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1 Installing on USB
2 ==============================================================================
4 Installation to USB made easy
5 ****************************************
6 Until recently installing Clonezilla-SysRescCD on a USB disk would not
7 be such a great idea, because of its size. But since USB devices become
8 cheaper and cheaper, it is an interesting alternative.
10 Starting with version 3.1.0, Clonezilla-SysRescCD provides an iso
11 file that's ISO-Hybrided. This means (as we read at the isolynux site {{
12 http://syslinux.zytor.com/wiki/index.php/Doc/isolinux#HYBRID_CD-ROM.2FHARD_DISK_MODE
13 }}) that
15 "the iso file can be booted from either CD-ROM or from a device which BIOS
16 considers a hard disk or ZIP disk, e.g. a USB key or similar. This image can
17 then be copied using any raw disk writing tool (on Unix systems, typically
18 "dd" or "cat") to a USB disk, or written to a CD-ROM using standard CD
19 burning tools.
21 The ISO 9660 filesystem is encapsulated in a partition (which starts at
22 offset zero, which may confuse some systems.) This makes it possible for
23 the operating system, once booted, to use the remainder of the device for
24 persistent storage by creating a second partition."
26 [[ important.png ]]
27 Incorrect use of any raw disk writing tool could cause your operating system
28 (GNU/Linux / Windows) not to boot. Confirm the command before you run it.
30 So, from any linux box, assuming Clonezilla-SysRescCD iso file is in
31 your home directory, and your USB device name is sdc4, you just execute
32 the commands:
34 umount /dev/sdc4
35 dd if=~/clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-"myVersion".iso of=/dev/sdc bs=512
37 And that's it. Your usb device is ready to boot!!!
39 Using the extra space
40 ---------------------
41 If your usb device is more than 400MB in size, the above command will
42 leave the remaining space unused. To verify it, execute the command:
44 fdisk -l /dev/sdc
46 You should get something similar to this:
48 Disk /dev/sdc: 1048 MB, 1048576000 bytes
49 64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 1000 cylinders, total 2048000 sectors
50 Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
51 Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
52 I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
53 Disk identifier: 0x77a5188f
55 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
56 /dev/sdc1 * 1 384 393216 17 Hidden HPFS/NTFS
58 As you can see, we are currently using 348 out of 1000 cylinders of the
59 disk. The remaining disk space (~600MB) can still be used, executing the
60 following commands:
62 fdisk /dev/sdc
63 command (m for help): n (create new partition)
64 command action
65 e extended
66 p primary partition (1-4)
67 p
68 partition number (1-4): 4 (create partition sdc4)
69 first cylinder (385-1000, default 385):
70 using default value 385
71 last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{k,m,g} (385-1000, default 1000):
72 using default value 1000
74 command (m for help): p (display partition table)
76 disk /dev/sdc: 1048 mb, 1048576000 bytes
77 64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 1000 cylinders
78 units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
79 sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
80 i/o size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
81 disk identifier: 0x77a5188f
83 device boot start end blocks id system
84 /dev/sdc1 * 1 384 393216 17 hidden hpfs/ntfs
85 /dev/sdc4 385 1000 630784 83 linux
87 command (m for help): t (change partition type)
88 partition number (1-4): 4
89 hex code (type l to list codes): b
90 changed system type of partition 4 to b (w95 fat32)
92 command (m for help): p (display partition table)
94 disk /dev/sdc: 1048 mb, 1048576000 bytes
95 64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 1000 cylinders
96 units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
97 sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
98 i/o size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
99 disk identifier: 0x77a5188f
101 device boot start end blocks id system
102 /dev/sdc1 * 1 384 393216 17 hidden hpfs/ntfs
103 /dev/sdc4 385 1000 630784 b w95 fat32
105 command (m for help): w (write partition table to disk and exit)
106 The partition table has been altered!
108 Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
110 WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or
111 resource busy.
