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1 sng 28 Installing on USB
2     ==============================================================================
4     Installation to USB made easy
5     ****************************************
6     Until recently installing Clonezilla-SysRescCD on a USB disk would not
7     be such a great idea, because of its size. But since USB devices become
8     cheaper and cheaper, it is an interesting alternative.
10     Starting with version 3.1.0, Clonezilla-SysRescCD provides an iso
11     file that's ISO-Hybrided. This means (as we read at the isolynux site {{
12     http://syslinux.zytor.com/wiki/index.php/Doc/isolinux#HYBRID_CD-ROM.2FHARD_DISK_MODE
13     }}) that
15     "the iso file can be booted from either CD-ROM or from a device which BIOS
16     considers a hard disk or ZIP disk, e.g. a USB key or similar. This image can
17     then be copied using any raw disk writing tool (on Unix systems, typically
18     "dd" or "cat") to a USB disk, or written to a CD-ROM using standard CD
19     burning tools.
21     The ISO 9660 filesystem is encapsulated in a partition (which starts at
22     offset zero, which may confuse some systems.) This makes it possible for
23     the operating system, once booted, to use the remainder of the device for
24     persistent storage by creating a second partition."
26     [[ important.png ]]
27     Incorrect use of any raw disk writing tool could cause your operating system
28     (GNU/Linux / Windows) not to boot. Confirm the command before you run it.
30     So, from any linux box, assuming Clonezilla-SysRescCD iso file is in
31     your home directory, and your USB device name is sdc4, you just execute
32     the commands:
34     umount /dev/sdc4
35 sng 77 dd if=~/clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-"myVersion".iso of=/dev/sdc bs=512
36 sng 28
37     And that's it. Your usb device is ready to boot!!!
39 sng 77 Using the extra space
40     ---------------------
41     If your usb device is more than 400MB in size, the above command will
42     leave the remaining space unused. To verify it, execute the command:
44     fdisk -l /dev/sdc
46     You should get something similar to this:
48     Disk /dev/sdc: 1048 MB, 1048576000 bytes
49     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 1000 cylinders, total 2048000 sectors
50     Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
51     Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
52     I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
53     Disk identifier: 0x77a5188f
55     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
56     /dev/sdc1 * 1 384 393216 17 Hidden HPFS/NTFS
58     As you can see, we are currently using 348 out of 1000 cylinders of the
59     disk. The remaining disk space (~600MB) can still be used, executing the
60     following commands:
62     fdisk /dev/sdc
63     command (m for help): n (create new partition)
64     command action
65     e extended
66     p primary partition (1-4)
67     p
68     partition number (1-4): 4 (create partition sdc4)
69     first cylinder (385-1000, default 385):
70     using default value 385
71     last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{k,m,g} (385-1000, default 1000):
72     using default value 1000
74     command (m for help): p (display partition table)
76     disk /dev/sdc: 1048 mb, 1048576000 bytes
77     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 1000 cylinders
78     units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
79     sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
80     i/o size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
81     disk identifier: 0x77a5188f
83     device boot start end blocks id system
84     /dev/sdc1 * 1 384 393216 17 hidden hpfs/ntfs
85     /dev/sdc4 385 1000 630784 83 linux
87     command (m for help): t (change partition type)
88     partition number (1-4): 4
89     hex code (type l to list codes): b
90     changed system type of partition 4 to b (w95 fat32)
92     command (m for help): p (display partition table)
94     disk /dev/sdc: 1048 mb, 1048576000 bytes
95     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 1000 cylinders
96     units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
97     sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
98     i/o size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
99     disk identifier: 0x77a5188f
101     device boot start end blocks id system
102     /dev/sdc1 * 1 384 393216 17 hidden hpfs/ntfs
103     /dev/sdc4 385 1000 630784 b w95 fat32
105     command (m for help): w (write partition table to disk and exit)
106     The partition table has been altered!
108     Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
110     WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or
111     resource busy.
112     The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at
113     the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)
114     Syncing disks.
116     At this point you should disconnect and reconnect your usb device. When
117     it's recognised, you can format the partition you've just created
119     mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdc4
121     The partition is now ready for use!!!
123 sng 28 Installing the "hard" way
124     ****************************************
125     If the "easy" way does not work there is an alternative; you will use
126     the Clonezilla-SysRescCD ISO file (or CD) to copy and modify a couple of
127     files on the USB disk, and finally make it bootable, using syslinux {{
128     http://syslinux.zytor.com }} and its configuration file syslinux.cfg.
130     [[ important.png ]]
131     Incorrect use of syslinux could cause your operating system (GNU/Linux /
132     Windows) not to boot. Confirm the command before you run it.
134     The only thing that's important is that your USB disk must contain a VFAT
135     (Windows 98 or DOS) file system. If this is not the case, refer to the
136     section "Troubleshooting", to find out how you can format it, before
137     copying files to it.
139     The bootable USB disk creation procedure can be performed either from
140     Linux or Windows.
142     [[ info.png ]]
143     If you want to create a bootable USB flash drive for this version
144     or later, remember to use the syslinux command from syslinux
145     3.71 or later. Otherwise the boot menu won't work.
147     Installation from Linux
148     ---------------------
149     There are two ways you can proceed, if you are going to use Linux to
150     perform the USB installation, either using a running linux box, or using
151     Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
153     I will assume that you have saved clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-3.1.0.iso
154     in your home directory (~).
156     Using a linux box
157     ---------------------
158     If you already have a linux box up and running, you can use it to create
159     your Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB, without even having to burn it to CD
160     beforehand. The only thing here is that you have to have syslinux {{
161     http://syslinux.zytor.com }} installed.
163     I will assume that your CD drive is /dev/sr0 and that your USB device
164     is /dev/sdc4. You may have to change any of them to reflect your system
165     configuration.
167     Boot into linux, connect your USB device and execute the following commands:
168     mkdir /mnt/mycd
169     mount ~/clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-3.1.0.iso /mnt/mycd -o loop
170     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
171     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
172     cp -r /mnt/mycd/* /mnt/usbdevice
173     umount /mnt/mycd; rmdir /mnt/mycd
174     cd /mnt/usbdevice
175     rm isolinux/*.cfg
176     mv isolinux/* .
177     rmdir isolinux
178     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
179     rmdir /mnt/usbdevice
181     Finally make your USB device bootable, by executing
182     syslinux /dev/sdc4
183     and you are done.
185     > Using Clonezilla-SysRescCD
186     If you already burnt Clonezilla-SysRescCD to CD, you can use it to create
187     your Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB.
189     I will assume that your CD drive is /dev/sr0 and that your USB device
190     is /dev/sdc4. You may have to change any of them to reflect your system
191     configuration.
193     Boot SystemRescueCD using the option To RAM, and when it is fully loaded,
194     execute the following commands:
195     mkdir /mnt/mycd
196     mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/mycd
197     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
198     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
199     cp -r /mnt/mycd/* /mnt/usbdevice
200     umount /mnt/mycd
201     cd /mnt/usbdevice
202     rm isolinux/*.cfg
203     mv isolinux/* .
204     rmdir isolinux
205     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
207     Finally make your USB device bootable, by executing
208     syslinux /dev/sdc4
209     and you are done.
211     Installation from Windows
212     ---------------------
213     Installing Clonezilla-SysRescCD from Windows is as easy as
214     it is in Linux. You have to burn Clonezilla-SysRescCD to CD
215     or use a CD/DVD ROM emulator software like Daemon Tools {{
216     http://www.daemon-tools.cc/dtcc/announcements.php }} to mount the ISO file.
218     I will assume that your USB device is drive K: and your CD drive or mounted
219     ISO file is drive
220     D:. You may have to change any of them, in order to reflect your system
221     configuration.
223     You will have to
225     * Copy all files from drive D: (CD or mounted ISO file) to drive K:
226     (USB disk)
227     * Delete all cfg files from K:isolinux
228     * Move all files from K:isolinux to K:
229     * Delete folder K:isolinux
231     Now all you have to do is make your USB disk bootable. In order to do
232     that you have to open a DOS window (in Windows XP press "Start / Run "
233     and type cmd). Then type at DOS prompt:
234     K:
235 sng 180 cd utils/bootprog
236 sng 28 syslinux -ma K:
238     Booting from USB
239     ---------------------
240     Before trying to boot from your USB device, you have to set your boot device
241     at your BIOS. This means you have to reboot having your USB device connected,
242     get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL) and make the appropriate settings
243     in the BOOT section.
245     Booting Clonezilla Live should not be a problem. Just select the desired
246     option and press ENTER to boot.
248     Booting SystemRescueCD has been made equally simple with SystemRescueCD
249     v 1.0.0, so you shouldn't have any problem (option cdroot is not required
250     any more).
252     If you have any problems here, you may try adding any of these boot
253     parameters:
254     usbstick
255     doscsi
257     Troubleshooting
258     ---------------------
259     Whether you can successfully boot from a USB disk or not, depends mainly on
260     your BIOS. Chances are that you will not be able to boot on an old computer,
261     with an old (and possibly buggy) BIOS. So I would recommend testing your
262     Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB on a new computer.
264     * I can't boot (I don't even see the splash screen)
265     or Clonezilla Live does not boot
267     The first thing you should do is double check your BIOS settings. Reboot
268     having your USB device connected, get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL)
269     and make the appropriate settings in the BOOT section.
271     If you are on linux, check that the partition on the USB disk is active
272     (bootable), executing:
273     fdisk -l /dev/sdc
274     You should get something similar to this:
276     Disk /dev/sdc: 1031 MB, 1031798272 bytes
277     64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 983 cylinders
278     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
280 sng 77 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
281     /dev/sdc4 * 1 983 1006576 6 FAT16
282 sng 28
283     If the partition is not active (no astrisk), execute:
284     fdisk /dev/sdc
285     and issue "Command: " a (toggle a bootable flag) and "Partition number:"
286     4 (for /dev/sdc4).
288     If you are on Windows, this is taken care of by syslinux (parameters -ma).
290     If you still have problems booting, you should try to execute
291     syslinux -s /dev/sdc4
292     from Linux, or
293     syslinux -sma K:
294     from Windows (from folder K:syslinux).
296     syslinux man page reads:
298     (Option) -s
299     Install a "safe, slow and stupid" version of syslinux. This version may work
300     on some very buggy BIOSes on which syslinux would otherwise fail. If you find
301     a machine on which the -s option is required to make it boot reliably, please
302     send as much info about your machine as you can, and include the failure
303     mode.
305     * I still can't boot
306     In this case you will have to format your USB disk.
308     If you are using linux to perform the installation, execute the command:
309 sng 77
310 sng 28 mkdosfs -F 16 /dev/sdc4
311 sng 77
312 sng 28 to create a FAT16 file system, or
313 sng 77
314 sng 28 mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdc4
315 sng 77
316 sng 28 to create a FAT32 file system.
318     When you are done go back to section "Installation from Linux".
320     If you are on Windows, you should download the HP-USB Format tool {{
321     http://h50178.www5.hp.com/local_drivers/17550/SP27608.exe }}, install it
322     and format your USB drive using the Fat or Fat32 option. This program can
323     be used to format USB devices that won't boot properly when formatted with
324     Windows format tool.
326     When you are done go back to section "Installation from Windows".
328     * I still can't boot (after formating)
329     Things are getting tough!!! Try to format your USB disk using the option you
330     did not use previously. So, if you have created a FAT32 file system, create
331     a FAT16 file system this time, and recreate Clonezilla-SysRescCD on USB.
333     If nothing works, you are out of luck; you will not be able to use
334     Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB on this computer... If you do manage to boot it,
335     please send me a message.
337     * SystemRescueCD does not boot
338     Ok, you have managed to get to the splash screen and successfully booted
339     Clonezilla Live. But you still can't boot SystemRescueCD.
341     Refer to section Booting from USB to find out the boot parameters you can
342     use with SystemRescueCD.
344     Customizing sysresc.cfg
345     ---------------------
346     As stated previously, Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB is booted by syslinux through
347     its configuration file syslinux.cfg. This file loads sysresc.cfg in order
348     to boot SystemRescueCD.
350     If you have to specify any additional boot parameters for SystemRescueCD,
351     you may want to write these changes to the configuration file, so that
352     you don't have to insert them by hand every time.
354     The procedure to do that is the following:
356     Boot SystemRescueCD (or if that's not possible yet, bot Clonezilla Linux
357     and get to the command line) using the option To RAM, and when it is fully
358     loaded, execute the following commands:
359     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
360     mount /dev/[device] /mnt/usbdevice
361     cd /mnt/usbdevice
362     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
363     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=x [additional params]|'
364     sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
365     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
366     cd; umount /dev/[device]
367     syslinux /dev/[device]
368     reboot
370     where x is a number from 1 to 10.
372     After executing these commands, you will have a new sysresc.cfg file,
373     and a backup file called sysresc.bak (in case things go wrong).
375     If, for example, you want to increase the device scan delay to maximum,
376     the above commands would become:
377     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
378     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
379     cd /mnt/usbdevice
380     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
381     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=10|' sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
382     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
383     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
384     syslinux /dev/sdc4
385     reboot
387     If, in addition to that, you had to use the boot parameter usbstick,
388     then it would be:
389     mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
390     mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
391     cd /mnt/usbdevice
392     cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
393     sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=10 usbstick|' sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
394     mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
395     cd; umount /dev/sdc4
396     syslinux /dev/sdc4
397     reboot
399     In case something goes wrong with your new settings, you can always rename
400     sysresc.bak to sysresc.cfg, either from linux or Windows.
405     Boot parameters
406     ==============================================================================
408     Intro
409     ****************************************
410     Booting a linux system means loading a kernel, which is actually the
411     operating system. Well, this is not exactly true, and it is not the only
412     thing that happens during boot up phase, but it is not my intension to
413     explain it here.
415     The kernel is loaded by Isolinux (the CD boot manager), which is able to pass
416     a number of parameters to it, through its configuration file isolinux.cfg.
418     These parameters, called boot parameters, are documented by the kernel
419     itself, and can differentiate its behavior dramatically. In our case,
420     each CD (SystemRescueCD and Clonezilla Live) accept a different set of
421     parameters, because they are based on gentoo {{ http://www.gentoo.org/ }}
422     and debian, respectively.
424     While in the splash screen of Clonezilla-SysRescCD, you can edit the boot
425     parameters by pressing TAB. They will be presented to you, and you can
426     add or remove what you want. You must be careful not to change or remove
427     the parameters that are dedicated to the CD itself, as altering them will
428     certainty make it unbootable. When you are done, just press ENTER to boot.
430     SystemRescueCD boot parameters
431     ****************************************
432     [[ info.png ]]
433 sng 180 The following info applies to SystemRescueCD v. 2.1.1. In case
434 sng 28 you need to get info for a more recent version of SystemRescueCD
435     please see the page "Sysresccd-manual-en Booting the CD-ROM {{
436     http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Booting_the_CD-ROM }}"
438     A typical sysresccd isolinux entry is:
440     kernel rescuecd
441     append initrd=initram.igz video=ofonly
443     The kernel used is rescuecd, and anything after the word append is a
444     boot parameter.
446     Available kernels (boot images):
448 sng 60 * rescuecd Default for 32bit systems, with Framebuffer disabled, best choice.
449     * rescue64 Default 64 bit kernel. Use it if you want to chroot to a 64bit
450 sng 149 linux system installed on your hard disk, or if you have to run 64 bit
451 sng 60 programs. This kernel is able to boot with 32bit programs, and it requires
452     a processor with 64bit instructions (amd64 / em64t).
453     * altker32 an alternative kernel for 32bit systems. Boot with this kernel
454     if you have problems with rescuecd
455     * altker64 an alternative kernel for 64bit systems. Boot with this kernel
456     in case you have problems with rescue64.
457 sng 28
458     The boot parameters you can use are:
460 sng 43 General boot options
461 sng 75 Press <TAB> to add additional options (in SystemRescueCd-1.5 and more recent)
462 sng 28
463 sng 149 * docache: causes the CD-ROM to be fully loaded into memory. A slower start
464     but once complete, programs start faster and the CD drive will be released
465     allowing normal access to other CDs. This requires 400MB of memory to cache
466     everything (including the bootdisks and isolinux directories). Add lowmem
467     if you have less that 400MB of memory of to prevent these directories from
468     being copied.
469 sng 43 * setkmap=kk: which defines the keymap to load where kk (example: setkmap=de
470 sng 75 for German keyboards). This way you won't be prompted for the keyboard
471     configuration during the boot.
472 sng 60 * root=/dev/xdnp: the root=<device> option boots an existing linux
473     system. For example, if you have linux Gentoo installed on /dev/sda6,
474     use rescuecd root=/dev/sda6 to start it. Keep in mind that you must use a
475     64bit kernel if your system is made of 64bit programs. This option works
476     with LVM volumes. Use rescuecd root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00. Support
477 sng 149 is also provided for root=auto, which scans all the block devices
478     for a linux system. The first linux system found will be started. So
479     root=auto lets you start the system installed from the CD-ROM in case
480 sng 60 you have problem with your boot loader or kernel. It's also possible
481     to specify a partition using its filesystem label or filesystem
482     uuid. If the label of the partition where linux is installed is
483     mylinux, then boot it using rescuecd root=LABEL=mylinux. Similarly
484 sng 43 root=UUID=b3d3bec5-997a-413e-8449-0d0ec41ccba7. See more details.
485 sng 149 * initscript=service:action: This option allows one to start/stop a service
486 sng 43 at boot time. For instance if you need the samba service to be started,
487     you can boot with: initscript=samba:start. This does the same thing as
488 sng 149 /etc/init.d/samba start. Use this option a multiple of times for different
489 sng 43 services. All the actions that are supported by an initscript can be used.
