdisk-02.png ]]
3416     I select "English Super Grub Disk" and press ENTER.
3418     [[ supergrubdisk-03.png ]]
3419     I press ENTER...
3421     [[ supergrubdisk-04.png ]]
3422     ...and then ENTER again...
3424     [[ supergrubdisk-05.png ]]
3425     ...and then ENTER once again...
3427     [[ supergrubdisk-06.png ]]
3428     ...and finally ENTER one more time.
3430     Screen "English Super Grub Disk (Help)"
3431     ---------------------
3432     [[ supergrubdisk-07.png ]]
3433     I select "Advanced".
3435     Screen "Advanced (Help)"
3436     ---------------------
3437     [[ supergrubdisk-08.png ]]
3438     I select "GRUB" and press ENTER.
3440     Screen "GRUB (Help)"
3441     ---------------------
3442     [[ supergrubdisk-09.png ]]
3443     I select "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)" and press ENTER...
3445     [[ supergrubdisk-10.png ]]
3446     ...and ENTER.
3448     Screen "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)"
3449     ---------------------
3450     [[ supergrubdisk-11.png ]]
3451     I select "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)" and press ENTER. If you
3452     want to install GRUB to the Master Boot Record of the first hard drive,
3453     "Automatically Install" is a better choice. If you don't know if you
3454     want GRUB to the first or some other disk, you most likely want it to the
3455     first disk.
3457     Screen "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)"
3458     ---------------------
3459     [[ supergrubdisk-12.png ]]
3460     I confirm my decision by selecting "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)"
3461     again and pressing ENTER.
3463     Screen "Partition of GRUB"
3464     ---------------------
3465     [[ supergrubdisk-13.png ]]
3466     In this screen I can select the disk that contains the partition that
3467     contains the files needed by GRUB. In this case, that disk is the external
3468     hard drive. As you can see, the disk is only three megabytes in size -
3469     because the computer used for screenshots is still virtual. Actually, the
3470     "disk" where I'm installing GRUB is just a file.
3472     Next Screen
3473     ---------------------
3474     [[ supergrubdisk-14.png ]]
3475     This is where I choose the partition where GRUB files reside. This disk
3476     contains only one partition.
3478     Screen "Restore to MBR of Hard Disk"
3479     ---------------------
3480     [[ supergrubdisk-15.png ]]
3481     I select the external hard drive to install GRUB to its Master Boot Record.
3483     [[ supergrubdisk-12.png ]]
3484     Some text scrolled in the screen (too fast to read or take a screenshot)
3485     and I was back at this screen. I rebooted the computer. (In this situation,
3486     you can safely do a "hard reboot" by pressing reset button once or power
3487     button twice.)
3489     [[ grub-loading.png ]]
3490     GRUB booted successfully.
3495     Booting an old PC
3496     ==============================================================================
3498     Intro
3499     ****************************************
3500     Have you ever tried to boot an old PC off a CD-ROM, and found out it
3501     wouldn't, because its BIOS does not support it, or it's faulty or for any
3502     other reason? Well, I have. So this page is an effort to solve this problem.
3504     The only way to do it, is to boot of a floppy disk which will help me
3505     "load" whatever operation system I want from a CD. This means that I will
3506     have to write a boot loader to the floppy disk.
3508     The software I will use is Smart Boot Manager {{
3509     http://sourceforge.net/projects/btmgr/ }}, a small boot manager with a
3510     nice TUI (Text User Interface). Its floppy image, already accessible from
3511     the "Tools" menu, can be found in the bootdisk folder of the CD under the
3512     name sbm.img.
3514     Writing the image to a floppy disk
3515     ****************************************
3516     All you have to do is get to a PC equipped with a floppy drive, get a
3517     floppy disk which is in excellent condition (no bad sectors/blocks),
3518     and copy the image file to it.
3520     1. From Linux
3521     ---------------------
3522     You can either boot Clonezilla Live or SystemRescueCD, and when the system
3523     is fully up, execute the command:
3525     dd if=/path/to/sbm.img of=/dev/fd0
3527     where /path/to is
3528     /live/image/bootdisk for Clonezilla Live
3529     /mnt/livecd/bootdisk for SystemRescueCD
3531     2. From DOS
3532     ---------------------
3533     You can get into any DOS (boot FreeDOS from the CD, for example), and use
3534     any of the following programs found in the rawrite folder of the CD:
3536     * rawrite.exe: is just here for completeness, as it may be needed for someone
3537     * rawrite2.exe: should be the fastest
3538     * rawrite3.com: should work if rawrite2 fails for some reason
3539     * fdimage.exe: rawrite alternative
3541     I found these programms at the FreeDOS web site {{
3542     http://www.fdos.org/ripcord/rawrite/ }}, where the following info is
3543     included:
3545     Basic Usage (Rawrite):
3546     Depending on the exact version, the output and command line support may
3547     vary, i.e. not work
3548     Usage:
3549     MS-DOS prompt> RAWRITE
3550     and follow the prompts, -or-
3552     MS-DOS prompt> RAWRITE [-f ] [-d ] [-n(owait)] [-h(elp)]
3553     where: -f - name of disk image file
3554     -d - diskette drive to use, must be A or B
3555     -n - don't prompt for user to insert diskette
3556     -h - print usage information to stdout
3558     The diskette must be formatted or rawrite will not work.
3559     The contents of the disk do not matter and will be overwritten.
3560     When ran interactively (without command line options) you will be prompted
3561     for the disk image filename (you must remember this as there is no file
3562     chooser).