112 The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at
113 the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)
114 Syncing disks.
116 At this point you should disconnect and reconnect your usb device. When
117 it's recognised, you can format the partition you've just created
119 mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdc4
121 The partition is now ready for use!!!
123 Installing the "hard" way
124 ****************************************
125 If the "easy" way does not work there is an alternative; you will use
126 the Clonezilla-SysRescCD ISO file (or CD) to copy and modify a couple of
127 files on the USB disk, and finally make it bootable, using syslinux {{
128 http://syslinux.zytor.com }} and its configuration file syslinux.cfg.
130 [[ important.png ]]
131 Incorrect use of syslinux could cause your operating system (GNU/Linux /
132 Windows) not to boot. Confirm the command before you run it.
134 The only thing that's important is that your USB disk must contain a VFAT
135 (Windows 98 or DOS) file system. If this is not the case, refer to the
136 section "Troubleshooting", to find out how you can format it, before
137 copying files to it.
139 The bootable USB disk creation procedure can be performed either from
140 Linux or Windows.
142 [[ info.png ]]
143 If you want to create a bootable USB flash drive for this version
144 or later, remember to use the syslinux command from syslinux
145 3.71 or later. Otherwise the boot menu won't work.
147 Installation from Linux
148 ---------------------
149 There are two ways you can proceed, if you are going to use Linux to
150 perform the USB installation, either using a running linux box, or using
151 Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
153 I will assume that you have saved clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-3.1.0.iso
154 in your home directory (~).
156 Using a linux box
157 ---------------------
158 If you already have a linux box up and running, you can use it to create
159 your Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB, without even having to burn it to CD
160 beforehand. The only thing here is that you have to have syslinux {{
161 http://syslinux.zytor.com }} installed.
163 I will assume that your CD drive is /dev/sr0 and that your USB device
164 is /dev/sdc4. You may have to change any of them to reflect your system
165 configuration.
167 Boot into linux, connect your USB device and execute the following commands:
168 mkdir /mnt/mycd
169 mount ~/clonezilla-sysresccd-full-mod-3.1.0.iso /mnt/mycd -o loop
170 mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
171 mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
172 cp -r /mnt/mycd/* /mnt/usbdevice
173 umount /mnt/mycd; rmdir /mnt/mycd
174 cd /mnt/usbdevice
175 rm isolinux/*.cfg
176 mv isolinux/* .
177 rmdir isolinux
178 cd; umount /dev/sdc4
179 rmdir /mnt/usbdevice
181 Finally make your USB device bootable, by executing
182 syslinux /dev/sdc4
183 and you are done.
185 > Using Clonezilla-SysRescCD
186 If you already burnt Clonezilla-SysRescCD to CD, you can use it to create
187 your Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB.
189 I will assume that your CD drive is /dev/sr0 and that your USB device
190 is /dev/sdc4. You may have to change any of them to reflect your system
191 configuration.
193 Boot SystemRescueCD using the option To RAM, and when it is fully loaded,
194 execute the following commands:
195 mkdir /mnt/mycd
196 mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/mycd
197 mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
198 mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
199 cp -r /mnt/mycd/* /mnt/usbdevice
200 umount /mnt/mycd
201 cd /mnt/usbdevice
202 rm isolinux/*.cfg
203 mv isolinux/* .
204 rmdir isolinux
205 cd; umount /dev/sdc4
207 Finally make your USB device bootable, by executing
208 syslinux /dev/sdc4
209 and you are done.
211 Installation from Windows
212 ---------------------
213 Installing Clonezilla-SysRescCD from Windows is as easy as
214 it is in Linux. You have to burn Clonezilla-SysRescCD to CD
215 or use a CD/DVD ROM emulator software like Daemon Tools {{
216 http://www.daemon-tools.cc/dtcc/announcements.php }} to mount the ISO file.
218 I will assume that your USB device is drive K: and your CD drive or mounted
219 ISO file is drive
220 D:. You may have to change any of them, in order to reflect your system
221 configuration.