490 sng 60 * backstore=xxx: SystemRescueCd comes with support for the backing-stores. A
491     backing-store saves all the changes you can make. so that you keep these
492 sng 149 changes the next time you boot. By default, sysresccd automatically
493 sng 60 scan removable devices (eg: USB sticks) at boot time and uses the first
494 sng 149 backing-store it finds. A backing-store is not mandatory and if the scan
495     fails, it will store the files which have changed in memory. To disable
496 sng 60 the disks scan at boot time specify backstore=off on the boot command
497 sng 149 line. If you want to save your backing-store file on a harddisk, boot with
498 sng 43 backstore=alldev to scan all devices (not just removable devices). The
499 sng 149 default location for a backing-stores file is any file named sysrcd.bs
500     located at the root of a disk which is often a USB stick. Change the path
501 sng 43 by using backstore=/sysrcd/mybackstore.bs. See backing-stores.
502     * isoloop=xxx: Grub2 (currently in development: grub-1.98) provides a new
503 sng 149 feature to boot from an ISO image which is stored on the hard disk. If you
504 sng 43 put a copy of systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso on a partition that Grub2 can read
505     then you can boot SystemRescueCd directly from the ISO image stored on your
506     hard drive. This is very convenient if you frequently update SystemRescueCd
507     and you want to boot it directly from Grub2. Grub2 knows what an ISO image
508     is and it will load the kernel image (rescuecd/rescue64) and the initramfs
509     (initram.igz) from the ISO into memory. It will then do its normal job and
510     execute the kernel. The SystemRescueCd init script must then be aware that
511     its sysrcd.dat file is in an ISO and not directly on the partition. For that
512     reason, this isoloop=xxx boot option is required so you must use it in your
513     grub.cfg. This option is only supported in SystemRescueCd-1.4.0 and more
514 sng 60 recent. This option specifies the path of the ISO image in the partition that
515     grub considers as its root partition. It's important to understand that the
516     path of the ISO image may be different from the path on your linux system. If
517     you have a separate boot partition mounted on /boot and if you copy this
518     ISO image to /boot/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso then the option has
519     to be isoloop=/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso. This is because the
520     boot partition is what Grub2 will consider as its root partition during
521     the boot process. Please read the section about isoloop for more details.
522 sng 28
523 sng 43 Hardware, drivers and troubleshooting options
524     * dodebug: Enables verbose messages in linuxrc
525 sng 28
526 sng 75 * doload=xxx: loads needed kernel modules, multiple comma separated
527     occurrences are permitted (example: doload=3c59x,e1000)
528     * noload=xxx: prevents loading kernel modules, multiple comma separated
529     occurrences are permitted (example: noload=3c59x,e1000). Use this option
530     if you have a problem when the system loads a particular module.
531 sng 28 * nonet: this will disable the network auto detection at startup
532 sng 43
533 sng 28 * scandelay=x: pauses x seconds during the startup to allow slow devices
534 sng 149 to initialize. This is required when you boot a USB device. A delay of
535 sng 28 only few seconds should be enough.
536 sng 43
537 sng 28 * doxdetect: Since version 0.3.5 the auto-configuration is done in X.Org
538 sng 43 itself, mkxf86config is disabled by default. This option forces the system to
539     run the mkxf86config startup script and to run the hardware auto-detection
540     from this script. Use this option if you have problems with the graphical
541     environment configuration. This option replaces the option noxdetect that
542     was useful in previous versions.
543     * nodetect: prevents generic hardware auto-detection. Use this option if
544     you have problems with the hardware auto-detection.
546 sng 180 * nomodeset: Do not load the Kernel-Mode-Setting video driver. You can
547     use that option if you are experiencing problems with your screen during
548     the boot process (just after modules are being loaded).
549 sng 43 * dostartx: load the X.Org graphical environment.
550     * forcevesa: Forces X.Org to use the safe VESA driver instead of the best
551     video driver detected for your video card. Use this option if you cannot
552     get the graphical environment working with the default options.
553     * forcevesa=xxx: The startx command will load the Xvesa server instead
554     of Xorg, and use the screen resolution given as parameter (eg: 1024x768,
555     1280x1024x32).
557 sng 28 * all-generic-ide: In case of problems related to your hard disk, try to
558     enable this option (eg rescuecd all-generic-ide)
559 sng 43 * nodmraid: Disable dmraid, for some motherboards with built-in RAID
560     controller.
561     * nomdadm: Disable mdadm, for software RAID.
563     * acpi-off / noapic / irqpool: use these options if you have problem when
564     the kernel boots: if it hangs on a driver or if it crashes, ...
566     * lowmem: For systems with smaller memory, some daemons are not started
567     including sshd and nfsd.
569 sng 28 * skipmount=/dev/xxx: The system mounts all the storage devices at boot
570 sng 43 time to find the sysrcd.dat file. If your hard disk is broken it should
571 sng 149 not be mounted. Boot with skipmount=/dev/sda1 skipmount=/dev/sda2 to ignore
572 sng 43 these two partitions.
573 sng 28
574 sng 43 Network configuration and remote access
575 sng 75 * nonm: to disable the Network-Manager service that conflicts with the
576     standard network command line tools such as ifconfig and ip. You can use
577     this option if you want to configure the network using these commands. This
578     option is not necessary when SystemRescueCd is booting from the network
579     since the service is automatically stopped in that case. This option
580     requires SystemRescueCd-1.5.5 or more recent.
581 sng 43 * dodhcp: to request a DHCP server provide network attributes including
582 sng 180 an IP address, gateway... If there are multiple interfaces on the computer
583     it will run the dhcp client on all of them by default, when no argument is
584     specified with this option. Thanks to emiliano SystemRescueCd-1.7.0-beta009
585     and more recent allows you to optionally specify which interfaces should
586     be configured with dhcp. This way you can combine static and dynamic
587     addresses in the automatic Ethernet configuration. For example you can now
588     use options like that: dodhcp=eth0,eth2 eth1= to use dhcp
589     for eth0 and eth2 and a static address on eth1.
590 sng 149 * nodhcp: never run the dhcp client in the initramfs boot script. May
591     be useful if you use PXE boot on a computer with several ethernet
592     interfaces. Support for this option is available in SystemRescueCd-1.5.5
593     and more recent
594 sng 43 * ethx=ipaddr/cidr: Sets the static IP address of all the ethernet
595     interfaces on the system. The /cidr extension is optional. For instance,
596     if you use option ethx= on a machine with two ethernet adapters,
597     both eth0 and eth1 will be configured with You can use the
598     format ethx= (using the cidr notation) if you don't use the
599     default netmask.
600     * eth0=ipaddr/cidr: This option is similar to ethx=ipaddr/cidr but it
601     configures only one interface at a time. To configure the network on a
602 sng 149 server that has two interfaces, use, for example: eth0=
603     eth1=
604 sng 28 * dns=ipaddr: Sets the static IP address of the DNS nameserver you want
605     to use to resolve the names. For instance dns= means that
606     you want to use as the DNS server.
607     * gateway=ipaddr: Sets the static IP address of the default route on your
608     network. For instance gateway= means that the computer can
609     connect to a computer outside of the local network via
610     * dhcphostname=myhost: Sets the hostname that the DHCP client will send
611     to the DHCP server. This may be required if the default hostname cannot
612     be used with your DHCP configuration. This option has been introduced
613     in SystemRescueCd-1.3.5.
614     * rootpass=123456: Sets the root password of the system running on the
615 sng 149 livecd to 123456. That way you can connect from the network and ssh on
616     the livecd and give 123456 password as the root password.
617 sng 60 * vncserver=x:123456: The vncserver boot option has been introduced in
618     SystemRescueCd-1.0.2. This options forces the system to configure the
619     VNC-server and to start it automatically at boot time. You have to replace
620 sng 149 x with the number of displays you want, and 123456 with your password. The
621     password must be between 6 and 8 characters, else the boot option will be
622 sng 60 ignored. In other words the vncserver=2:MyPaSsWd option will give you access
623     to two displays (display=1 on tcp/5901 and display=2 on tcp/5902). Display
624 sng 149 0 is reserved for X.Org since SystemRescueCd-1.1.0. SystemRescueCd-1.5.7 and
625     more recent accept a password longer than 8 chars (between 5 and 12 chars)
626     * nameif=xxx: You can specify what interface name to give to a particular
627     interface using the mac address. You need SystemRescueCd-1.1.0 or
628     newer to do that. Here is how you can specify which interface is
629     using which mac address on a machine with two network interfaces:
630 sng 60 nameif=eth0!00:0C:29:57:D0:6E,eth1!00:0C:29:57:D0:64. Be careful, you have
631     to respect the separator (comma between the interfaces and exclamation
632 sng 75 marks between the name and the mac address). You can also use the magic
633     keyword BOOTIF with SystemRescueCd-1.5.4 and more recent when you boot from
634     pxelinux. The pxeboot loader will set BOOTIF to the name of the interface
635     used to boot. You can then use something like nameif=eth0!BOOTIF if you
636     want the boot interface to be called eth0 on a computer with several
637     Ethernet interfaces.
638 sng 28
639 sng 43 Network boot using PXE
640     SystemRescueCd provides several options for booting from the network
641     using PXE.
642 sng 60 These options can be combined with other network boot options such as ethx
643     (cf previous section). See PXE network booting to get a global overview
644     of SystemRescueCd and PXE and Manage remote servers using PXE.
645 sng 43 The second stage downloads the kernel + initramfs using DHCP/TFTP.
646     The third stage of the PXE boot process acquires the root files system.
647     Several protocols are available.
648 sng 28
649 sng 43 * netboot=tftp://ip/path/sysrcd.dat: from a TFTP server. The filesystem
650     is loaded into memory. As a consequence computers with less than 400MB of
651     memory won't be able to boot this way. The system will continue to work
652     if the network is disconnected after the boot process.
653     * netboot=http://ip:port/path/sysrcd.dat: from a Web server. The file system
654     is loaded into memory. Computers with smaller memory won't be able to boot
655     this way. The the system continues to work if the network is disconnected
656     after the boot process.
657 sng 149 * netboot=nfs://ip:/path: mount an NFSv3 directory. The NFS url must be the
658     path of the directory that contains sysrcd.dat. Only NFSv3 can be used,
659     NFSv4 is not supported. NFS allows computers with smaller memory to boot
660     SystemRescueCd from the network. After the boot process, continued network
661     connection is required or you will loose access to the root file system.
662 sng 43 * netboot=nbd://ip:port: connect to an NBD server configured with sysrcd.dat
663     on ip:port. NBD is easier to configure than NFS (only one TCP port involved)
664 sng 149 and it allows computers with smaller memory to boot SystemRescueCd from
665     the network. After the boot process, the network connection continues to
666     be required to access the root file system.
667 sng 43
668 sng 60 For information on activating speakup, see the speakup info page.
669 sng 43
670     Options provided for autorun
671 sng 28 * ar_source=xxx: place where the autorun are stored. It may
672     be the root directory of a partition (/dev/sda1), an nfs
673     share (nfs://, a samba share
674     (smb://, or an http directory
675     (
676 sng 43 * autoruns=[0-9]: comma separated list of the autorun scrip to be run. For
677     example autoruns=0,2,7 the autorun sc autorun0, autorun2, autorun7 are
678     run. Use autoruns=no to disable all the autorun scripts with a number.
679 sng 28 * ar_ignorefail: continue to execute the scripts chain even if a script
680     failed (returned a non-zero status)
681     * ar_nodel: do not delete the temporary copy of the autorun scripts located
682     in /var/autorun/tmp after execution
683     * ar_disable: completely disable autorun, the simple autorun script will
684     not be executed
685     * ar_nowait: do not wait for a keypress after the autorun script have
686     been executed.
688     Clonezilla Live boot parameters
689     ****************************************
690     [[ info.png ]]
691 sng 180 The following info applies to Clonezilla Live v. 1.2.8-46
692 sng 28 In case you need to get info for a more recent version of Clonezilla Live
693     please see the page "The boot parameters for Clonezilla live {{
694 sng 180 http://clonezilla.org/fine-print-live-doc.php?path=clonezilla-live/doc/99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc
695 sng 28 }}"
697     A typical Clonezilla Live isolinux entry is:
699     kernel /live/vmlinuz1
700     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
701     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"
702     ocs_live_extra_param="" ocs_live_keymap="" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang=""
703     vga=791 nolocales
705     The kernel used is vmlinuz, and anything after the word append is a boot
706     parameter.
708     The following info comes from the
709     page titled The boot parameters for Clonezilla live {{
710     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/fine-print.php?path=./99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc
711     }}.
713 sng 60 Clonezilla live is based on Debian live with clonezilla installed. Therefore
714     there are 2 kinds of boot parameters:
715 sng 28
716     * Boot parameters from live-initramfs. You can refer to this manual of
717     live-initramfs.
718     * Boot parameters specially for Clonezilla. All of them are named as
719     "ocs_*", e.g. ocs_live_run, ocs_live_extra_param, ocs_live_batch, ocs_lang.
720     * ocs_live_run is the main program to run in Clonezilla live to save
721     or restore. or other command. Available program: ocs-live-general,
722     ocs-live-restore or any command you write. Use the Absolute path in
723     Clonezilla live.
724     e.g. ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"
725 sng 43 //NOTE// You might have to use "sudo" command inside your own script,
726     or you can assign it like: ocs_live_run="sudo bash /my-clonezilla"
727 sng 28 * ocs_live_extra_param will be used only when ocs_live_run=ocs-live-restore
728     (not for ocs-live-general or any other), then it will be passed to
729     ocs-sr. Therefore these parameters are actually those of ocs-sr.
730 sng 149 e.g. ocs_live_extra_param="--batch -c restoredisk sarge-r5 hda"
731 sng 28 * ocs_live_keymap is for keymap used in Clonezilla live. Man install-keymap
732     for more details.
733     e.g. ocs_live_keymap="NONE" (won't change the default layout)
734     ocs_live_keymap="/usr/share/keymaps/i386/azerty/fr-latin9.kmap.gz"
735     (French keyboard)
736     * batch mode or not (yes/no), if no, will run interactively.
737     e.g. ocs_live_batch="no"
738     * ocs_lang is the language used in Clonezilla live. Available value:
739     en_US.UTF-8, zh_TW.UTF-8... (see $DRBL_SCRIPT_PATH/lang/bash/)
740     e.g. ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8"
741     * ocs_debug (or ocs-debug) is for you to enter command line prompt before
742     any clonezilla-related action is run. This is easier for you to debug.
743     * ocs_daemonon, ocs_daemonoff, ocs_numlk, ocs_capslk.
744     Ex. for the first 2 parameters, ocs_daemonon="ssh", then ssh service will
745     be turned on when booting. For the last 2 parameters, use "on" or "off",
746     e.g. ocs_numlk=on to turn on numberlock when booting.
747 sng 180 * ocs_prerun, ocs_prerun1, ocs_prerun2... is for you to run a command before
748     Clonezilla is started. E.g. ocs_prerun="/live/image/myscript.sh". If you
749     have more commands to run, you can assign them in the order: ocs_prerun=...,
750     ocs_prerun1=..., ocs_prerun2=.... If more than 10 parameters, remember
751     to use ocs_prerun01, ocs_prerun02..., ocs_prerun11 to make it in order.
752 sng 28 * ocs_live_run_tty. This option allows you to specify the tty where
753     $ocs_live_run is run. By default $ocs_live_run is run on /dev/tty1
754 sng 180 only. If you want to use ttyS0, for example, add live-getty and
755     console=ttyS0,38400n81 in the boot parameter.
756 sng 43 //NOTE//
757 sng 149 * If "live-getty console=ttyS0,38400n81" are assigned in the boot
758     parameters, ocs_live_run_tty will honor ttyS0, even other value is assigned
759     to ocs_live_run_tty in boot parameter.
760 sng 43 * It's recommended to assign ocs_lang and ocs_live_keymap in the boot
761     parameters too.
762     * ip, this option allows you to specify the network parameters for
763     network card. In Clonezilla live a patched live-initramfs is used, which
764     is different from the original live-initramfs so that you can assign
765     DNS server, too. Its format is: ip=ethernet port,IP address, netmask,
766     gateway, DNS. E.g. If you want to assing eth0 with IP address,
767     netmask, gateway, DNS server, you can
768     assign the following in the boot parameter:
769 sng 180 ip=eth0:
770     If more than one network card, you can use "," to separate them, e.g.:
771     ip=eth0:,eth1:
772 sng 28 * Besides, "live-netdev" (yes, not ocs_live_netdev) can be used when
773     using PXE booting, you can force to assign the network device to get
774     filesystem.squashfs. This is useful when there are two or more NICs are
775     linked. E.g. live-netdev="eth1" allows you to force the live-initramfs
776     to use eth1 to fetch the root file system filesystem.squashfs.
778     With the above options, we have the following examples:
780     * A PXE config example for you to boot Clonezilla live via PXE, and ssh
781     service is on, the password of account "user" is assigned:
782     ----------------------------------------
783     label Clonezilla Live
784     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live
786     kernel vmlinuz1
787     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788
788     fetch=tftp:// usercrypted=bkuQxLqLRuDW6
789     ocs_numlk="on" ocs_daemonon="ssh"
790     ----------------------------------------
791     The usercrypted password is created by:
792     echo YOUR_PASSWORD | mkpasswd -s
793     ("mkpasswd" is from package "whois" in Debian or Ubuntu. Check your
794     GNU/Linux to see which package provides this command if you are not using
795     Debian or Ubuntu. Replace YOUR_PASSWORD with your plain text password,
796     and remember do not put any " in the boot parameters of live-initramfs
797     (while it's ok for those ocs_* boot parameters), i.e. do NOT use something
798     like usercrypted="bkuQxLqLRuDW6").
799     //NOTE// If you do not assign salt to mkpasswd, the encrypted password
800     will not be the same every time you create it.