3563     You will also be prompted for the target/destination drive, either A or
3564     B for A: or B: respectively.
3565     Basic Usage (FDImage):
3566     fdimage is an updated DOS program meant to replace rawrite. It does not
3567     require a pre-formatted floppy diskette.
3569     FDIMAGE - Write disk image to floppy disk
3570     Version 1.5 Copyright (c) 1996-7 Robert Nordier
3572     Usage: fdimage [-dqsv] [-f size] [-r count] file drive
3574     -d Debug mode
3575     -f size Specify the floppy disk format by capacity, eg:
3576     160K, 180K, 320K, 360K, 720K, 1.2M, 1.44M, 2.88M
3577     -q Quick mode: don't format the disk
3578     -r count Retry count for format/write operations
3579     -s Single-sector I/O
3580     -v Verbose
3582     In order to write the image file to a pre-formatted diskette, execute
3583     the commands:
3585     X:
3586     cd rawrite
3587     rawrite2 -f X:bootdisksbm.img -d b:
3589     In order to write the image file and format the diskette at the same time,
3590     execute the commands:
3592     X:
3593     cd rawrite
3594     fdimage -f 1.44M X:bootdisksbm.img b:
3596     where X: is the drive name in DOS
3598     3. From Windows
3599     ---------------------
3600     The final alternative is to use Windows program rawwritewin.exe (found in
3601     the utils\rawrite folder of the CD), as shown in the following image:
3603     [[ rawwritewin.png ]]
3608     Using SystemRescueCD
3609     ==============================================================================
3611     Intro
3612     ****************************************
3613     SystemRescueCD is an excellent Live CD. It contains cloning software too
3614     (FSArchiver {{ http://www.fsarchiver.org/Main_Page }} and partimage,
3615     to be spesific), but is unable to clone a whole disk, instead of only
3616     individual partitions.
3618     Clonezilla Live is a great cloning solution, but it is unable to do anything
3619     but clone. For general system administration, you need a lot more functions
3620     - like these offered by SystemRescueCD.
3622     Clonezilla-SysRescCD has all of the functions of both discs. It's a
3623     multi boot CD, so switching between CDs requires a reboot, but using
3624     both individual discs requires switching the physical disc - in addition
3625     to rebooting.
3627     But, of course, to be able to use SystemRescueCD's functions, you need to
3628     know how to use them. We don't have permission to redistribute SystemRescueCD
3629     documentation, so this page contains only just enough information to allow
3630     you to look for more help in SystemRescueCD documentation.
3632     Which boot option to pick?
3633     ****************************************
3634     You may be confused because of the number of boot options you have. After
3635     choosing "CD 2: System Rescue CD" you have a total of 15 options to boot
3636     SystemRescueCD. Here is a table of them.
3638     kernel Normal To RAM Graphical Environment VESA Mini Shell
3639     32-bit xxx +++
3640     32-bit (alt)
3641     64-bit xxx +++
3643     In the table, I have marked the options you most likely need. You should
3644     choose either of the options marked with a '+++' if you have no idea and/or
3645     time to read the next sections.
3647     Choosing the column
3648     ---------------------
3649     If you're accustomed to graphical environment, choose Graphical
3650     Environment. In Graphical Environment you're able to use graphical programs,
3651     like GParted and Mozilla Firefox. Terminals are also available, so using
3652     Graphical Environment doesn't prevent using command line. The only negative
3653     thing of Graphical Environment is that it slows booting process down a bit -
3654     and it's often just plain unneeded.
3656     Try VESA, if normal Graphical Environment doesn't work. VESA uses Xvesa
3657     graphical environment instead of X.Org that sometimes doesn't work. The
3658     drawbacks of Xvesa compared to X.Org are that Xvesa isn't optimized to
3659     any hardware (which means poorer performance) and Xvesa requires 32-bit
3660     kernel. Thus, if you use this option, do NOT choose 64-bit kernel, the
3661     combination leaves you at command line.
3663     If you're accustomed to command line and know already that you're not going
3664     to use any graphical program, choose one of the normal options (just below
3665     "System Rescue CD Menu"). Booting to command line is a bit faster process
3666     than booting to graphical environment, and you can start X manually later.
3668     You need the option To RAM if you plan to burn discs while using
3669     SystemRescueCD. The option copies the whole SystemRescueCD to the memory of
3670     the computer during the boot process, allowing you to put another disc to
3671     your CD/DVD writer while using SystemRescueCD. The negative thing is that
3672     reading all the contents of the disc slows boot process down a lot. There
3673     is no option which copies the disc to the memory and starts graphical
3674     environment automatically, but you can easily start it manually.