223 You will have to
225 * Copy all files from drive D: (CD or mounted ISO file) to drive K:
226 (USB disk)
227 * Delete all cfg files from K:isolinux
228 * Move all files from K:isolinux to K:
229 * Delete folder K:isolinux
231 Now all you have to do is make your USB disk bootable. In order to do
232 that you have to open a DOS window (in Windows XP press "Start / Run "
233 and type cmd). Then type at DOS prompt:
234 K:
235 cd utils/bootprog
236 syslinux -ma K:
238 Booting from USB
239 ---------------------
240 Before trying to boot from your USB device, you have to set your boot device
241 at your BIOS. This means you have to reboot having your USB device connected,
242 get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL) and make the appropriate settings
243 in the BOOT section.
245 Booting Clonezilla Live should not be a problem. Just select the desired
246 option and press ENTER to boot.
248 Booting SystemRescueCD has been made equally simple with SystemRescueCD
249 v 1.0.0, so you shouldn't have any problem (option cdroot is not required
250 any more).
252 If you have any problems here, you may try adding any of these boot
253 parameters:
254 usbstick
255 doscsi
257 Troubleshooting
258 ---------------------
259 Whether you can successfully boot from a USB disk or not, depends mainly on
260 your BIOS. Chances are that you will not be able to boot on an old computer,
261 with an old (and possibly buggy) BIOS. So I would recommend testing your
262 Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB on a new computer.
264 * I can't boot (I don't even see the splash screen)
265 or Clonezilla Live does not boot
267 The first thing you should do is double check your BIOS settings. Reboot
268 having your USB device connected, get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL)
269 and make the appropriate settings in the BOOT section.
271 If you are on linux, check that the partition on the USB disk is active
272 (bootable), executing:
273 fdisk -l /dev/sdc
274 You should get something similar to this:
276 Disk /dev/sdc: 1031 MB, 1031798272 bytes
277 64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 983 cylinders
278 Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
280 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
281 /dev/sdc4 * 1 983 1006576 6 FAT16
283 If the partition is not active (no astrisk), execute:
284 fdisk /dev/sdc
285 and issue "Command: " a (toggle a bootable flag) and "Partition number:"
286 4 (for /dev/sdc4).
288 If you are on Windows, this is taken care of by syslinux (parameters -ma).
290 If you still have problems booting, you should try to execute
291 syslinux -s /dev/sdc4
292 from Linux, or
293 syslinux -sma K:
294 from Windows (from folder K:syslinux).
296 syslinux man page reads:
298 (Option) -s
299 Install a "safe, slow and stupid" version of syslinux. This version may work
300 on some very buggy BIOSes on which syslinux would otherwise fail. If you find
301 a machine on which the -s option is required to make it boot reliably, please
302 send as much info about your machine as you can, and include the failure
303 mode.
305 * I still can't boot
306 In this case you will have to format your USB disk.
308 If you are using linux to perform the installation, execute the command:
310 mkdosfs -F 16 /dev/sdc4
312 to create a FAT16 file system, or
314 mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdc4
316 to create a FAT32 file system.
318 When you are done go back to section "Installation from Linux".
320 If you are on Windows, you should download the HP-USB Format tool {{
321 http://h50178.www5.hp.com/local_drivers/17550/SP27608.exe }}, install it
322 and format your USB drive using the Fat or Fat32 option. This program can
323 be used to format USB devices that won't boot properly when formatted with
324 Windows format tool.
326 When you are done go back to section "Installation from Windows".
328 * I still can't boot (after formating)
329 Things are getting tough!!! Try to format your USB disk using the option you
330 did not use previously. So, if you have created a FAT32 file system, create
331 a FAT16 file system this time, and recreate Clonezilla-SysRescCD on USB.
333 If nothing works, you are out of luck; you will not be able to use
334 Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB on this computer... If you do manage to boot it,
335 please send me a message.
337 * SystemRescueCD does not boot
338 Ok, you have managed to get to the splash screen and successfully booted
339 Clonezilla Live. But you still can't boot SystemRescueCD.
341 Refer to section Booting from USB to find out the boot parameters you can
342 use with SystemRescueCD.
344 Customizing sysresc.cfg
345 ---------------------
346 As stated previously, Clonezilla-SysRescCD USB is booted by syslinux through
347 its configuration file syslinux.cfg. This file loads sysresc.cfg in order
348 to boot SystemRescueCD.