801     For more about usercrypted discussion, please check the here.
803     * How to put your own binary driver in Clonezilla live without modifying
804     /live/filesystem.squashfs:
806     * Boot clonezilla live
807     * Become root by running "sudo su -"
808     * Copy the dir lsi, which contains a precompiled kernel module matching
809     the running kernel in Clonezilla live and a script to run it, to a working
810     dir, e.g.:
811     cp -r /live/image/lsi /home/partimag
812     * cd /home/partimag
813     * /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-live-dev -c -s -i lsi -u lsi -x
814     "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
815     * /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-iso -s -i lsi -u lsi -x
816     "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
817     * ///NOTE/// In this example, the 2 files in dir lsi are: megasr.ko (the
818     binary driver) and prep-lsi.sh. The contents of prep-lsi.sh:
820     ------------------------
821     #!/bin/bash
822     cp -f /live/image/lsi/megasr.ko /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/
823     chown root.root /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/megasr.ko
824     depmod -a modprobe megasr
825     sleep 1
826     ------------------------
827     * To put your customized script with a PXE version of Clonezilla live
828     (You have to use Clonezilla live version 1.2.2-2 or later):
829     In this example, we assume (1) The IP address of your PXE server is
830, (2) the customized script (custom-ocs-2) is put on
831     your PXE server's tftpd root dir (E.g. On DRBL server, the path is
832     /tftpboot/nbi_img/. It might be different in your case if you are not use
833     DRBL server as a PXE server).
834     Therefor your pxelinux.cfg/default file is like:
835     ------------------------
836     label Clonezilla Live
838     # MENU HIDE
839     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live
840     # MENU PASSWD
841     kernel vmlinuz1
842     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788
843     ip=frommedia fetch=tftp://
844     ocs_prerun="busybox tftp -g -b 10240 -r custom-ocs-2 -l
845     /tmp/custom-ocs-2" ocs_live_run="bash /tmp/custom-ocs-2"
846     ocs_live_keymap="NONE" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" nolocales
847     TEXT HELP
848     Boot Clonezilla live via network
849     ENDTEXT
850     ------------------------
851     The content of custom-ocs-2 can be like:
853     ------------------------
854     #!/bin/bash
855     . /opt/drbl/sbin/drbl-conf-functions
856     . /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-functions
857     . /etc/ocs/ocs-live.conf
859     # Load language file
860     ask_and_load_lang_set en_US.UTF-8
862     # 1. Mount the clonezilla image home.
863     # Types: local_dev, ssh_server, samba_server, nfs_server
864     prep-ocsroot -t nfs_server
866     # 2. Restore the image
867     if mountpoint /home/partimag/ &>/dev/null; then
868     ocs-sr -l en_US.UTF-8 -c -p choose restoredisk ask_user ask_user
869     else
870     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] & $SETCOLOR_FAILURE
871     echo "Fail to find the Clonezilla image home /home/partimag!"
872     echo "Program terminated!"
873     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] & $SETCOLOR_NORMAL
874     fi
875     ------------------------
876     live-initramfs manual
877     ---------------------
878     This is the manual of live-initramfs {{
879     http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/live-initramfs-param.php }}
881     live-initramfs(7)
882     =================
883 sng 149 :man source: 1.157.3
884     :man manual: Debian Live
885 sng 28
886     Name
887     ----
888     live-initramfs - Debian Live initramfs hook
890     Synopsis
891     --------
892     BOOT=live
894     as kernel parameter at boot prompt.
896     Description
897     -----------
899     live-initramfs is a hook for the initramfs-tools, used to generate
900     a initramfs
901     capable to boot live systems, such as those created by *live-helper*(7).
902     This includes the Debian Live isos, netboot tarballs, and usb stick images.
904     At boot time it will look for a (read-only) media containing a "/live"
905     directory where a root filesystems (often a compressed filesystem image like
906     squashfs) is stored. If found, it will create a writable environment, using
907     aufs, for Debian like systems to boot from.
909     You probably do not want to install this package onto a non-live system,
910     although it will do no harm.
912 sng 60 live-initramfs is a fork of casper.
913     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen
914     &lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
915     and Matt Zimmerman &lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
916 sng 28
917     Boot options
918     ------------
920     Here is the complete list of recognized boot parameters by live-initramfs.
922     access=*ACCESS*::
924     Set the accessibility level for physically or visually impared users. ACCESS
925     must be one of v1, v2, v3, m1, or m2. v1=lesser visual impairment,
926     v2=moderate
927     visual impairment, v3=blindness, m1=minor motor difficulties, m2=moderate
928     motor
929     difficulties.
931     console=*TTY,SPEED*::
933     Set the default console to be used with the "live-getty" option. Example:
934     "console=ttyS0,115200"
936     debug::
938     Makes initramfs boot process more verbose.
940     fetch=*URL*::
942     Another form of netboot by downloading a squashfs image from a given url,
943 sng 149 copying to ram and booting it. Due to current limitations in busyboxs wget
944     and DNS resolution, an URL can not contain a hostname but an IP only.
945 sng 28
946 sng 149 Not working: http://example.com/path/to/your_filesystem.squashfs
947     Working:
949     Also note that therefore it's currently not possible to fetch an image from a
950     namebased virtualhost of an httpd if it is sharing the ip with the main httpd
951     instance.
953 sng 28 hostname=*HOSTNAME*, username=*USER*, userfullname=*USERFULLNAME*::
955     Those parameters lets you override values read from the config file.
957     ignore_uuid
959     Do not check that any UUID embedded in the initramfs matches the discovered
960     medium. live-initramfs may be told to generate a UUID by setting
961     LIVE_GENERATE_UUID=1 when building the initramfs.
963     integrity-check::
965     If specified, an MD5 sum is calculated on the live media during boot and
966     compared to the value found in md5sum.txt found in the root directory of the
967     live media.
972     [DEVICE]:[AUTOCONF]]***::
973 sng 28
974     Let you specify the name(s) and the options of the interface(s) that
975     should be
976     configured at boot time. Do not specify this if you want to use dhcp
977     (default).
978     It will be changed in a future release to mimick official kernel boot param
979     specification
980     (e.g. ip=,:::::eth1:dhcp).
982 sng 149 ip=[**frommedia**]::
983 sng 28
984     If this variable is set, dhcp and static configuration are just skipped
985     and the
986     system will use the (must be) media-preconfigured /etc/network/interfaces
987     instead.
989     {keyb|kbd-chooser/method}=**KEYBOARD**,
990     {klayout|console-setup/layoutcode}=**LAYOUT**,
991     {kvariant|console-setup/variantcode}=**VARIANT**,
992 sng 60 {kmodel|console-setup/modelcode}=
993     **CODE**, koptions=**OPTIONS**::
994 sng 28
995     Configure the running keyboard as specified, if this one misses
996     live-initramfs
997     behaves as if "keyb=us" was specified. It will be interfered from
998     "locale=" if
999     locale is only 2 lowecase letters as a special case. You could also specify
1000     console layout, variant, code, and options (no defaults).
1002     live-getty::
1004     This changes the auto-login on virtual terminals to use the (experimental)
1005     live-getty code. With this option set the standard kernel argument
1006     "console=" is
1007     parsed and if a serial console is specified then live-getty is used to
1008     autologin
1009     on the serial console.
1011     {live-media|bootfrom}=**DEVICE**::
1013     If you specify one of this two equivalent forms, live-initramfs will
1014     first try
1015     to find this device for the "/live" directory where the read-only root
1016     filesystem should reside. If it did not find something usable, the
1017     normal scan
1018     for block devices is performed.
1020 sng 149 Instead of specifing an actual device name, the keyword 'removable' can
1021     be used
1022     to limit the search of acceptable live media to removable type only. Note
1023     that
1024     if you want to further restrict the media to usb mass storage only, you
1025     can use
1026     the 'removable-usb' keyword.
1028 sng 28 {live-media-encryption|encryption}=**TYPE**::
1030     live-initramfs will mount the encrypted rootfs TYPE, asking the passphrase,
1031     useful to build paranoid live systems :-). TYPE supported so far are
1032     "aes" for
1033     loop-aes encryption type.
1035     live-media-offset=**BYTES**::
1037     This way you could tell live-initramfs that your image starts at offset
1038     BYTES in
1039     the above specified or autodiscovered device, this could be useful to
1040     hide the
1041     Debian Live iso or image inside another iso or image, to create "clean"
1042     images.
1044     live-media-path=**PATH**::
1046     Sets the path to the live filesystem on the medium. By default, it is set to
1047     '/live' and you should not change that unless you have customized your media
1048     accordingly.
1050     live-media-timeout=**SECONDS**::
1052     Set the timeout in seconds for the device specified by "live-media="
1053     to become
1054     ready before giving up.
1056     {locale|debian-installer/locale}=**LOCALE**::
1058     Configure the running locale as specified, if not present the live-media
1059     rootfs
1060     configured locale will be used and if also this one misses live-initramfs
1061     behave
1062     as "locale=en_US.UTF-8" was specified. If only 2 lowercase letter are
1063     specified
1064     (like "it"), the "maybe wanted" locale is generated (like en:EN.UTF-8),
1065     in this
1066     case if also "keyb=" is unspecified is set with those 2 lowercase letters
1067     (keyb=us). Beside that facility, only UTF8 locales are supported by
1068     live-initramfs.
1070     module=**NAME**::
1072     Instead of using the default optional file "filesystem.module" (see below)
1073     another file could be specified without the extension ".module"; it should be
1074     placed on "/live" directory of the live medium.
1076     netboot[=**nfs**|**cifs**]::
1078     This tells live-initramfs to perform a network mount. The parameter
1079     "nfsroot="
1080     (with optional "nfsopts="), should specify where is the location of the root
1081     filesystem. With no args, will try cifs first, and if it fails nfs.
1083     nfsopts=::
1085     This lets you specify custom nfs options.
1087     noautologin::
1089     This parameter disables the automatic terminal login only, not touching
1090     gdk/kdm.
1092     noxautologin::
1094     This parameter disables the automatic login of gdm/kdm only, not touching
1095     terminals.
1097     nofastboot::
1099     This parameter disables the default disabling of filesystem checks in
1100     /etc/fstab. If you have static filesystems on your harddisk and you want
1101     them to
1102     be checked at boot time, use this parameter, otherwise they are skipped.
1104     nopersistent::
1106     disables the "persistent" feature, useful if the bootloader (like syslinux)
1107     has
1108     been installed with persistent enabled.
1110     noprompt
1112 sng 149 Do not prompt to eject the CD or remove the USB flash drive on reboot.
1113 sng 28
1114     nosudo::
1116     This parameter disables the automatic configuration of sudo.
1118     swapon::
1120     This parameter enables usage of local swap partitions.
1122     nouser::
1124     This parameter disables the creation of the default user completely.
1126     noxautoconfig::
1128     This parameter disables Xorg auto-reconfiguration at boot time. This
1129     is valuable
1130     if you either do the detection on your own, or, if you want to ship a custom,
1131     premade xorg.conf in your live system.
1133     persistent[=nofiles]::
1135     live-initramfs will look for persistent and snapshot partitions or files
1136     labeled
1137     "live-rw", "home-rw", and files called "live-sn*", "home-sn*" and will
1138     try to,
1139     in order: mount as /cow the first, mount the second in /home, and just
1140     copy the
1141     contents of the latter in appropriate locations (snapshots). Snapshots
1142     will be
1143     tried to be updated on reboot/shutdown. Look at live-snapshot(1) for more
1144     informations. If "nofiles" is specified, only filesystems with matching
1145     labels
1146     will be searched; no filesystems will be traversed looking for archives
1147     or image
1148     files. This results in shorter boot times.
1150 sng 149 persistent-path=PATH
1152     live-initramfs will look for persistency files in the root directory of
1153     a partition,
1154     with this parameter, the path can be configured so that you can have multiple
1155     directories on the same partition to store persistency files.
1157 sng 28 {preseed/file|file}=**FILE**::
1159     A path to a file present on the rootfs could be used to preseed debconf
1160     database.
1162     package/question=**VALUE**::
1164     All debian installed packages could be preseeded from command-line that way,
1165     beware of blanks spaces, they will interfere with parsing, use a preseed
1166     file in
1167     this case.
1169     quickreboot::
1171     This option causes live-initramfs to reboot without attempting to eject the
1172     media and without asking the user to remove the boot media.
1174     showmounts::
1176     This parameter will make live-initramfs to show on "/" the ro filesystems
1177     (mostly compressed) on "/live". This is not enabled by default because could
1178     lead to problems by applications like "mono" which store binary paths on
1179     installation.
1181 sng 149 silent
1183     If you boot with the normal quiet parameter, live-initramfs hides most
1184     messages
1185     of its own. When adding silent, it hides all.
1187 sng 28 textonly
1189     Start up to text-mode shell prompts, disabling the graphical user interface.
1191     timezone=**TIMEZONE**::
1193     By default, timezone is set to UTC. Using the timezone parameter, you can
1194     set it
1195     to your local zone, e.g. Europe/Zurich.
1197     todisk=**DEVICE**::
1199     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the entire read-only
1200     media to the specified device before mounting the root filesystem. It
1201     probably
1202     needs a lot of free space. Subsequent boots should then skip this step
1203     and just
1204     specify the "live-media=DEVICE" boot parameter with the same DEVICE used this
1205     time.
1207     toram::
1209     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the whole read-only
1210     media
1211     to the computer's RAM before mounting the root filesystem. This could need
1212     a lot
1213     of ram, according to the space used by the read-only media.
1215     union=**aufs**|**unionfs**::
1217     By default, live-initramfs uses aufs. With this parameter, you can switch to
1218     unionfs.
1220     utc=**yes**|**no**::
1222     By default, Debian systems do assume that the hardware clock is set to
1223     UTC. You
1224     can change or explicitly set it with this parameter.
1226     xdebconf::
1228     Uses xdebconfigurator, if present on the rootfs, to configure X instead
1229     of the
1230     standard procedure (experimental).
1232     xvideomode=**RESOLUTION**::
1234     Doesn't do xorg autodetection, but enforces a given resolution.
1236     Files
1237     -----
1239     /etc/live.conf
1241     Some variables can be configured via this config file (inside the live
1242     system).
1244     /live/filesystem.module
1246     This optional file (inside the live media) contains a list of white-space or
1247     carriage-return-separated file names corresponding to disk images in the
1248     "/live"
1249     directory. If this file exists, only images listed here will be merged
1250     into the
1251     root aufs, and they will be loaded in the order listed here. The first entry
1252     in this file will be the "lowest" point in the aufs, and the last file in
1253     this list will be on the "top" of the aufs, directly below /cow. Without
1254     this file, any images in the "/live" directory are loaded in alphanumeric
1255     order.
1257 sng 60 /etc/live-persistence.binds
1258 sng 28
1259     This optional file (which resides in the rootfs system, not in the live
1260     media)
1261     is used as a list of directories which not need be persistent: ie. their
1262     content does not need to survive reboots when using the persistence features.
1264     This saves expensive writes and speeds up operations on volatile data such as
1265     web caches and temporary files (like e.g. /tmp and .mozilla) which are
1266     regenerated each time. This is achieved by bind mounting each listed
1267     directory
1268     with a tmpfs on the original path.
1270     See also
1271     --------
1273     live-snapshot(1), initramfs-tools(8), live-helper(7), live-initscripts(7),
1274     live-webhelper(7)
1276     Bugs
1277     ----
1279     Report bugs against live-initramfs
1280 sng 60 http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs.
1281 sng 28
1282     Homepage
1283     --------
1285     More information about the Debian Live project can be found at
1286 sng 60 http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/ and
1287     http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/.
1288 sng 28
1289     Authors
1290     -------
1292 sng 60 live-initramfs is maintained by Daniel Baumann &lt;daniel@debian.org&amp;gt;
1293 sng 28 for the Debian project.
1295 sng 60 live-initramfs is a fork of casper.
1296     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen
1297     &lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
1298     and Matt Zimmerman &lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
1299 sng 28
1303     About Clonezilla Live
1304     ==============================================================================
1306     Intro
1307     ****************************************
1308     The DRBL-based PXEBoot Clonezilla is used to clone many computers
1309     simultaneously. It is an extremely useful tool, however, it does have several
1310     limitations. In order to use it, you must first prepare a DRBL server AND
1311     the machine to be cloned must boot from a network (e.g. PXE/Etherboot).
1313     To address these limitations, the Free Software Lab at the NCHC has combined
1314     Debian Live {{ http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/ }} with Clonezilla
1315     to produce "Clonezilla Live", a new software that can be used to easily
1316     clone individual machines.
1318     Clonezilla Live provides two modes of operation:
1320     * device-image
1321     In this mode of operation, a disk/partition can be saved to an
1322     image file. This image file can be used to restore the original
1323     disk/partition. With Clonezilla-SysRescCD, it can also be used to create an
1324     automated restore CD/DVD. This is the mode of operation we will discuss here.
1326     * device-device (cloning)
1327     This mode of operation creates an exact copy of the original disk/partition
1328     on the fly.
1330     When working in device-image mode, you will always have to specify three
1331     things:
1333     * The location of the image file
1334     * The working parameters for the operation
1335     * The disk/partition that will be saved/restored
1337     Clonezilla Live provides a user friendly interface in order to insert
1338     this data.
1340     When Clonezilla Live is booted up, either normally or copied to RAM, the
1341     contents of the whole CD/DVD can be found in folder /live/image. This
1342     is where you will find any extra files, such as the restorecd and the
1343     doc folders.
1345     Starting and stopping Clonezilla Live
1346     ****************************************
1347     When you boot into Clonezilla Live, the program (actually a script) starts
1348     automatically. There are many places where you can stop it, by selecting
1349     Cancel or answering N(o) to a question. When you do that you will probably
1350     get the following:
1351     Now you can choose to:
1352     (0) Poweroff
1353     (1) Reboot
1354     (2) Enter command line prompt
1355     (3) Start over
1356     [2]
1358     Select Poweroff or Reboot, only if you haven't already mounted a disk
1359     partition. I found out by experience, it is not always safe to let any live
1360     CD automatically unmount my partitions. So if you have already specified
1361     the image partition and/or the partition to save/restore, you should enter
1362     command line prompt and type:
1363     sudo su -
1364     mount | grep /dev/[sh]d
1365     and then unmount the partitions shown by the last command. So if the
1366     results of this command is for example:
1367     /dev/hda1 on /home/partimag type vfat (rw)
1368     just type the command:
1369     umount /dev/hda1
1370     and it's now safe to Poweroff of Reboot.
1372     If, on the other hand, you just want to restart the program, type:
1373     ocs-live
1375     About the Image file
1376     ****************************************
1377     One thing should be made clear about the image file: it is not a file,
1378     it is a folder, containing the actual image file and some data about the
1379     disk/partition it is associated with. So when you insert the image file name,
1380     you actually insert the folder name where the image will be saved/restored.