3676     Mini Shell is probably the least used option. It enters BusyBox
3677     shell after booting. BusyBox is an application that "combines
3678     tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a single small
3679     executable." However, SystemRescueCD contains most of these utilities
3680     anyway, so there is not much need to use this option. some information {{
3681     http://www.busybox.net/about.html }} about BusyBox
3683     Choosing the row (kernel)
3684     ---------------------
3685     After having chosen the column of the above table, you still have three
3686     options. Now you need to choose the kernel.
3688     The optimal kernel depends on the processor of your computer. If it's an
3689     IA-32 processor, like Intel Pentium 4 or AMD Athlon XP, you should choose
3690     32-bit kernel, because 64-bit kernel doesn't work at all. If you have
3691     a x86-64 processor, like AMD Athlon 64 or Intel Core 2, you can choose
3692     any kernel - the processor can run all of them. 64-bit kernel should be
3693     preferred, because it allows chrooting on an existing GNU/Linux partition
3694     containing 64-bit programs. Note, though, that you can't use 64-bit kernel
3695     with VESA option.
3697     If you don't know your processor architecture, try 64-bit kernel. If your
3698     processor architecture is IA-32, you'll see the following error message:
3700     This kernel requires an x86-64 CPU, but only detected an i686 CPU. Unable
3701     to boot - please use a kernel appropriate for your CPU.
3703     At this stage, simply press Ctrl-Alt-Del to reboot and use always 32-bit
3704     kernel on the machine.
3706     There is one more kernel - 32-bit kernel (alternative). It's designed to
3707     support more recent hardware than the regular kernel. Try it if standard
3708     32-bit kernel doesn't work.
3710     After booting
3711     ****************************************
3712     HELP!!! Where are the desktop and Start menu?
3713     ---------------------
3714     You should have read this section if you're looking for them. However,
3715     you don't need to reboot in order to enter graphical environment. Simply
3716     type this command and press ENTER:
3718     wizard
3720     The command asks you to choose a graphical environment. Try first X.Org,
3721     and if it fails, run the command again and choose Xvesa.
3723     Connecting to the Internet
3724     ---------------------
3725     The CD doesn't contain any SystemRescueCD documentation, because we don't
3726     have permission to redistribute it. In addition, our time is limited and
3727     we can't rewrite it all. So, you need to connect to the Internet to be
3728     able to read SystemRescueCD's official online documentation.
3730     Luckily, establishing Internet connection should be easy, if you're in a
3731     network using DHCP. Nowadays, most people are. If you're using graphical
3732     mode and terminal isn't already open, open it via the menu that opens when
3733     you click the leftmost icon in the bottom pane.
3735     Then, type this command and press ENTER:
3737     dhcpcd eth0
3739     If the network doesn't use DHCP, you can also configure Internet settings
3740     by hand. You should be able to do so if you've previously configured your
3741     settings in the operating system you normally use. The command to run is
3743     net-setup
3745     When you're done
3746     ****************************************
3747     When you're done, you naturally want to either shut the computer down or
3748     reboot. Wait! Don't do it yet!
3750     Both I and Spiros have found out that letting a live CD to automatically
3751     unmount partitions is often a bad idea. It can damage the filesystems
3752     of the partitions which were mounted when the computer was shut down and
3753     destroy any files in the partitions, even them you didn't use within the CD.
3755     So, I recommend unmounting them refore shutdown or reboot. Just run these
3756     commands when you're done.
3758     If you want to reboot:
3760     cd
3761     umount -a
3762     reboot
3764     If you want to shut down:
3765     cd
3766     umount -a
3767     poweroff
3769     More info
3770     ****************************************
3771     Here are some links to the official SystemRescueCD resources.
3773     SystemRescueCD - http://www.sysresccd.org/Main_Page
3774     Detailed packages list- http://www.sysresccd.org/Detailed-packages-list
3775     Manual - http://www.sysresccd.org/Online-Manual-EN
3776     FAQ - http://www.sysresccd.org/FAQ
3777     Howto - http://www.sysresccd.org/Howto
3778     Forum - http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/
3783     Managing partitions
3784     ==============================================================================
3786     Intro
3787     ****************************************
3788     One of the most important maintenance tasks that can only be done by using
3789     a live CD is partitioning. No operating system allows partitioning the
3790     same disk where the OS itself resides. Trying to do so is like attempting
3791     to repair a car while its engine is turned on.
3793     Of course, SystemRescueCD contains multiple programs that are related to
3794     partitioning. Most important are GParted (graphical partitioning program),
3795     GNU Parted (text-based partitioning program), fdisk and sfdisk (partition
3796     table editors) and various filesystem tools (like ntfsprogs and e2fsprogs).
3798     This page contains some theory about partitions and filesystems, advice for
3799     choosing the right filesystem and a partitioning example by using GParted.
3801     [[ important.png ]]
3802     While partitioning, an user error or a bug can damage your
3803     partitions.Creating a disk image of the disk to bepartitioned beforehand
3804     is highly recommended.
3806     [[ info.png ]]
3807     The following pressentation has been made usingSystemRescueCD v 1.4.0
3809     Some theory
3810     ****************************************
3811     What is a partition?
3812 &nbs