350 If you have to specify any additional boot parameters for SystemRescueCD,
351 you may want to write these changes to the configuration file, so that
352 you don't have to insert them by hand every time.
354 The procedure to do that is the following:
356 Boot SystemRescueCD (or if that's not possible yet, bot Clonezilla Linux
357 and get to the command line) using the option To RAM, and when it is fully
358 loaded, execute the following commands:
359 mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
360 mount /dev/[device] /mnt/usbdevice
361 cd /mnt/usbdevice
362 cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
363 sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=x [additional params]|'
364 sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
365 mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
366 cd; umount /dev/[device]
367 syslinux /dev/[device]
368 reboot
370 where x is a number from 1 to 10.
372 After executing these commands, you will have a new sysresc.cfg file,
373 and a backup file called sysresc.bak (in case things go wrong).
375 If, for example, you want to increase the device scan delay to maximum,
376 the above commands would become:
377 mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
378 mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
379 cd /mnt/usbdevice
380 cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
381 sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=10|' sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
382 mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
383 cd; umount /dev/sdc4
384 syslinux /dev/sdc4
385 reboot
387 If, in addition to that, you had to use the boot parameter usbstick,
388 then it would be:
389 mkdir /mnt/usbdevice
390 mount /dev/sdc4 /mnt/usbdevice
391 cd /mnt/usbdevice
392 cp sysresc.cfg sysresc.bak
393 sed 's|scandelay=5|scandelay=10 usbstick|' sysresc.cfg > sys.cfg
394 mv sys.cfg sysresc.cfg
395 cd; umount /dev/sdc4
396 syslinux /dev/sdc4
397 reboot
399 In case something goes wrong with your new settings, you can always rename
400 sysresc.bak to sysresc.cfg, either from linux or Windows.
405 Boot parameters
406 ==============================================================================
408 Intro
409 ****************************************
410 Booting a linux system means loading a kernel, which is actually the
411 operating system. Well, this is not exactly true, and it is not the only
412 thing that happens during boot up phase, but it is not my intension to
413 explain it here.
415 The kernel is loaded by Isolinux (the CD boot manager), which is able to pass
416 a number of parameters to it, through its configuration file isolinux.cfg.
418 These parameters, called boot parameters, are documented by the kernel
419 itself, and can differentiate its behavior dramatically. In our case,
420 each CD (SystemRescueCD and Clonezilla Live) accept a different set of
421 parameters, because they are based on gentoo {{ http://www.gentoo.org/ }}
422 and debian, respectively.
424 While in the splash screen of Clonezilla-SysRescCD, you can edit the boot
425 parameters by pressing TAB. They will be presented to you, and you can
426 add or remove what you want. You must be careful not to change or remove
427 the parameters that are dedicated to the CD itself, as altering them will
428 certainty make it unbootable. When you are done, just press ENTER to boot.
430 SystemRescueCD boot parameters
431 ****************************************
432 [[ info.png ]]
433 The following info applies to SystemRescueCD v. 2.1.1. In case
434 you need to get info for a more recent version of SystemRescueCD
435 please see the page "Sysresccd-manual-en Booting the CD-ROM {{
436 http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Booting_the_CD-ROM }}"
438 A typical sysresccd isolinux entry is:
440 kernel rescuecd
441 append initrd=initram.igz video=ofonly
443 The kernel used is rescuecd, and anything after the word append is a
444 boot parameter.
446 Available kernels (boot images):
448 * rescuecd Default for 32bit systems, with Framebuffer disabled, best choice.
449 * rescue64 Default 64 bit kernel. Use it if you want to chroot to a 64bit
450 linux system installed on your hard disk, or if you have to run 64 bit
451 programs. This kernel is able to boot with 32bit programs, and it requires
452 a processor with 64bit instructions (amd64 / em64t).
453 * altker32 an alternative kernel for 32bit systems. Boot with this kernel
454 if you have problems with rescuecd
455 * altker64 an alternative kernel for 64bit systems. Boot with this kernel
456 in case you have problems with rescue64.