1382     Before you are able to insert the image file name, a list of partitions
1383     will be presented to you, so that you can choose where it should be
1384 sng 75 saved/found. When you select one of them, it will be mounted and a list
1385     of folders will be presented to you, so you can select the base image
1386     directory (first level directory within the partition), which will then
1387     be mounted under /home/partimag. This way you can, for example, create a
1388     folder called all_my_images in one of your disk partitions, and move all
1389     your image files in there; Clonezilla Live will be able to find them!!!
1390 sng 28
1391     Another thing that should be pointed out is that only unmounted partitions
1392     will be included in the above list. This means that if you have stopped
1393     the program at some point after specifying the partition where the image
1394     file resides, and it has been mounted, it will not be present in the list
1395     the next time it is presented to you, and you will not be able to use it.
1397     There are two things you can do in this case; either unmount the partition,
1398     as stated above, or select
1399     skip Use existing /home/partimag
1401     instead of any other option, when you restart the program. The later of
1402     course means that you still want to use the previously specified partition
1403     as the image file location.
1405     Fianlly I should say that Clonezilla Live is able to use a remote
1406     disk/partition as the location of the image file, mounted through ssh,
1407     samba or nfs. Using any of these options is a more advanced topic, way
1408     beyond the scope of this presentation.
1410     Scripts' options
1411     ****************************************
1412     This section presents the options which are available at the "Clonezilla
1413     advanced extra parameters" screens, if the "Expert" mode is selected. For
1414     other options, see Getting backups and Restoring data.
1416     Backup options
1417     ---------------------
1418     > Imaging program priority
1420     -q2 Priority: partclone > partimage > dd
1421     -q1 Priority: Only dd (supports all filesystem, but inefficient)
1422     -q Priority: ntfsclone > partimage > dd
1423     Priority: partimage > dd (no ntfsclone)
1425     This option chooses which imaging programs are preferred. By default,
1426     Clonezilla Live uses partclone for nearly all filesystems, including
1427     ext2/3/4, NTFS and FAT32. If a filesystem isn't supported by partclone,
1428     but is supported by partimage (spesifically: if the filesystem is HFS,
1429     HPFS or JFS), it is cloned by partimage. If it isn't supported by either
1430     (for example Linux swap, though it doesn't make any sense to clone swap
1431     partitions), it is cloned by dd. Unlike partclone or partimage, dd copies
1432     all blocks of the partition instead of only used, resulting in slower
1433     imaging process and bigger images.
1435     Normally the default option -q2 should be preferred. Try another option
1436     if you have problems and believe they are caused by the imaging program used.
1438     > Various parameters
1440     These options are available at the second "Clonezilla advanced extra
1441     parameters" screen.
1442     -c Client waits for confirmation before cloning
1443     This option causes Clonezilla Live to ask if you really want to clone the
1444     disk/partition just before it starts cloning. It is enabled by default.
1446     -j2 Clone the hidden data between MBR and 1st partition
1447     If this option is set, the 15 hidden sectors between Master Boot Record
1448     and the first partition are copied. This area usually contains some data
1449     necessary for booting. The option is enabled by default and should be kept
1450     enabled if you are cloning a bootable disk.
1452     -nogui Use text output only, no TUI/GUI output
1453     Causes Clonezilla Live to force the used programs to use only command-line
1454     interface even if text-based or graphical user interface is available.
1456     -a Do NOT force to turn on HD DMA
1457     Prevents Clonezilla Live from using DMA for communicating with hard
1458     drives. Slows cloning down but in some conditions cloning without this
1459     option can be impossible.
1461     -rm-win-swap-hib Remove page and hibernation files in Win if exists
1462     This option prevents Clonezilla Live from cloning your page file if you
1463     are cloning a partition containing Windows. Often the page file is big
1464     and unneeded, and skipping it may speed cloning up without causing any
1465     harm. Mind you, this option is disabled by default because sometimes the
1466     page file may be necessary.
1468     -ntfs-ok Skip checking NTFS integrity, even bad sectors (ntfsclone only)
1469     This option works only if you selected the -q option and you're cloning
1470     a NTFS partition. It prevents the integrity check of NTFS partitions and
1471     speeds the cloning process up a little. However, if the check is disabled,
1472     there is a risk that the filesystem is damaged and the image created from
1473     it is useless.
1475 sng 75 -rescue Continue reading next one when disk blocks read errors
1476     If this option is set, Clonezilla Live continues cloning even if a read
1477     error occurs. If there is one, the disk image will be corrupted, but
1478     failing hard drives can only be cloned with this option enabled.
1480     -fsck-src-part Check and repair source file system before saving
1481     This option causes Clonezilla Live to check the integrity of the partition(s)
1482     to be cloned. If the filesystem of the partition is damaged, Clonezilla Live
1483     also attempts to repair it automatically. Enabling this option reduces the
1484     risk that the image contains a damaged filesystem. However, the option is
1485     disabled by default because the automatic filesystem repair attempt may
1486     cause data loss.
1488 sng 28 -gm Generate image MD5 checksums
1489     Causes Clonezilla Live to calculate MD5 checksum(s) of image(s) created. If
1490 sng 75 the image gets corrupted afterwards, the checksum allows to notice the
1491 sng 28 corruption before the image is restored. Mind you, calculating the checksum
1492     takes some time and slows the process down a little.
1494     -gs Generate image SHA1 checksums
1495     This option is identical to the above, but creates SHA1 checksum(s) instead
1496     of MD5. SHA1 is considered to be more accurate checksum algorithm than MD5,
1497     but MD5 is more popular.
1499     > Compression method
1501 sng 75 -z1p Use parallel gzip compression (testing), for multicore/CPU
1502 sng 28 -z1 gzip compression (fast with a smaller image)
1503 sng 75 -z2p Use parallel bzip2 compression (testing), for multicore/CPU
1504 sng 28 -z2 bzip2 compression (slowest but smallest image)
1505     -z3 lzo compression (faster with image size approx. to that of
1506     gzip)(NOTE!!)
1507 sng 75 -z4
1508     lzma_compression_(slowest_but_also_small_image,_faster_decompression_than_bzip2)
1509     -z5p Use_parallel_xz_compression_(testing),_for_multicore/CPU
1510     -z5
1511     xz_compression_(slowest_but_also_small_image,_faster_decompression_than_bzip2)
1512     -z6p Use_parallel_lzip_compression_(testing),_for_multicore/CPU
1513     -z6
1514     lzip_compression_(slowest_but_also_small_image,_faster_decompression_than_bzip2)
1515 sng 28 -z0 No compression (fastest but largest image size)
1517     This option chooses the method which is used to compress the image while
1518     creating it.
1520     If no compression is used at all, there won't be any negative speed impact
1521     caused by compression. However, the image file size is the size of all the
1522     data backed up - for example, if you clone a 160 GB hard drive containing
1523     60 gigabytes of data, the resulting disk image will be 60 gigabytes in size.
1525     Gzip and lzop are fast compression methods. Lzop is many times faster than
1526     gzip, but creates slightly larger images. Clonezilla Live warns that lzop
1527     requires good-quality RAM, but I (the contributor who wrote this chapter)
1528     think other compression methods require good RAM too.
1530 sng 75 Bzip2, lzma, xz and lzip are powerful compression methods. Lzma creates a
1531     little smaller images than bzip2, and decompressing lzma-compressed images
1532     is faster than decompressing bzip2 images. But there is no free lunch:
1533     lzma compression method is very slow compared even to bzip2, which isn't
1534     fast method either.
1535 sng 28
1536 sng 75 Lzma method is becoming obsolete, and both xz and lzip are attempting to
1537     become its successor. They are a bit less powerful compression methods than
1538     lzma, but much faster. The differences between xz and lzip are virtually
1539     non-existent.
1541     If you don't use the i486 version of Clonezilla-SysRescCD and your
1542     processor contains multiple cores and/or supports Hyper-Threading, parallel
1543     gzip, bzip2, xz and lzip compression methods are also available. Parallel
1544     compression means that each processor core compresses a different part of the
1545     image at a time. Without parallel compression one core compresses everything.
1547     The speed impact caused by parallel compression depends on the number
1548     of processor cores available. In addition, Hyper-Threading increases the
1549     speed by about 30 % if parallel compression is used. For example, if your
1550     processor contains four cores and supports Hyper-Threading, speed with
1551     parallel compression is nearly 5,2 times as high as without. However,
1552     parallel compression is currently an experimental feature.
1554 sng 28 > Splitting
1556     This option (command line: -i [number]) decides if the created image files
1557     are splitted into smaller pieces, and if yes, how large the pieces are. This
1558     setting doesn't usually matter, but some filesystems (most importantly
1559     FAT32) don't allow files larger than four gigabytes. If you're saving the
1560     disk image to a FAT32 partition, enter 4000 or less. (Value 0 disables
1561     splitting, so don't use it in that case.) If the filesystem allows files
1562     big enough, enter any value which isn't too small (you don't want to split
1563     the image into too many pieces, do you?)
1565 sng 75 Clonezilla Live warns that it is no longer safe to disable splitting because
1566     value 0 can confuse init. I (the contributor) don't know what the warning
1567     exactly means and haven't been able to reproduce the problem. Anyway,
1568     entering a very big value, for example 999999999999, is a safe way to keep
1569     the image in one piece.
1571 sng 28 > Postaction
1573     -p true Do nothing when the clone finishes
1574     -p reboot Reboot client when the clone finishes
1575     -p poweroff Shutdown client when the clone finishes
1577     In this screen you can decide what Clonezilla Live does when the
1578     disk/partition is cloned.
1580     Spiros told above that he has found out that it's not always safe to allow
1581     Live CDs automatically unmount partitions, and I have lost data when trying
1582     auto-unmount with a script. So, avoid -p reboot and -p poweroff options
1583     if possible. You have been warned.
1585     Restore options (script ocs-sr)
1586     ---------------------
1587     > Various parameters
1589     These options are available at the first "Clonezilla advanced extra
1590     parameters" screen.
1591     -g auto Reinstall grub in client disk MBR (only if grub config exists)
1592     Causes Clonezilla Live to reinstall GRUB into the Master Boot Record
1593     of the disk if at least one partition contains GRUB config file
1594     (/boot/grub/menu.lst). The option is enabled by default and shouldn't
1595     cause any harm. However, it should be disabled if you for example have
1596     another bootloader in MBR and chainload GRUB with it.
1598     -e1 auto Automatically adjust filesystem geometry for a NTFS boot partition
1599     if exists
1600     The NTLDR bootloader used by Windows isn't able to determine automatically
1601     where the files it needs are stored. It only knows their physical locations,
1602     which sometimes change when the disk or partition is copied. If the locations
1603     are changed and this option is selected, the location information of the
1604     files is changed accordingly. This option is enabled by default and if
1605     it's disabled, the cloned Windows will fail to boot.
1607     -e2 sfdisk uses CHS of hard drive from EDD(for non-grub boot loader)
1608     This option requires that the -e1 auto option is selected. It causes
1609     Clonezilla Live to use disk read interface named EDD for determining the
1610     physical locations of the files when updating the location information
1611     used by NTLDR. The option is enabled by default because it reduces the
1612     risk that Windows doesn't boot.
1614     -hn0 PC Change MS Win hostname (based on IP address) after clone
1615     If this option is selected and a partition containing Microsoft Windows is
1616     cloned, its IP address -based hostname is changed after cloning. Computers
1617     which are on any network simultaneously need to have different hostnames,
1618     so this option is needed if a Windows system is cloned to another computer
1619     and the original computer is still used in addition to the one where the
1620     image was restored to.
1622     -hn1 PC Change MS Win hostname (based on MAC address) after clone
1623     This option causes the MAC address -based hostname of Windows to change. This
1624     option needs also be enabled in the above condition.
1626     -v Prints verbose messages (especially for udpcast)
1627     Causes Clonezilla Live to tell more information of what it does.
1629     -nogui Use text output only, no TUI/GUI output
1630     Causes Clonezilla Live to force the used programs to use only command-line
1631     interface even if text-based or graphical user interface is available.
1633     -b Run clone in batch mode (DANGEROUS!)
1634     Causes Clonezilla Live to run in batch mode. According to Clonezilla
1635     Live reference card, this option is dangerous, though I (the contributor)
1636     don't know why.
1638     -c Client waits for confirmation before cloning
1639     This option causes Clonezilla Live to ask if you really want to clone the
1640     disk/partition just before it starts cloning. It is enabled by default.
1642     -t Client does not restore the MBR (Mater Boot Record)
1643     Do NOT restore the MBR (Mater Boot Record) when restoring image. If this
1644     option is set, you must make sure there is an existing MBR in the current
1645     restored harddisk. Default is Yes.
1647     -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For Windows only)
1648     If this option is set, the MBR is overwritten by prebuilt one which
1649     chainloads Windows. Use this option if you have to restore Windows and
1650     make it bootable, but don't have the original MBR or backup of it.
1652     -r Try to resize the filesystem to fit partition size
1653     This option is useful if you are cloning a small disk to larger one. It
1654     tries to resize the restored filesystem to the size of the partition where
1655     it was restored to. It allows you to use the whole size of your new disk
1656     without resizing the partition afterwards. The option requires that the
1657     disk where the image is copied already contains a partition where the
1658     image is restored or that the option -k1 is enabled.
1660     -e sfdisk uses the CHS value of hard drive from the saved image
1661     Force to use the saved CHS (cylinders, heads, sectors) when using sfdisk. Of
1662     cource, there is no use of it when using any of -j0, -k or -k2 options.
1664 sng 75 -icrc Ignore CRC checking of partclone
1665     This option causes partclone to skip checking the CRC32 checksums of
1666     the image. Enabling this option speeds the restore process up. However,
1667     if this option is enabled and the -cm and -cs options are disabled, there
1668     is no way to notice if the image has corrupted.
1670 sng 28 -j1 Write MBR (512 B) again after image is restored. Not OK for partition
1671     table diffe
1672     When a disk image is restored, the partition table must be updated to
1673     reflect the actual partitions in the disk. If you don't want it to happen,
1674     enable this option. Then the Master Boot Record (including the partition
1675     table) is restored again after restoring the image. Note that using this
1676     option can destroy all the data in the target drive.
1678     -j2 Clone the hidden data between MBR and 1st partition
1679     If this option is set, the 15 hidden sectors between Master Boot Record
1680     and the first partition are restored. This area usually contains some data
1681     necessary for booting. The option is enabled by default and should be kept
1682     enabled if you are cloning a bootable disk.
1684     -cm Check image by MD5 checksums
1685     If the image folder contains MD5 checksum(s), this option causes Clonezilla
1686     Live to check if the image has corrupted by calculating its checksum and
1687     comparing it to the precalculated one. Mind you, calculating the checksum
1688     takes some time and slows the process down a little.
1690     -cs Check image by SHA1 checksums
1691     This option is identical to the above, but checks SHA1 checksum(s) instead
1692     of MD5.
1694     -a Do NOT force to turn on HD DMA
1695     Prevents Clonezilla Live from using DMA for communicating with hard
1696     drives. Slows cloning down but in some conditions cloning without this
1697     option can be impossible.
1699     -o0 Run script in $OCS_PRERUN_DIR before clone starts
1700     Run the scripts in the directory $OCS_PRERUN_DIR before clone is
1701     started. The location of the directory can be determined by editing the
1702     file drbl-ocs.conf. By default it is /opt/drbl/share/ocs/prerun.
1704     -o1 Run script in $OCS_POSTRUN_DIR as clone finishes
1705     Run the scripts in the directory $OCS_POSTRUN_DIR when clone is
1706     finished. The location of the directory can be determined by editing the
1707     file drbl-ocs.conf. By default it is /opt/drbl/share/ocs/postrun. The
1708     command will be run before that assigned in -p.
1710     The scripts will be executed by the program "run-parts". run-parts only
1711     accepts that the name of the scripts must consist entirely of upper and
1712     lower case letters, digits and underscores. So if your file name has an
1713     illegal character ".", run-parts won't run it. You can test which files
1714     will be executed by entering the command:
1715     run-parts --test /opt/drbl/share/ocs/postrun
1717     > Partition table
1719     This option decides what is done to the partition table of the target drive.
1720     Use the partition table from the image
1721     This option causes Clonezilla Live to copy the partition table from the
1722     image. Use this option if you are cloning a whole disk or somehow know that
1723     the partition tables are identical (for example, if you are restoring a
1724     partition to the same disk where it was copied from and haven't repartitioned
1725     the drive after creating the backup). This is the default option.
1727     -k Do NOT create a partition table on the target disk
1728     Do NOT create partition in target harddisk. If this option is set,
1729     you must make sure there is an existing partition table in the current
1730     restored harddisk.
1732     -k1 Create partition table proportionally (OK for MRB format, not GPT)
1733     Causes Clonezilla Live to create the partition table automatically using
1734     sfdisk after restoring the images. This option works nearly always, but
1735     sometimes cloned Windows don't boot. Note that this option doesn't work if
1736     you have GUID Partition Table on your disk. (Most likely you don't have one.)
1738     -k2 Enter command line prompt to create partition manually later
1739     Like the -k option, this option doesn't create the partition table
1740     automatically. However, after restoring the image you are led to command
1741     line prompt where you can create the partition table manually. Don't use
1742     this option if you don't know how the partition table can be created.
1744     -j0 Use dd to create partition (NOT OK if logical drives exist)
1745     Use dd to dump the partition table from saved image instead of sfdisk.
1747     We read in DRBL FAQ/Q&A {{
1748     http://drbl.sourceforge.net/faq/fine-print.php?path=./2_System/23_Missing_OS.faq#23_Missing_OS.faq
1749     }}:
1751 sng 180 When I use clonezilla to clone MS windows, there is no any problem
1752 sng 28 when saving an image from template machine. However, after the image
1753     is restored to another machine, it fails to boot, the error message is
1754 sng 180 "Missing Operating System" or just a blinking underscore. What's going on ?
1755 sng 28 Usually this is because GNU/Linux and M$ windows interpret the CHS (cylinder,
1756     head, sector) value of harddrive differently. Some possible solutions:
1757     1. Maybe you can change the IDE harddrive setting in BIOS, try to use
1758     LBA instead of auto mode.
1759 sng 180 2. Try to choose both
1760     [*] -j0 Use dd to create partition table instead of sfdisk
1761 sng 28 and
1762 sng 180 [*] -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For
1763     Windows only)
1764     when you restore the image.
1765     3. Try to choose
1766     [*] -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For
1767     Windows only)
1768     and *uncheck*
1769     [ ] -g auto Reinstall grub in client disk MBR (only if grub
1770     config exists)
1771     [ ] -r Try to resize the filesystem to fit partition size
1772     when you restore the image. You can refer to this discussion {{
1773     http://www.ecs.umass.edu/pipermail/umasslug/2008-August/003380.html
1774     }}. Thanks to Alex Mckenzie for posting this on the forum.
1775     4. You can try to boot the machine with MS Windows 9x bootable floppy,
1776 sng 28 and in the DOS command prompt, run: "fdisk /mbr".
1777 sng 180 5. You can try to boot the machine with MS Windows XP installation
1778 sng 28 CD, enter recovery mode (by pressing F10 key in MS XP, for example),
1779     then in the console, run "fixmbr" to fix it. Maybe another command
1780     "fixboot" will help, too. For more info, refer to this doc {{
1781     http://support.microsoft.com/?scid=kb%3Ben-us%3B314058&x=7&y=14 }}
1782 sng 180 6. Use ntfsfixboot to fix it. This program is included in Clonezila live
1783     and its name is partclone.ntfsfixboot, and you can use it to adjust FS
1784     geometry on NTFS partitions. By default this should be done by Clonezilla
1785     with the option -e1 and -e2 checked. If not, you can force to do that
1786     again. For more info, please run "partclone.ntfsfixboot --help" or refer
1787     to http://sourceforge.net/projects/ntfsfixboot/.
1788     7. Use ntfsreloc to adjust FS geometry on NTFS partitions. For more info,
1789     refer to http://www.linux-ntfs.org/doku.php?id=contrib:ntfsreloc. //NOTE//
1790     ntfsreloc is an older version of partclone.ntfsfixboot.
1791     8. If you get error messages like "0xc0000225, 0xc00000e", and something
1792     about Winload.exe, refer to this.
1793     9. Some more discussions are available here.
1794 sng 28
1795 sng 180 It has been confirmed that activating the -j0 option, usually fixes the
1796     problem.
1797 sng 28
1798     This option doesn't work if you use LVM (Logical Volume Manager).
1800     exit Exit
1801     This option ends the restore process and enters command line prompt.
1803     > Postaction
1805     -p true Do nothing when the clone finishes
1806     -p reboot Reboot client when the clone finishes
1807     -p poweroff Shutdown client when the clone finishes
1809     When image restoration finishes, do one of the following: choose action
1810     (default), poweroff or reboot.
1812     Saving image files in NTFS partitions
1813     ****************************************
1814     Although not recomended, you may find yourself having to save your image
1815     file in a NTFS (Windows XP) partition. You may never have a problem doing
1816     this, but you may get a message like the following one, when the partition
1817     gets mounted:
1818     Volume is scheduled for check
1819     Please boot into Windows TWICE, or use 'force' mount option"
1820     and the backup procedure fails. There are two things you can do here:
1822     * Exit the program, reboot and use Windows XP Recovery Console to fix the
1823     NTFS file system. From Recovery Console
1824     prompt, execute the command:
1825     chkdsk /f X:
1827     where X: is the drive letter of the disk. When done, boot back into
1828     Clonezilla Live and repeat the backup procedure.
1830 sng 75 If the disk/partition you are trying to backup is not the Windows System
1831     disk (usually C:), you can boot Windows, and execute the command in a DOS
1832     window. To open a DOS window click Start / Run... and at the prompt Open:
1833     type cmd.
1835     If the Windows version you use is not XP and you're trying to backup the
1836     Windows System drive, boot into SystemRescueCD (graphical mode is not
1837     needed) and run the following command:
1838 sng 28 ntfsfix /dev/hda1
1840     where /dev/hda1 is the partition name in GNU/Linux. When done, boot back
1841     into Clonezilla Live and repeat the backup procedure.
1843     * If Windows XP Recovery Console is not available, you don't have the time
1844     to execute the procedure described above, or even if you have executed it
1845     but you still get the same message, and you are absolutely sure that you
1846     get this message because the NTFS partition is really scheduled for check,
1847     and it's not because Windows crushed or have become corrupt, you can mount
1848     the patririon by hand and tell Clonezilla Live to use it. Assuming the
1849     partition is /dev/hda1, exit the program and execute the commands:
1850     sudo su -
1851     ntfs-3g -o force /dev/hda1 /home/partimag
1852     ocs-live
1854     and when you get to the screen "Mount clonezilla image directory", select
1855     skip Use existing /home/partimag
1860     Getting backups
1861     ==============================================================================
1863     Intro
1864     ****************************************
1865     In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting
1866 sng 180 a backup of a virtual disk (/dev/sdb). The image file will be saved in a
1867     partition in another virtual disk (/dev/sda1).
1868 sng 28
1869     The first thing you do when you want to get a backup of a disk/partition,
1870     is make sure both the souce (to be backed up) and target (to hold the
1871     image file) partitions are in excellent condition (error free). This is the
1872     logical thing to do, cause I wouldn't want to backup a corrupt partition,
1873     or end up with a corrupt image file.
1875     There is one more step I would want to take: I should check that my BIOS
1876     boot settings are correct, in order to boot from my CD/DVD drive.
1878     Having done all of the above, I am ready to boot from Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
1880     [[ info.png ]]
1881 sng 180 The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.8-46
1882 sng 28
1883     Getting the backup
1884     ****************************************
1885     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
1886     ---------------------
1887     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
1888     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
1889     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
1890     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
1891     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
1892     that continue from this step.
1894     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
1895     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
1896     displayed.
1898     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
1899     are the following:
1901 sng 180 append initrd=/live/initrd.img boot=live config nomodeset nolocales noprompt
1902     noswap edd=on ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1903     ocs_prerun="/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1904     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791
1905 sng 28
1906     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
1907     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
1908     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
1910 sng 180 append initrd=/live/initrd.img boot=live config nomodeset nolocales noprompt
1911     noswap edd=on ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1912     ocs_prerun="/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1913     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791
1914 sng 28
1915     Screen "Choose Language"
1916     ---------------------
1917     [[ backup-00.png ]]
1918     I select "en_US.UTF-8 English" and press ENTER.
1920     Screen "Configuring console-data"
1921     ---------------------
1922     [[ backup-01.png ]]
1923     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
1924     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
1926     Screen "Configuring console-data"
1927     ---------------------
1928     [[ backup-02.png ]]
1929     As I (the contributor who wrote a great deal of this page) use Finnish
1930     keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish / Standard / Standard". Because
1931     you most likely use a different keyboard, choose the one you use.
1933     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
1934     ---------------------
1935     [[ backup-03.png ]]
1936     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
1938     Screen "Clonezilla"
1939     ---------------------
1940     [[ backup-04.png ]]
1941     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
1943     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
1944     ---------------------
1945     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory will be saved.
1946     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
1947     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
1948     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
1950     [[ backup-05.png ]]
1951     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
1953     Next screen
1954     ---------------------
1955     This is where I choose the location of the image file. It will be saved
1956     at the root directory of the selected partition.
1958     [[ backup-06.png ]]
1959 sng 75 I select partition sda1 and press ENTER.
1960 sng 28
1961     [[ backup-07.png ]]
1962     and then ENTER again.
1964     [[ backup-08.png ]]
1965     This screen displays the mounting result.
1966 sng 75 As we can see, /dev/sda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
1967 sng 28
1968     Next Screen
1969     ---------------------
1970     [[ backup-09.png ]]
1971 sng 180 I select Beginner mode to accept the default backup options. If you select
1972 sng 28 Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
1973     found here.
1975     Screen "Select mode"
1976     ---------------------
1977     Here I can select the desired operation.
1979     [[ backup-10.png ]]
1980     I select "savedisk" and press ENTER.
1982     Next Screen
1983     ---------------------
1984     [[ backup-11.png ]]
1985     In this screen I select the image name.
1986 sng 180 I type "Backup_32-2011_sdb", which in my opinion is more informative name
1987 sng 28 than the default.
1989     Next Screen
1990     ---------------------
1991     [[ backup-12.png ]]
1992 sng 180 Then I am asked to select the disk to save.
1993 sng 28 I just press ENTER again.
1995 sng 180 Next screen
1996     ---------------------
1997     [[ backup-12a.png ]]
1998     And I press ENTER again to enable image validation.
2000 sng 28 Starting the backup
2001     ---------------------
2002     [[ backup-13.png ]]
2003     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2004     ask me to press ENTER.
2005     Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
2007     [[ backup-14.png ]]
2008     After that, the backup begins
2010     [[ backup-15.png ]]
2011 sng 75 and when it's successfully completed, I press ENTER to get to the
2012     shell. Then, I execute the commands:
2013     sudo su -
2014     cd
2015     umount -a
2016     reboot
2017 sng 28
2018 sng 75 to reboot the system.
2019 sng 28
2022 sng 75
2023 sng 28 Getting backups on Samba
2024     ==============================================================================
2026     Intro
2027     ****************************************
2028     What if you don't have a spare local disk or partition or a USB disk? How
2029     will you be able to get a backup of your system? Well, if your PC is on
2030     the same LAN with another PC running Windows (or linux), you can use Samba
2031     to save your image file on that remote PC (which we will call Samba server
2032     from now on).
2034     Using Samba you will be able to mount a Windows share resource (or
2035     Samba share resource), from within Clonezilla Live, and save the image
2036     file there. Then you can boot that PC using SystemRescueCD and create a
2037     restore DVD.
2039 sng 75 In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting
2040     a backup of my second disk (/dev/sdb). The image file will be save in my
2041     Samba server which is my laptop (ip:, Windows share resource name:
2042     all_my_images).
2043 sng 28
2044     What is Samba?
2045     ---------------------
2046     We read at http://us1.samba.org/samba/:
2048     Samba is an Open Source/Free Software suite that provides seamless file
2049     and print services to SMB/CIFS clients. Samba is freely available, unlike
2050     other SMB/CIFS implementations, and allows for interoperability between
2051     Linux/Unix servers and Windows-based clients.
2053     Samba is software that can be run on a platform other than Microsoft
2054     Windows, for example, UNIX, Linux, IBM System 390, OpenVMS, and other
2055     operating systems. Samba uses the TCP/IP protocol that is installed on the
2056     host server. When correctly configured, it allows that host to interact
2057     with a Microsoft Windows client or server as if it is a Windows file and
2058     print server.
2060     Gathering info
2061     ****************************************
2062     Before you can use this approach to get a backup, you have to get some
2063     info about the Samba server.
2065     The Samba server I have used for this example was my laptop, so I already
2066     knew most of the info required. If this is not the case for you, just ask
2067     the owner, user or system admin.
2069     The info required is:
2071     * The IP address of the Samba server
2072     * The domain on the Samba server
2073     This may exist if your PC is connected to a larger LAN (a corporation
2074     network, for example). In my case this is empty.
2075     * The user name and password you can use
2076     * The directory on the Samba server you can use to save your backup
2077     This is the name of the Windows share resource (Samba share resource)
2078     as it is known in the network, which is not necessarily the same as the
2079     local directory name. The user whose account will be used to login to the
2080     Samba server, must have write permission to this directory.
2082     Getting the backup
2083     ****************************************
2084     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2085     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2086     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2087     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2088     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup.
2090     If you need to change these settings, go to the Getting backups page for
2091     instructions .
2093     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2094     ---------------------
2095 sng 75 [[ backup-03.png ]]
2096 sng 28 I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2098     Screen "Clonezilla"
2099     ---------------------
2100 sng 75 [[ backup-04.png ]]
2101 sng 28 I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2103 sng 75 Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2104 sng 28 ---------------------
2105     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory will be saved.
2106     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2107     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2108     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2110 sng 75 [[ backup-smb-05.png ]]
2111 sng 28 I select "samba server" and press ENTER.
2113     Screen "Mount Samba Server"
2114     ---------------------
2115 sng 75 This is where I have to enter the IP address of my Samba server.
2116     [[ backup-smb-06.png ]]
2117     I type "" and press ENTER.
2118 sng 28
2119     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (second time)
2120     ---------------------
2121 sng 75 This is where I have to enter the domain name on my Samba server.
2122     [[ backup-smb-07.png ]]
2123     I just press ENTER, as there is no domain in my LAN. If there is a domain
2124     in your network, you have to type its name (something like my_company.com)
2125     and press ENTER.
2126 sng 28
2127     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (third time)
2128     ---------------------
2129 sng 75 This is where I have to enter the account (user) name on my Samba server.
2130     [[ backup-smb-08.png ]]
2131     I type "spiros" and press ENTER.
2132 sng 28
2133     Screen "Mount Samba Server" (fourth time)
2134     ---------------------
2135 sng 75 This is where I have to enter the directory name on my Samba server, in
2136     which the image file will be saved. I type "/all_my_images" and press ENTER.
2137     [[ backup-smb-09.png ]]
2138 sng 28
2139 sng 75 At this point I'm informed I'm going to be asked for the password for
2140     user spiros.
2141     [[ backup-smb-10.png ]]
2142     I will be able to continue only after entering it correctly.
2143     [[ backup-smb-11.png ]]
2144 sng 28
2145     Screen "Clonezilla - Opensource Clone System (OCS)"
2146     ---------------------
2147 sng 75 [[ backup-09.png ]]
2148 sng 180 I select Beginner mode to accept the default backup options. If you select
2149 sng 28 Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
2150     found here.
2152 sng 75 Screen "Select mode"
2153 sng 28 ---------------------
2154 sng 75 Here I can select the desired operation.
2155 sng 28
2156 sng 75 [[ backup-10.png ]]
2157     I select "savedisk" and press ENTER.
2158 sng 28
2159 sng 75 Next Screen
2160     ---------------------
2161     [[ backup-11.png ]]
2162     In this screen I select the image name.
2163 sng 180 I type "Backup_32-2011_sdb", which in my opinion is more informative name
2164 sng 75 than the default.
2165 sng 28
2166 sng 75 Next Screen
2167 sng 28 ---------------------
2168 sng 75 [[ backup-12.png ]]
2169 sng 180 Finally I am asked to select the disk to save.
2170 sng 75 I just press ENTER again.
2171 sng 28
2172 sng 180 Next screen
2173     ---------------------
2174     [[ backup-12a.png ]]
2175     And I press ENTER again to enable image validation.
2177 sng 75 Starting the backup
2178 sng 28 ---------------------
2179 sng 75 [[ backup-13.png ]]
2180     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2181     ask me to press ENTER.
2182     Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
2183 sng 28
2184 sng 75 [[ backup-14.png ]]
2185     After that, the backup begins
2186 sng 28
2187 sng 75 [[ backup-15.png ]]
2188     and when it's successfully completed, I press ENTER to get to the
2189     shell. Then, I execute the commands:
2190 sng 28 sudo su -
2191     cd
2192     umount -a
2193     reboot
2195 sng 75 to reboot the system.
2196 sng 28
2199 sng 75
2200 sng 28 Restoring data
2201     ==============================================================================
2203     Intro
2204     ****************************************
2205     Image files are always created for one purpose: restoring the data they
2206     contain. Images can be, for example, a backup solution: as long as hardware
2207     works, the computer can be restored to the state it was when creating the
2208     image. Another usage scenario is changing the hard drive: files can be
2209     copy-pasted from the old drive to the new, but that method doesn't make
2210     the new drive bootable. Disk images do.
2212     This page contains a demonstration of the latter case. On the Getting backups
2213     page, a 500 MB virtual disk containing 160 megabytes of data was copied
2214     to a 2 GB virtual disk which was empty. Now the 500 MB disk is changed to
2215     an empty 2 GB disk (still virtual) and I'll restore the data to that disk.
2217     When creating a disk image, one needs to check that both the source and
2218     target partitions are error free. That's not required when the image is
2219     restored, because restoration process can't damage the disk image. Note,
2220     however, that restoring an image erases all the data in the target
2221     disk/partition.
2223     You also need to check the BIOS settings to be able to boot from
2224     Clonezilla-SysRescCD. Some BIOSes contain a boot menu, others require
2225     editing settings pernamently. Details can be found on the manual of the
2226     motherboard or laptop.
2228     Now let's boot.
2230     [[ important.png ]]
2231     Restore process erases all the data on the target disk/partition.Before
2232     restoring make sure you have backup of all the data on the target
2233     disk/partition, even if the filesystem is corrupted.
2235     [[ info.png ]]
2236 sng 180 The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.8-46
2237 sng 28
2238     Restoring data
2239     ****************************************
2240     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
2241     ---------------------
2242     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2243     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2244     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2245     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2246     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
2247     that continue from this step.
2249     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
2250     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
2251     displayed.
2253     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
2254     are the following:
2256     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2257     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2258     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2259     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
2261     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
2262     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
2263     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
2265     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2266     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2267     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2268     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
2270     Screen "Choose Language"
2271     ---------------------
2272     [[ backup-00.png ]]
2273     This is where the language can be selected. I select "en_US.UTF-8 English"
2274     and press ENTER.
2276     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2277     ---------------------
2278     [[ backup-01.png ]]
2279     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
2280     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
2282     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2283     ---------------------
2284     [[ backup-02.png ]]
2285     Because I haven't changed my keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish /
2286     Standard / Standard". Because you most likely use a different keyboard,
2287     choose the one you use.
2289     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2290     ---------------------
2291     [[ backup-03.png ]]
2292     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2294     Screen "Clonezilla"
2295     ---------------------
2296     [[ backup-04.png ]]
2297     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2299     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2300     ---------------------
2301     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory has been saved.
2302     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2303     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2304     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2306     [[ backup-05.png ]]
2307     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
2309     Next screen
2310     ---------------------
2311     This is where I choose the location of the image file.
2312     [[ restoration-06.png ]]
2313 sng 77 I select partition sda1 and press ENTER.
2314 sng 28
2315     [[ backup-07.png ]]
2317     [[ restoration-08.png ]]
2318     This screen displays the mounting result.
2319 sng 77 As we can see, /dev/sda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
2320 sng 28
2321     Next Screen
2322     ---------------------
2323     [[ backup-09.png ]]
2324 sng 180 I select Beginner mode to accept the default restore options. If you
2325     select Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can
2326     be found here.
2327 sng 28
2328     Screen "Select mode"
2329     ---------------------
2330     Here I can select the desired operation.
2332     [[ restoration-10.png ]]
2333     I select "restoredisk" and press ENTER.
2335     Next Screen
2336     ---------------------
2337     [[ restoration-11.png ]]
2338     In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only
2339     one image.
2341     Next Screen
2342     ---------------------
2343     [[ restoration-12.png ]]
2344 sng 180 Finally I am asked to select which disk the image will be restored to. After
2345     double-checking the disk doesn't contain anything important, I press ENTER.
2346 sng 28
2347     Starting the restoration
2348     ---------------------
2349     [[ restoration-13.png ]]
2350     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2351     ask me to press ENTER.
2352     Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
2354     [[ restoration-14.png ]]
2356     [[ important.png ]]
2357     This is the last confirmation Clonezilla Live asks.After this step there
2358     is no coming back.
2359     Then my confirmation is asked one last time. After checking one more time
2360     the disk doesn't contain any important data, I press y and ENTER.
2362     [[ restoration-15.png ]]
2363     After that, the restore process begins
2365     [[ restoration-16.png ]]
2366 sng 77 and when it's successfully completed, I press ENTER to get to the
2367     shell. Then, I execute the commands:
2368     sudo su -
2369     cd
2370     umount -a
2371     reboot
2372 sng 28
2373 sng 77 to reboot the system.
2374 sng 28
2377 sng 77
2378 sng 28 Creating a Restore DVD - Part 1
2379     ==============================================================================
2381     Intro
2382     ****************************************
2383 sng 180 Assuming you have used Clonezilla Live to make a backup of your system (disk
2384     /dev/sdb), you will probably be wondering what to do with it now. Well,
2385     one option would be to keep it to the disk you used to save it in, store
2386     the disk, and use it whenever you need it. Another option would be to
2387     create a DVD you can use to restore this image.
2388 sng 28
2389     Before, up to Clonezilla-SysRescCD 2.6.0, the process to create an automated
2390     restore DVD required entering command line prompt and writing some commands,
2391 sng 180 which can be uncomfortable or even difficult for many people.
2392 sng 28
2393     Later, a TUI option to create an automated recovery disc was added to
2394     Clonezilla Live, and ocs-iso script included in Clonezilla-SysRescCD
2395     3.1.0 and newer has a TUI too. Old command-line options are no longer
2396     supported. This page walks you through the creation of an automated restore
2397     DVD via TUI.
2399 sng 112 You have to boot Clonezilla Live, using Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
2400 sng 28
2401     [[ info.png ]]
2402 sng 180 The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.8-46
2403 sng 28
2404     Creating the disk image
2405     ****************************************
2406     Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
2407     ---------------------
2408     If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2409     English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2410     and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2411     Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2412     comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
2413     that continue from this step.
2415     If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
2416     Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
2417     displayed.
2419     The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
2420     are the following:
2422     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2423     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2424     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2425     ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
2427     By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
2428     values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
2429     (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
2431     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2432     ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2433     ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2434     ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
2436     Screen "Choose Language"
2437     ---------------------
2438     [[ backup-00.png ]]
2439     I select "en_US.UTF-8 English" and press ENTER.
2441     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2442     ---------------------
2443     [[ backup-01.png ]]
2444     I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
2445     US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
2447     Screen "Configuring console-data"
2448     ---------------------
2449     [[ backup-02.png ]]
2450     Because I haven't changed my keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish /
2451     Standard / Standard". Because you most likely use a different keyboard,
2452     choose the one you use.
2454     Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2455     ---------------------
2456     [[ backup-03.png ]]
2457     I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2459     Screen "Clonezilla"
2460     ---------------------
2461     [[ backup-04.png ]]
2462     I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2464     Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2465     ---------------------
2466     In this screen I can select the way the image file directory has been saved.
2467     Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2468     samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2469     about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2471     [[ backup-05.png ]]
2472     I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
2474     Next screen
2475     ---------------------
2476     This is where I choose the location of the image file.
2477     [[ restore-06.png ]]
2478 sng 112 I select partition sda1 and press ENTER.
2479 sng 28
2480     [[ backup-07.png ]]
2481     and then ENTER again.
2483     [[ restore-08.png ]]
2484     This screen displays the mounting result.
2485 sng 112 As we can see, /dev/sda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
2486 sng 28
2487     Next Screen
2488     ---------------------
2489     [[ backup-09.png ]]
2490 sng 180 I select Beginner mode to accept the default restore options, which are
2491 sng 28 used if the recovery disk is ever used. If you select Expert mode, you
2492     can choose the options yourself. More details can be found here.
2494     Screen "Clonezilla: Select mode"
2495     ---------------------
2496     Here I can select the desired operation.
2498     [[ restore-10.png ]]
2499     I select "recovery-iso-zip" and press ENTER.
2501     Next Screen
2502     ---------------------
2503     [[ restore-11.png ]]
2504     In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only
2505     one image.
2507     Next Screen
2508     ---------------------
2509     [[ restore-12.png ]]
2510     Now I am asked to select which disk the image will be restored to, if the
2511     recovery disc is used. Because this image is a backup, I choose the same
2512     disk where the original data resides. If you're upgrading your hard drive,
2513     choose the new drive.
2515     Next Screen
2516     ---------------------
2517     [[ restore-13.png ]]
2518     In this screen I can select the language that the recovery disc uses. I
2519     choose "en_US.UTF-8".
2521     Next Screen
2522     ---------------------
2523     [[ restore-14.png ]]
2524     This screen allows me to select the keymap that the recovery disc
2525     uses. Unfortunately, changing the keymap requires knowing where the keymap
2526     file resides in Debian GNU/Linux. Because I don't know it, I just press
2527     ENTER to accept US keymap.
2529     Next Screen
2530     ---------------------
2531     [[ restore-15.png ]]
2532     I select "iso" to create a CD/DVD disk image which I can burn to a recordable
2533     CD/DVD disc. The good thing about recordable discs is that overwriting
2534     the backup by accident is impossible. The "zip" option creates a ZIP file
2535     which can be used to create a bootable pendrive or external hard drive.
2537     [[ restore-16.png ]]
2538     Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2539     ask me to press ENTER.
2541 sng 112 Screen "Excessive Image Size"
2542     ---------------------
2543     [[ restore-16a.png ]]
2544     You will see this screen if the image file you're about to create is larger
2545     than a single layer DVD. The screen warns that mkisofs or genisoimage
2546     (the programs which actually create the image) might be unable to process
2547     a disk image that big. However, even bigger problem is that you need a
2548     dual layer DVD or Blu-ray disc to burn the image.
2549 sng 28
2550     Screen "Customization section"
2551     ---------------------
2552     [[ cust-menu-02.png ]]
2553     Now I am asked if I want to customize the boot menu of the disc. I answer
2554     "Yes". If you don't want to customize the menu, continue from this step.
2556     Screen "DVD Title"
2557     ---------------------
2558     [[ cust-menu-03.png ]]
2559     In this screen I select the title of the boot menu. I type "Home PC
2560     Restore DVD".
2562     Screen "Menu Items Caption"
2563     ---------------------
2564     [[ cust-menu-04.png ]]
2565     This screen allows me to select the caption for all menu items. I enter
2566     "Restore Win XP".
2568     Screen "Boot delay"
2569     ---------------------
2570     [[ cust-menu-05.png ]]
2571     I press ENTER to accept the default delay of 30 seconds. It means that
2572     when a computer is booted from the restore disc, it waits 30 seconds
2573     before choosing the default option automatically. You may want to reduce
2574     this delay if, for example, your keyboard doesn't work in boot menu and
2575     you must wait until the delay ends.
2577     Screen "Default Boot Item"
2578     ---------------------
2579     [[ cust-menu-06.png ]]
2580     In this screen I can select the default option of the menu. Selecting one
2581     of the options that restore the image makes using the disc even easier,
2582     but also raises the risk that the image is restored accidentally. Another
2583     reason to select such option may be that your keyboard doesn't work in
2584     boot menu, preventing you from choosing any non-default option. I select
2585     the first option that restores the image using pixel dimensions of 1024*768.
2587     Screen "Boot Screen Image"
2588     ---------------------
2589     [[ cust-menu-07.png ]]
2590     This screen allows me to select the background picture of the menu. Note
2591     that the picture must be in the same partition that contains the disk
2592     image, if you don't mind entering command line and mounting the right
2593     partition manually. I choose picture mysplash.png in the root of the
2594     partition. Because the partition has been mounted in /home/partimag,
2595     the full path of the picture is /home/partimag/mysplash.png.
2597     Screen "ISO Label"
2598     ---------------------
2599     [[ cust-menu-08.png ]]
2600     In this screen I can select the volume label of the disc. Volume label is
2601     the name of the disc you may see in various situations, for example in the
2602     notification you see when you insert the disc into your DVD writer. I type
2603     "Backup_52-2009_hdb".
2605     Screen "Publisher ID"
2606     ---------------------
2607     [[ cust-menu-09.png ]]
2608     This is where I choose the publisher ID of the ISO file
2609     and the disc. Publisher ID means the person or company who
2610     created the disc. However, at least in GNU/Linux reading
2611     the publisher ID is, strictly speaking, a challenge. Here {{
2612     http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/getting-volume-information-from-cds-iso- }}
2613     are instructions to read the publisher ID of a ISO file. I didn't find
2614     any working instructions to read the ID from the disc.
2616     Starting the creation of the disk image
2617     ---------------------
2618     [[ restore-17.png ]]
2619     After that, creation of the disk image begins. Note that no confirmation
2620     is asked it the disk image is small enough to fit to a CD.
2622     [[ restore-18.png ]]
2623     When the disk image is successfully created, I must reboot in order to
2624     burn the disc because my DVD burner is still in use. Clonezilla Live can
2625     be loaded into computer memory during boot in order to be able to burn
2626     disc(s) within it. However, due to a known bug, the disk image can't
2627     be created if Clonezilla Live has been loaded into memory. (source {{
2628     http://free.nchc.org.tw/clonezilla-live/stable/Known-issues-Clonezilla-live.txt
2629     }}) Thus, I press 1 and ENTER to reboot to another operating system and
2630 sng 112 burn the image using graphical burning program. Follow this link for
2631     instructions. If you've created a ZIP file, follow this one instead.
2632 sng 28
2636     Creating a Restore DVD - Part 2
2637     ==============================================================================
2639     What to do with the disk image
2640     ****************************************
2641     The previous page contains partial instructions to create an automated
2642     recovery DVD. They're partial because they only tell how the disk image
2643     can be created, not what one should do with the image. Of course, partial
2644     instructions are not enough, but don't worry - this page is the other part.
2646     Earlier versions of Clonezilla Live allowed creating the DVD without
2647     reboot, but it's no longer possible due to a known bug. The disk image
2648     can't be created if Clonezilla Live has been loaded into memory (source {{
2649     http://free.nchc.org.tw/clonezilla-live/stable/Known-issues-Clonezilla-live.txt
2650     }}) and the image can't be burned to disc if Clonezilla Live isn't in
2651     memory. And if the computer must be rebooted anyway, it's a good idea to
2652     use one's favorite operating system and a graphical burning program for
2653     burning the disc. Doing so also allows reading these instructions while
2654     burning the disc.
2656     This page walks through burning the disc by using ImgBurn and K3b. The
2657     instructions can be adapted for many other burning programs as well. If
2658     your burning program is too different, download either of the programs
2659     mentioned - they both can be downloaded for free.
2661     In addition to a DVD, bootable pendrive or external hard drive can be
2662     created as well. If you want to do so, follow instructions below.
2664     Before following these instructions, insert a writable DVD or Blu-ray disc
2665     to your burner.
2667     Burning the disc
2668     ****************************************
2669 sng 112 Using ImgBurn
2670 sng 28 ---------------------
2671     ImgBurn {{ http://www.imgburn.com/ }} is a lightweight but very feature-rich
2672     disc burning program. It only requires about two megabytes disk space
2673     and contains a lot of settings. ImgBurn is closed-source freeware and -
2674     unfortunately - Windows-only software. I (Jyrki) personally use ImgBurn
2675     when burning discs within Windows.
2677     Launch ImgBurn and press Write image file to disc. Select the disk image
2678     you just created.
2680     At the settings window, keep Test Mode disabled. I also recommend
2681     keeping the Verify option enabled. Verifying the integrity of the disc
2682     after burning requires time and doesn't prevent the disc from becoming a
2683     so-called coaster, but it allows you to know immediately if the burning
2684     attempt failed, so you can try burning the disc again.
2686     Keep the number of copies as 1 (or increase it, if you really
2687     want multiple copies of the disc). Use your best judgment while
2688     choosing the burning speed: according to this forum thread {{
2689     http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/ }} lowering
2690     the burning speed gives very mixed results in quality. I personally use
2691     ¾ of the maximum speed of the disc, for example 12x on a disc rated 16x.
2693     After choosing the settings, press the big picture at the bottom-left of
2694     the window. Don't do anything that requires much computer resources while
2695     burning, because doing so increases the likelihood of burning failure.
2697     That's it. You own now an automated recovery disc.
2699 sng 112 Using K3b
2700     ---------------------
2701 sng 28 K3b (KDE Burn Baby Burn) is the disc burning program included in KDE
2702     Software Compilation. It comes with most, if not all, KDE-based GNU/Linux
2703     distributions. It can also be installed on other distributions, but I
2704     recommend against doing so - K3b requires KDE base packages to be installed,
2705     and it doesn't make much sense to install KDE base only for K3b.
2707     [[ k3b-00.png ]]
2708     I launch K3b and navigate to the folder where the disk image resides.
2710     [[ k3b-01.png ]]
2711 sng 180 I double-click the file clonezilla-live-Backup_42-2010_sda.iso.
2712 sng 28
2713     [[ k3b-02.png ]]
2714     This window allows me to choose burning settings. I don't touch Image Type or
2715     Burn Medium, because they're auto-detected anyway. The maximum burning speed
2716     allowed by the disc is 16x, so I choose speed 12x. According to this forum
2717     thread {{ http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/
2718     }} low burning speed can decrease burning quality, so I always use speed
2719     near the maximum speed of the disc.
2721     I keep Writing Mode as Auto and number of copies as 1. I also keep the
2722     Simulate option disabled and enable the Verify written data option. The
2723     latter allows me to notice immediately if the burning attempt failed, so
2724     I can try burning the disc again, rather than owning a so-called coaster
2725     and relying on it if something happens to my data...
2727     [[ k3b-03.png ]]
2728     I click Start and the burning process begins.
2730     [[ k3b-04.png ]]
2731     Because I enabled the Verify written data option, K3b starts verifying
2732     the integrity of the disc right after burning.
2734     [[ k3b-05.png ]]
2735     The burning attempt succeeded.
2737     [[ restore-20.png ]]
2738 sng 112 Here we can see the boot menu of the disc.
2739 sng 28
2740     ZIP file instructions
2741     ****************************************
2742     Often the image file is way too big to fit to even 8 GB DVD. Some people may
2743     also want to be able to overwrite the backup when it becomes outdated. In
2744     addition, netbooks don't have optical drives at all.
2746     One option is using recovery thumb drive or external hard drive instead
2747     of DVD. If the external HD is big enough, the disk image can be even over
2748     a terabyte in size. Recovery USB drive can also be used on netbooks and
2749     overwritten at will.
2751     Clonezilla Live allows creating a ZIP file instead of disk image. If you
2752     want to do so, follow this step-by-step guide.
2754     Before creating the disk image, make sure it is split to pieces of four
2755     gigabytes or less. It is split automatically if you use Beginner mode,
2756     and if you use Expert mode, you should already know how the splitting
2757     setting can be changed.
2759     Using GNU/Linux
2760     ---------------------
2761     After creating the disk image and booting into GNU/Linux, make sure that the
2762     filesystem of the partition where you plan to put the disk image is FAT32. If
2763     you don't know the filesystem, open terminal and run this command as root:
2765 sng 112 parted -l
2766 sng 28
2767     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
2768     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above
2769     the command. For example, the above command can be executed by typing
2770 sng 112 "sudo parted -l"
2771 sng 28 Note: The l in parameter -l is lowercase L, not number 1.
2773     If your disk doesn't contain any FAT32 partition, but it contains a
2774     partition which is big enough and doesn't contain any important data,
2775     format the partition as FAT32. The command below needs root access too.
2777     [[ important.png ]]
2778     The command below erases all the data on the target partition.Make sure
2779     you don't format a wrong partition by accident.
2781     mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sdc1
2783 sng 112 Note: In the command replace /dev/sdc1 with the partition you wish to format.
2785 sng 28 After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32,
2786     extract the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Also these commands
2787     need root rights.
2789     mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb
2790 sng 180 unzip clonezilla-live-Backup_42-2010_sdb.zip -d /media/usb/
2791 sng 28
2792     Note: In the last command I have assumed your image file is
2793 sng 180 clonezilla-live-Backup_42-2010_sdb.zip. You will have to replace this with
2794 sng 28 the actual name of the file.
2796     ZIP package contains a script to make the USB drive bootable. Let's run
2797     it. The latter of these commands needs root access.
2799     [[ important.png ]]
2800     The latter of the commands below replaces theexisting bootloader of the
2801     target disk, if there is one.Make sure you don't select a wrong disk
2802     by accident.
2804     cd /media/usb/utils/linux
2805     ./makeboot.sh /dev/sdc1
2807     That's all. Your thumb drive or external hard drive should be now an
2808     automatic recovery disk.
2810     Using Windows
2811     ---------------------
2812     If the Windows version you use is not Vista or 7, you need to be logged in
2813     as administrator. If you're not, but you have access to an admin account,
2814     log out and then log again in as admin.
2816     If you don't have admin rights at all, boot into SystemRescueCD (you don't
2817     need graphical mode this time) and follow the instructions for GNU/Linux. In
2818     SystemRescueCD all commands are run as root, so you don't need to add any
2819     prefix to the commands.
2821     After creating the disk image and booting into Windows, make sure that
2822     the filesystem of the partition where you plan to put the disk image is
2823     FAT32. If you don't know the filesystem, open My Computer, right-click the
2824     partition and select Properties. Then read the "File system" column. If
2825     there reads anything but FAT32, check other partitions of the disk too,
2826     if the disk contains multiple partitions. If you have a suitable FAT32
2827     partition, continue from this step.
2829     If your disk doesn't contain any FAT32 partition, but it contains a
2830     partition which is big enough and doesn't contain any important data,
2831     format the partition as FAT32.
2833     [[ important.png ]]
2834     Formatting erases all the data on the target partition.Make sure the
2835     partition contains nothing important.
2837     Right-click the partition and select Format.... If the Windows version
2838     you use is Vista or 7, an UAC prompt asks for admin password. Enter it.
2840     At the format window, choose the FAT32 filesystem. You can enter any volume
2841     label (it means the name of the partition you can see next to the partition
2842     letter) and enable Quick Format if you're in a hurry. If Quick Format is
2843     disabled, Windows checks if the partition is physically OK after formatting
2844     it. Enabling Quick Format makes the formatting process many times faster
2845     and, contrary to popular belief, hardly ever causes any harm.
2847     After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32, extract
2848     the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Navigate to the folder where
2849     you've saved the ZIP file and right-click it. Choose Extract all..., and when
2850     you're asked for location where the archive is extracted, enter the letter
2851     of the partition, for example H:\. Do NOT choose any folder in the partition!
2853     After that, browse to the folder X:\utils\win32, where X: is the letter
2854     of the partition. Then, double-click makeboot.bat. If the Windows version
2855     you use is Vista or 7, another UAC prompt appears. Enter the password
2856     again. Then just follow the prompts to make the USB drive bootable.
2858     Now you're done. Your thumb drive or external hard drive should be an
2859     automatic recovery disk.
2864     Restoring to a different location
2865     ==============================================================================
2867     Intro
2868     ****************************************
2869     In the past restoring to a different location was not supported by
2870     Clonezilla Live at all. Because of that, a script called reloc-img was
2871     added to Clonezilla-SysRescCD, which would help the user perform this task.
2873     Recent versions of Clonezilla Live partly support restoring to a
2874     different location, so the reloc-img script is obsolete, and has been
2875     removed. Clonezilla Live now supports:
2877     * Relocation of a disk image (restoring a whole disk)
2878     * Relocation of a partition image (restoring a partition)
2880     Clonezilla Live does not support:
2882     * Relocation of a single partition contained into a disk image.
2884     Imagine you have a disk backup image named hda-2009-02-02. The image
2885     contains three partitions, hda1 (operating system), hda2 (user data)
2886     and hda3 (other data).
2888     You want to restore your other data partition (hda3), to a different system
2889     (partition sdb2) but there is no way to restore (extract) a single partition
2890     from a disk image - you can only restore the whole disk.
2892     In order to address this situation, two new scripts have been written for
2893     Clonezilla-SysRescCD: imginfo and imgconvert
2895     Script imginfo
2896     ****************************************
2897     The script will be used to print info about existing image files.
2899     Its help screen is:
2901     # imginfo -h
2902     Clonezilla Live Image Information
2903 sng 180 imginfo v. 0.2 - (C) 2009-2010 S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
2904 sng 28
2905     Usage: imginfo <options> <directory>
2907     Available options:
2908     s Search in sub-directories too
2909     i [name] Pring info for image [name]
2910     v Print version info and exit
2911     h Print this screen and exit
2913     Script imgconvert
2914     ****************************************
2915 sng 180 The script will be used to convert an existing disk or partition image
2916     file to a new partition image file.
2917 sng 28
2918     imgconvert can create two type of images:
2920     * Temporary image
2921     This type of image is created by linking the data files of the existing
2922     disk image to the new partition image. This means that the original image
2923     must be present for the new image to be used. This is the default image
2924     type created by imgconvert.
2926     * Permanent image
2927     This type of image is created by copying the data files from the existing
2928     disk image to the new partition image. This means that the original image is
2929     not needed in order to use the new one. Permenant image files are created
2930     using the command line parameter -p.
2932     Its help screen is:
2934     # imgconvert -h
2935     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2936 sng 180 imgconvert v. 0.2 - (C) 2009-2011 S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
2937 sng 28
2938     Usage: imgconvert <options> [image] [partition] <new partition>
2940     Parameters are:
2941     [image] Disk image to be converted to partition image
2942     [partition] Partition name to convert. It must be a valid device name
2944     Available options:
2945     o [image] Save new imag as [image]
2946     p Save new partition instead of making a link to the old one
2947     v Print version info and exit
2948     h Print this screen and exit
2950     Using the scripts
2951     ****************************************
2952     Restoring to a partition
2953     ---------------------
2954     After booting into Clonezilla Live, I select
2956     Enter_shell Enter command line prompt
2958     when the menu is displayed and then I press 2 to exit to the shell.
2960     At this point I will mount my images partition (in this example /dev/sdc4),
2961     and use script imginfo to get info about my image files.
2963     $ sudo su -
2964     # mount /dev/sdc4 /home/partimag
2965     # cd /home/partimag
2966     # imginfo
2967     Image files found in: /home/partimag
2968     Image: usb250-img, disk: sda, size: 259MB, parts: 1
2969     part: sda4, size: 247.00MB, type: FAT16
2970     Image: sys-bck, disk: hda, size: 320.0GB, parts: 3
2971     part: hda1, size: 22.36GB, type: Linux
2972     part: hda2, size: 39.06GB, type: Linux
2973     part: hda3, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
2975     As you can see there are two disk images under /home/partimag: usb250-img
2976     and sys-bck.
2978     sys-bck is a backup of my old system, which had three partitions. What
2979     I need to do now is "copy" the hda3 partition to my current system, by
2980     transfering its data to partition sdb2.
2982     The way to proceed is:
2984     * Create a new partition image (containing hda3's data) based on the
2985     existing disk image file, by executing the command:
2987     # imgconvert sys-bck hda3 sdb2
2988     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2989 sng 180 imgconvert v. 0.2 - (C) 2009-2011 S. Georgaras
2990 sng 28
2991     Determining input image
2992     Input image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck"
2993     Validating image... ok
2994     Determining input partition
2995     Input partition: "hda3"
2996     Validating input partition... ok
2997     Determining output image
2998     Output image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck-cnv"
2999     Validating output image... ok
3000     Checking permissions... ok
3001     Determining output partition
3002     Output partition: "sda2"
3003     Validating output partition... ok
3004     Creating output image: /home/partimag/sys-bck-cnv
3005     Linking files... done
3006     Fixing info files... done
3008     This command will create a temporary partition image file (automatically
3009     named sys-bck-cnv), which contains sdb2 only, as you can see by executing:
3011     # imginfo -i sys-bck-cnv
3012     Image: sys-bck-cnv, part: sdb2, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
3014     * Restart Clonezilla Live by pressing Control-D twice.
3016     * Restore the new image file into sdb2, by selecting
3018     Screen 1: Start_Clonezilla Start Clonezilla
3020     Screen 2: device-image disk/partition to/from image
3022     Screen 3: skip use existing /home/partimag
3024     Screen 4: Beginer / Expert
3026     Screen 5: restoreparts
3027     Restore_an_image_to_local_partition
3029     and continue as usual to restore the partition.
3031     Converting image files
3032     ---------------------
3033     # imgconvert -p -o other_data sys-bck hda3 sdb2
3034     Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
3035 sng 180 imgconvert v. 0.2 - (C) 2009-2011 S. Georgaras
3036 sng 28
3037     Determining input image
3038     Input image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck"
3039     Validating image... ok
3040     Determining input partition
3041     Input partition: "hda3"
3042     Validating input partition... ok
3043     Determining output image
3044     Output image: "/home/partimag/other_data"
3045     Validating output image... ok
3046     Checking permissions... ok
3047     Determining output partition
3048     Output partition: "sda2"
3049     Validating output partition... ok
3050     Creating output image: /home/partimag/other_data
3051     Copying files... done
3052     Fixing info files... done
3054     # imginfo -i other_data
3055     Image: other_data, part: sdb2, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
3057     # ls -la sys-bck
3058     total 1111972
3059     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-11-22 03:21 .
3060     drwxr-xr-x. 34 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:28 ..
3061     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4 2007-11-20 20:33 disk
3062     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1081716736 2007-11-20 20:32 hda1.aa
3063     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 45453312 2007-11-20 20:33 hda2.aa
3064     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10317824 2007-11-20 20:33 hda3.aa
3065     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2007-11-21 18:56 hda-chs.sf
3066     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2007-11-21 18:50 hda-chs.sf.orig
3067     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 512 2007-11-20 20:31 hda-mbr
3068     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 259 2007-11-21 18:59 hda-pt.sf
3069     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 259 2007-11-21 18:50 hda-pt.sf.orig
3070     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 15 2007-11-20 20:33 parts
3071     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17 2007-11-20 20:33 swappt-hda4.info
3072     #
3073     #
3074     # ls -la other_data
3075     total 24
3076     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:27 .
3077     drwxr-xr-x. 35 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:27 ..
3078     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5 2009-04-06 21:27 parts
3079     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10317824 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb2.aa
3080     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb-chs.sf
3081     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 106 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb-pt.sf
3083     Booting a restored Linux system
3084     ****************************************
3085     A Linux system that has been restored to a new disk/partition, is usually
3086     not ready to be booted right after the restoration procedure is finished.
3088     There are two more steps that you may have to take:
3090     * Fix /etc/fstab
3091     * Reinstall GRUB.
3092     I will assume GRUB is your boot manager, as it is the usual case nowadays.
3094     For this example I will assume that you have restored a Linux system
3095     (that used to be in sdb), to a new disk (hda), and that it contains three
3096     partitions, / (the root partition), /home (user's partition) and a swap
3097     partition. You must be really careful here, as the name of the new disk
3098     depends on the system to be booted. If it uses one of the newest Linux
3099     kernels (using the libata disk driver), ALL your disks will be recognised
3100     as SCSI. More info: "Identifying devices in Linux" section "SCSI disks
3101     when there are none!!!".
3103     This is what we have:
3105     root partition home partition swap partition
3106     Old system /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdb3
3107     New system /dev/hda1 /dev/hda2 /dev/hda3
3109     Fixing /etc/fstab
3110     ---------------------
3111     Since we are still in Clonezilla Live, right after the restore procedure
3112     has finished, we will use it to mount our restored root partition, and
3113     edit its /etc/fstab. We issue the commands:
3115     mkdir /new-root
3116     mount /dev/hda1 /new-root
3117     vi /new-root/etc/fstab
3119     The contents of /etc/fstab could be something like
3121     /dev/sdb1 / reiserfs acl,user_xattr 1 1
3122     /dev/sdb2 /home reiserfs defaults 1 2
3123     /dev/sdb3 swap swap defaults 0 0
3125     and we have to change ti to
3127     /dev/hda1 / reiserfs acl,user_xattr 1 1
3128     /dev/hda2 /home reiserfs defaults 1 2
3129     /dev/hda3 swap swap defaults 0 0
3131     Finally, we unmount the partition, and we are ready to reboot
3133     umount /new-root
3134     reboot
3136     Reinstalling GRUB
3137     ---------------------
3138     When Clonezilla-SysRescCD menu appears, we select Tools > Super Grub Disk
3140     Then we select Super Grub Disk > Super Grub Disk (WITH HELP) > English
3141     Super Grub Disk > Gnu/Linux > Fix Boot of Gnu/Linux (GRUB). From this
3142     entry we will be able to reinstall GRUB to our hard disk.
3144     You may also want to have a look at Super Grub Disk "documentation {{
3145     http://www.supergrubdisk.org/wiki/SuperGrubDiskDocumentation }}".
3150     Fixing boot problems
3151     ==============================================================================
3153     Intro
3154     ****************************************
3155     Boot problems are probably the most feared computer problems. Without an
3156     operating system you can't access your data, get the work done or even
3157     google for help. That's why it's often a good idea to have an alternative
3158     operating system available for searching help if the main OS doesn't
3159     work. Also a copy of Clonezilla-SysRescCD can be invaluable help.
3161     Actually, the initial reason why I (Jyrki) installed GNU/Linux at all was
3162     that I wanted to be able to fix Windows boot problems if they occur. I
3163     installed both GNU/Linux and GRUB to my external hard drive, completely
3164     separating operating systems. Even if either bootloader stopped working,
3165     I'd still be able to boot one of my OSes.
3167     But such configuration is not easy to create, and when I installed GNU/Linux,
3168     I knew very little about it. If I didn't read the instructions I found
3169     here and there very carefully, I probably would have done a common mistake:
3170     installing GRUB to my internal hard drive. Such mistake would have caused
3171     two problems:
3173     * Inability to boot GNU/Linux at any computer expect the one which was
3174     used for installing
3175     * Inability to boot Windows when the external drive isn't connected
3177     In this page, I simulate that situation in a virtual machine and fix
3178     both problems.
3180     Symptoms
3181     ****************************************
3182     What happens when I try to boot the external hard drive on another computer
3183     depends on the BIOS of the computer. For example, on my computer I see a
3184     Black Screen of Death {{ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Screen_of_Death
3185     }} when I try booting from a disk with empty Master Boot Record. Other
3186     BIOSes may boot the local operating system or display an error message
3187     (for example "Disk boot failure", "Missing operating system" or "Operating
3188     system not found").
3190     The other problem is very easy to determine. When external drive is
3191     disconnected and I try to boot, I'll see this:
3193     [[ error-21.png ]]
3195     Goals
3196     ****************************************
3197     Because I still want to separate my operating systems completely,
3198     I try to restore NTLDR to the Master Boot Record of the internal disk,
3199     if possible. If that's not possible, I install there another bootloader
3200     that chainloads Windows.
3202     I could reinstall GNU/Linux completely and make sure that the GRUB is
3203     installed to the right disk this time, but it's not a good idea if I only
3204     need to overwrite the first 446 bytes (yes, bytes, not kilo- or megabytes)
3205     of the disk. So, I only install GRUB to the external disk, by using Super
3206     Grub Disk.
3208     Your problem (if you have one at all) most likely is different, but goals
3209     are often the same.
3211     You need to restore NTLDR if you...
3213     * ...just installed GNU/Linux, but the boot menu doesn't mention Windows
3214     at all. You're not willing to learn how Windows can be added to the boot
3215     menu, you just need to make your computer to boot Windows again right now.
3216     * ...cloned your Windows partition to your brand new computer but didn't
3217     clone the Master Boot Record.
3218     * ...are about to uninstall GNU/Linux and aren't willing to use GRUB as
3219     your bootloader.
3221     You need to install GRUB if you...
3223     * ...just installed Windows and want to make GNU/Linux bootable again.
3224     * ...cloned your GNU/Linux partition to your brand new computer but didn't
3225     clone the Master Boot Record.
3226     * ...just installed GNU/Linux but installed GRUB to a non-first hard drive
3227     by accident. (The symptom is that your computer still boots to the operating
3228     system you had installed already.)
3230     [[ info.png ]]
3231     The following pressentation has been made usingSuper Grub Disk v0.9799
3233     Restoring NTLDR
3234     ****************************************
3235     There are a lot of ways to restore NTLDR. However, sometimes there is no
3236     legal way to restore it, and I'm NOT telling about the illegal ones. The
3237     last resort is using syslinux to chainload Windows; there is usually no
3238     way to notice that syslinux is used instead of NTLDR.
3240     I've listed here the most important options in order I'd use them.
3242     Restoring NTLDR from a backup
3243     ---------------------
3244     If you've been smart enough to use Clonezilla Live to create a disk image
3245     of your first hard drive, it's very easy to restore NTLDR.
3247     Your NTLDR is safe in a file called hda-mbr or sda-mbr. You can use dd to
3248     overwrite your existing Master Boot Record.
3250     [[ important.png ]]
3251     Don't restore all 512 bytes of your Master Boot Record.The MBR contains
3252     your partition table and restoring it afterrepartitioning your disk erases
3253     all the data on the disk.
3255     If you normally use GNU/Linux, open terminal and run these commands as root:
3257     mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/usb
3258     dd if=/mnt/usb/Backup/sda-mbr of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1
3260     Note: In the commands I have assumed that your first hard drive is /dev/sda
3261     and that your disk image resides in the folder Backup in partition
3262     /dev/sdc1. You will have to replace them with the correct pieces of
3263     information.
3265     Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
3266     you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above
3267     the command. For example, the latter of the above commands can be executed
3268     by typing "sudo dd if=/mnt/usb/Backup/sda-mbr of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1"
3270     If you normally use another operating system, boot into SystemRescueCD and
3271     run the above commands. In SystemRescueCD all commands are run as root,
3272     so you don't need to add any prefix to the commands.
3274     If you don't know the name of the partition, run this command as root:
3276     fdisk -l
3278     It tells how many hard drives you have, how many partitions they contain
3279     and what filesystems the partitions use. If you know, for example, that
3280     the disk where you've saved the disk image contains only one partition,
3281     look for such disks.
3283     Using Bootrec.exe (Windows Vista/7 only)
3284     ---------------------
3285     You need Windows Vista/7 install disc for this. If you don't have one (for
3286     example, if you bought a laptop that was bundled with preinstalled Windows
3287     and manufacturer's recovery disc), download a recovery disc from here.
3289 sng 180 Then boot from the disc.
3290 sng 28
3291 sng 180 [[ windows7-00.png ]]
3292     After selecting language, time, currency and keyboard, click Next.
3293 sng 28
3294 sng 180 [[ windows7-01.png ]]
3295     Click Repair your computer.
3297     [[ windows7-02.png ]]
3298     Choose the option Use recovery tools that can help fix problems starting
3299     Windows and click Next.
3301     [[ windows7-03.png ]]
3302     You'll see a dialog box named System Recovery Options. Click Command Prompt.
3304     [[ windows7-04.png ]]
3305     Then you only need to execute one command:
3307 sng 28 Bootrec /FixMbr
3309     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example,
3310     "bootrec /fixmbr".
3312 sng 180 [[ windows7-05.png ]]
3314 sng 28 Using FIXMBR (Windows XP only)
3315     ---------------------
3316     You need Windows XP install disc. Boot from it, and when you see the screen
3317     "Windows XP Home Edition Setup" or "Windows XP Professional Setup", press
3318     R to enter the Recovery Console. Then choose the Windows installation you
3319     want to log onto. If you have only one copy of Windows installed, press
3320     1 and ENTER. After that, enter the administator password and press ENTER.
3322     There is only one command to run:
3324     FIXMBR
3326     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example, "fixmbr".
3328     Using FDISK (Windows 95/98/Me only)
3329     ---------------------
3330     For this, you need a floppy drive. You also need to run a Windows-only
3331     program, so your first challenge is to boot Windows without NTLDR.
3333     Don't worry, Super Grub Disk makes it possible. Boot into it.
3335     [[ supergrubdisk-01.png ]]
3336     Just choose the option "!WIN! :(((" and press ENTER.
3338     When you have Windows up and running, download the boot disk
3339     image appropriate to your version of Windows from Bootdisk.Com {{
3340     http://www.bootdisk.com/bootdisk.htm }}. Then put a floppy to your floppy
3341     drive.
3343     If the floppy isn't already formatted, open My Computer, right-click the
3344     floppy drive and select Format....
3346     At the format window, choose the capacity of 1,44 megabytes and Full format
3347     type. You can enter any label (it means the name of the floppy you can see
3348     next to the floppy drive letter) and disable the summary if you wish. Keep
3349     the Copy system files option disabled.
3351     When you have a formatted floppy in your drive, double-click the boot disk
3352     image you downloaded. When it's done, shut Windows down and check your
3353     BIOS settings to be able to boot from the floppy. Some BIOSes contain a
3354     boot menu, others require editing settings pernamently. Details can be
3355     found on the manual of the motherboard or laptop.
3357     Then boot from the floppy. When you're given three boot options, choose
3358     the option 2. Start computer without CD-ROM support. Wait a moment to
3359     enter command line and run this command:
3361     FDISK /MBR
3363     Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example,
3364     "fdisk /mbr".
3366     Installing syslinux using Super Grub Disk
3367     ---------------------
3368     The above four are the only legal ways I know to restore NTLDR to the
3369     Master Boot Record. Unfortunately, sometimes none of them can be used. If
3370     that's the case, it's time to switch bootloader. GRUB can be configured to
3371     chainload Windows, and usually it even does that automatically, but this
3372     page isn't intended to help configuring GRUB. I assume that if you're
3373     primarily a Windows user and reading this page, you don't want to learn
3374     how to use GNU/Linux, you just want to make Windows bootable again.
3376     Maybe the easiest way to do so is installing syslinux using Super Grub
3377     Disk. Super Grub Disk configures it automatically to chainload the first
3378     active partition. The partition should contain Windows, Windows can't boot
3379     if its partition isn't active.
3381     Boot into Super Grub Disk.
3383     [[ supergrubdisk-01a.png ]]
3384     Choose the option "WIN => MBR & !WIN! :(((((((((((((((((((((" and
3385     press ENTER. Windows will be booted automatically right after installing
3386     syslinux.
3388     Installing GRUB
3389     ****************************************
3390     Contrary to various ways to restore NTLDR, there is only one way to install
3391     GRUB I recommend. That's Super Grub Disk, because it contains GRUB no
3392     matter what has happened to the hard drive(s). First, I boot into it.
3394     [[ supergrubdisk-01b.png ]]
3395     I select "Choose Language & HELP :-)))" and press ENTER.
3397     Screen "S.G.D. Language Selection."
3398     ---------------------
3399     [[ supergrubdisk-02.png ]]
3400     I select "English Super Grub Disk" and press ENTER.
3402     [[ supergrubdisk-03.png ]]
3403     I press ENTER...
3405     [[ supergrubdisk-04.png ]]
3406     ...and then ENTER again...
3408     [[ supergrubdisk-05.png ]]
3409     ...and then ENTER once again...
3411     [[ supergrubdisk-06.png ]]
3412     ...and finally ENTER one more time.
3414     Screen "English Super Grub Disk (Help)"
3415     ---------------------
3416     [[ supergrubdisk-07.png ]]
3417     I select "Advanced".
3419     Screen "Advanced (Help)"
3420     ---------------------
3421     [[ supergrubdisk-08.png ]]
3422     I select "GRUB" and press ENTER.
3424     Screen "GRUB (Help)"
3425     ---------------------
3426     [[ supergrubdisk-09.png ]]
3427     I select "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)" and press ENTER...
3429     [[ supergrubdisk-10.png ]]
3430     ...and ENTER.
3432     Screen "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)"
3433     ---------------------
3434     [[ supergrubdisk-11.png ]]
3435     I select "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)" and press ENTER. If you
3436     want to install GRUB to the Master Boot Record of the first hard drive,
3437     "Automatically Install" is a better choice. If you don't know if you
3438     want GRUB to the first or some other disk, you most likely want it to the
3439     first disk.
3441     Screen "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)"
3442     ---------------------
3443     [[ supergrubdisk-12.png ]]
3444     I confirm my decision by selecting "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)"
3445     again and pressing ENTER.
3447     Screen "Partition of GRUB"
3448     ---------------------
3449     [[ supergrubdisk-13.png ]]
3450     In this screen I can select the disk that contains the partition that
3451     contains the files needed by GRUB. In this case, that disk is the external
3452     hard drive. As you can see, the disk is only three megabytes in size -
3453     because the computer used for screenshots is still virtual. Actually, the
3454     "disk" where I'm installing GRUB is just a file.
3456     Next Screen
3457     ---------------------
3458     [[ supergrubdisk-14.png ]]
3459     This is where I choose the partition where GRUB files reside. This disk
3460     contains only one partition.
3462     Screen "Restore to MBR of Hard Disk"
3463     ---------------------
3464     [[ supergrubdisk-15.png ]]
3465     I select the external hard drive to install GRUB to its Master Boot Record.
3467     [[ supergrubdisk-12.png ]]
3468     Some text scrolled in the screen (too fast to read or take a screenshot)
3469     and I was back at this screen. I rebooted the computer. (In this situation,
3470     you can safely do a "hard reboot" by pressing reset button once or power
3471     button twice.)
3473     [[ grub-loading.png ]]
3474     GRUB booted successfully.
3479     Booting an old PC
3480     ==============================================================================
3482     Intro
3483     ****************************************
3484     Have you ever tried to boot an old PC off a CD-ROM, and found out it
3485     wouldn't, because its BIOS does not support it, or it's faulty or for any
3486     other reason? Well, I have. So this page is an effort to solve this problem.
3488     The only way to do it, is to boot of a floppy disk which will help me
3489     "load" whatever operation system I want from a CD. This means that I will
3490     have to write a boot loader to the floppy disk.
3492     The software I will use is Smart Boot Manager {{
3493     http://sourceforge.net/projects/btmgr/ }}, a small boot manager with a
3494     nice TUI (Text User Interface). Its floppy image, already accessible from
3495     the "Tools" menu, can be found in the bootdisk folder of the CD under the
3496     name sbm.img.
3498     Writing the image to a floppy disk
3499     ****************************************
3500     All you have to do is get to a PC equipped with a floppy drive, get a
3501     floppy disk which is in excellent condition (no bad sectors/blocks),
3502     and copy the image file to it.
3504     1. From Linux
3505     ---------------------
3506     You can either boot Clonezilla Live or SystemRescueCD, and when the system
3507     is fully up, execute the command:
3509     dd if=/path/to/sbm.img of=/dev/fd0
3511     where /path/to is
3512     /live/image/bootdisk for Clonezilla Live
3513     /mnt/livecd/bootdisk for SystemRescueCD
3515     2. From DOS
3516     ---------------------
3517     You can get into any DOS (boot FreeDOS from the CD, for example), and use
3518     any of the following programs found in the rawrite folder of the CD:
3520     * rawrite.exe: is just here for completeness, as it may be needed for someone
3521     * rawrite2.exe: should be the fastest
3522     * rawrite3.com: should work if rawrite2 fails for some reason
3523     * fdimage.exe: rawrite alternative
3525     I found these programms at the FreeDOS web site {{
3526     http://www.fdos.org/ripcord/rawrite/ }}, where the following info is
3527     included:
3529     Basic Usage (Rawrite):
3530     Depending on the exact version, the output and command line support may
3531     vary, i.e. not work
3532     Usage:
3533     MS-DOS prompt> RAWRITE
3534     and follow the prompts, -or-
3536     MS-DOS prompt> RAWRITE [-f ] [-d ] [-n(owait)] [-h(elp)]
3537     where: -f - name of disk image file
3538     -d - diskette drive to use, must be A or B
3539     -n - don't prompt for user to insert diskette
3540     -h - print usage information to stdout
3542     The diskette must be formatted or rawrite will not work.
3543     The contents of the disk do not matter and will be overwritten.
3544     When ran interactively (without command line options) you will be prompted
3545     for the disk image filename (you must remember this as there is no file
3546     chooser).
3547     You will also be prompted for the target/destination drive, either A or
3548     B for A: or B: respectively.
3549     Basic Usage (FDImage):
3550     fdimage is an updated DOS program meant to replace rawrite. It does not
3551     require a pre-formatted floppy diskette.
3553     FDIMAGE - Write disk image to floppy disk
3554     Version 1.5 Copyright (c) 1996-7 Robert Nordier
3556     Usage: fdimage [-dqsv] [-f size] [-r count] file drive
3558     -d Debug mode
3559     -f size Specify the floppy disk format by capacity, eg:
3560     160K, 180K, 320K, 360K, 720K, 1.2M, 1.44M, 2.88M
3561     -q Quick mode: don't format the disk
3562     -r count Retry count for format/write operations
3563     -s Single-sector I/O
3564     -v Verbose
3566     In order to write the image file to a pre-formatted diskette, execute
3567     the commands:
3569     X:
3570     cd rawrite
3571     rawrite2 -f X:bootdisksbm.img -d b:
3573     In order to write the image file and format the diskette at the same time,
3574     execute the commands:
3576     X:
3577     cd rawrite
3578     fdimage -f 1.44M X:bootdisksbm.img b:
3580     where X: is the drive name in DOS
3582     3. From Windows
3583     ---------------------
3584     The final alternative is to use Windows program rawwritewin.exe (found in
3585     the utils\rawrite folder of the CD), as shown in the following image:
3587     [[ rawwritewin.png ]]
3592     Using SystemRescueCD
3593     ==============================================================================
3595     Intro
3596     ****************************************
3597     SystemRescueCD is an excellent Live CD. It contains cloning software too
3598     (FSArchiver {{ http://www.fsarchiver.org/Main_Page }} and partimage,
3599     to be spesific), but is unable to clone a whole disk, instead of only
3600     individual partitions.
3602     Clonezilla Live is a great cloning solution, but it is unable to do anything
3603     but clone. For general system administration, you need a lot more functions
3604     - like these offered by SystemRescueCD.
3606     Clonezilla-SysRescCD has all of the functions of both discs. It's a
3607     multi boot CD, so switching between CDs requires a reboot, but using
3608     both individual discs requires switching the physical disc - in addition
3609     to rebooting.
3611     But, of course, to be able to use SystemRescueCD's functions, you need to
3612     know how to use them. We don't have permission to redistribute SystemRescueCD
3613     documentation, so this page contains only just enough information to allow
3614     you to look for more help in SystemRescueCD documentation.
3616     Which boot option to pick?
3617     ****************************************
3618 sng 180 Here is a list of the most important boot options:
3619 sng 28
3620 sng 180 1) SystemRescueCd: default boot options
3621     2) SystemRescueCd: all files cached to memory (docache)
3622     3) SystemRescueCd: framebuffer console in high resolution
3623     4) SystemRescueCd: do not ask for keyboard, use US keymap
3624     5) SystemRescueCd: directly start the graphical environment
3625     6) SystemRescueCd: 64bit kernel with default options
3626 sng 28
3627 sng 180 If you're accustomed to graphical environment, choose the option directly
3628     start the graphical environment. In graphical environment you're able
3629     to use graphical programs, like GParted and Mozilla Firefox. Terminals
3630     are also available, so using graphical environment doesn't prevent using
3631     command line. The only negative thing of graphical environment is that it
3632     slows booting process down a bit - and it's often just plain unneeded.
3633 sng 28
3634 sng 180 If you're accustomed to command line and know already that you're not
3635     going to use any graphical program, choose the option framebuffer console
3636     in high resolution. Booting to command line is a bit faster process than
3637     booting to graphical environment, and you can start X manually later.
3638 sng 28
3639 sng 180 Alternatively, you can select default boot options. However, if you do so,
3640     the text in the screen will be bigger and you'll be able to see less text
3641     at once.
3642 sng 28
3643 sng 180 If you want to chroot on an existing GNU/Linux partition containing 64-bit
3644     programs, select 64bit kernel with default options. Even if you don't want
3645     to chroot, 64-bit kernel may be a bit faster than 32-bit one. However,
3646     64-bit kernel requires a x86-64 processor, for example AMD Athlon 64 or
3647     Intel Core 2.
3648 sng 28
3649 sng 180 You need the option all files cached to memory (docache) if you plan to burn
3650     discs while using SystemRescueCD. The option copies the whole SystemRescueCD
3651     to the memory of the computer during the boot process, allowing you to
3652     put another disc to your CD/DVD writer while using SystemRescueCD. The
3653     negative thing is that reading all the contents of the disc slows boot
3654     process down a lot.
3655 sng 28
3656 sng 180 Finally, the option do not ask for keyboard, use US keymap may be useful if
3657     you have an English keyboard. By default, SystemRescueCD asks the keymap
3658     to use during boot. If you don't answer in 20 seconds, SystemRescueCD
3659     chooses the US keymap. However, if you have chosen the option do not ask
3660     for keyboard, use US keymap in the boot menu, SystemRescueCD chooses the
3661     US keymap immediately. No waiting, no questions.
3662 sng 28
3663     After booting
3664     ****************************************
3665     HELP!!! Where are the desktop and Start menu?
3666     ---------------------
3667 sng 180 Simply type this command and press ENTER twice:
3668 sng 28
3669     wizard
3671     Connecting to the Internet
3672     ---------------------
3673     The CD doesn't contain any SystemRescueCD documentation, because we don't
3674     have permission to redistribute it. In addition, our time is limited and
3675     we can't rewrite it all. So, you need to connect to the Internet to be
3676     able to read SystemRescueCD's official online documentation.
3678 sng 180 SystemRescueCD establishes an Internet connection automatically, if you're
3679     in a network using DHCP. Nowadays, most people are.
3680 sng 28
3681 sng 180 If the network doesn't use DHCP, you have to configure Internet settings
3682     by hand. You should be able to do so if you've previously configured
3683     your settings in the operating system you normally use. First, stop the
3684     NetworkManager daemon:
3685 sng 28
3686 sng 180 /etc/init.d/NetworkManager stop
3687 sng 28
3688 sng 180 After that, run the following command:
3689 sng 28
3690 sng 180 net-setup eth0
3691 sng 28
3692 sng 180 Note: In the command replace eth0 with the network interface you want to use.
3694 sng 28 When you're done
3695     ****************************************
3696     When you're done, you naturally want to either shut the computer down or
3697     reboot. Wait! Don't do it yet!
3699     Both I and Spiros have found out that letting a live CD to automatically
3700     unmount partitions is often a bad idea. It can damage the filesystems
3701     of the partitions which were mounted when the computer was shut down and
3702     destroy any files in the partitions, even them you didn't use within the CD.
3704     So, I recommend unmounting them refore shutdown or reboot. Just run these
3705     commands when you're done.
3707     If you want to reboot:
3709     cd
3710     umount -a
3711     reboot
3713     If you want to shut down:
3714     cd
3715     umount -a
3716     poweroff
3718     More info
3719     ****************************************
3720     Here are some links to the official SystemRescueCD resources.
3722     SystemRescueCD - http://www.sysresccd.org/Main_Page
3723     Detailed packages list- http://www.sysresccd.org/Detailed-packages-list
3724     Manual - http://www.sysresccd.org/Online-Manual-EN
3725     FAQ - http://www.sysresccd.org/FAQ
3726     Howto - http://www.sysresccd.org/Howto
3727     Forum - http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/
3732     Managing partitions
3733     ==============================================================================
3735     Intro
3736     ****************************************
3737     One of the most important maintenance tasks that can only be done by using
3738     a live CD is partitioning. No operating system allows partitioning the
3739     same disk where the OS itself resides. Trying to do so is like attempting
3740     to repair a car while its engine is turned on.
3742     Of course, SystemRescueCD contains multiple programs that are related to
3743     partitioning. Most important are GParted (graphical partitioning program),
3744     GNU Parted (text-based partitioning program), fdisk and sfdisk (partition
3745     table editors) and various filesystem tools (like ntfsprogs and e2fsprogs).
3747     This page contains some theory about partitions and filesystems, advice for
3748     choosing the right filesystem and a partitioning example by using GParted.
3750     [[ important.png ]]
3751     While partitioning, an user error or a bug can damage your
3752     partitions.Creating a disk image of the disk to bepartitioned beforehand
3753     is highly recommended.
3755     [[ info.png ]]
3756 sng 180 The following pressentation has been made usingSystemRescueCD v 2.1.1
3757 sng 28
3758     Some theory
3759     ****************************************
3760     What is a partition?
3761     ---------------------
3762     A partition is a logical division of a hard disk created so that you can
3763     have different operating systems on the same hard disk or to create the
3764     appearance of having separate hard drives for file management, multiple
3765     users, or other purposes.
3767     In Windows, a one-partition hard disk is labelled the "C:" drive ("A:" and
3768     "B:" are typically reserved for diskette drives). A two-partition hard drive