458 The boot parameters you can use are:
460 General boot options
461 Press <TAB> to add additional options (in SystemRescueCd-1.5 and more recent)
463 * docache: causes the CD-ROM to be fully loaded into memory. A slower start
464 but once complete, programs start faster and the CD drive will be released
465 allowing normal access to other CDs. This requires 400MB of memory to cache
466 everything (including the bootdisks and isolinux directories). Add lowmem
467 if you have less that 400MB of memory of to prevent these directories from
468 being copied.
469 * setkmap=kk: which defines the keymap to load where kk (example: setkmap=de
470 for German keyboards). This way you won't be prompted for the keyboard
471 configuration during the boot.
472 * root=/dev/xdnp: the root=<device> option boots an existing linux
473 system. For example, if you have linux Gentoo installed on /dev/sda6,
474 use rescuecd root=/dev/sda6 to start it. Keep in mind that you must use a
475 64bit kernel if your system is made of 64bit programs. This option works
476 with LVM volumes. Use rescuecd root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00. Support
477 is also provided for root=auto, which scans all the block devices
478 for a linux system. The first linux system found will be started. So
479 root=auto lets you start the system installed from the CD-ROM in case
480 you have problem with your boot loader or kernel. It's also possible
481 to specify a partition using its filesystem label or filesystem
482 uuid. If the label of the partition where linux is installed is
483 mylinux, then boot it using rescuecd root=LABEL=mylinux. Similarly
484 root=UUID=b3d3bec5-997a-413e-8449-0d0ec41ccba7. See more details.
485 * initscript=service:action: This option allows one to start/stop a service
486 at boot time. For instance if you need the samba service to be started,
487 you can boot with: initscript=samba:start. This does the same thing as
488 /etc/init.d/samba start. Use this option a multiple of times for different
489 services. All the actions that are supported by an initscript can be used.
490 * backstore=xxx: SystemRescueCd comes with support for the backing-stores. A
491 backing-store saves all the changes you can make. so that you keep these
492 changes the next time you boot. By default, sysresccd automatically
493 scan removable devices (eg: USB sticks) at boot time and uses the first
494 backing-store it finds. A backing-store is not mandatory and if the scan
495 fails, it will store the files which have changed in memory. To disable
496 the disks scan at boot time specify backstore=off on the boot command
497 line. If you want to save your backing-store file on a harddisk, boot with
498 backstore=alldev to scan all devices (not just removable devices). The
499 default location for a backing-stores file is any file named sysrcd.bs
500 located at the root of a disk which is often a USB stick. Change the path
501 by using backstore=/sysrcd/mybackstore.bs. See backing-stores.
502 * isoloop=xxx: Grub2 (currently in development: grub-1.98) provides a new
503 feature to boot from an ISO image which is stored on the hard disk. If you
504 put a copy of systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso on a partition that Grub2 can read
505 then you can boot SystemRescueCd directly from the ISO image stored on your
506 hard drive. This is very convenient if you frequently update SystemRescueCd
507 and you want to boot it directly from Grub2. Grub2 knows what an ISO image
508 is and it will load the kernel image (rescuecd/rescue64) and the initramfs
509 (initram.igz) from the ISO into memory. It will then do its normal job and
510 execute the kernel. The SystemRescueCd init script must then be aware that
511 its sysrcd.dat file is in an ISO and not directly on the partition. For that
512 reason, this isoloop=xxx boot option is required so you must use it in your
513 grub.cfg. This option is only supported in SystemRescueCd-1.4.0 and more
514 recent. This option specifies the path of the ISO image in the partition that
515 grub considers as its root partition. It's important to understand that the
516 path of the ISO image may be different from the path on your linux system. If
517 you have a separate boot partition mounted on /boot and if you copy this
518 ISO image to /boot/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso then the option has
519 to be isoloop=/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso. This is because the
520 boot partition is what Grub2 will consider as its root partition during
521 the boot process. Please read the section about isoloop for more details.
523 Hardware, drivers and troubleshooting options
524 * dodebug: Enables verbose messages in linuxrc
526 * doload=xxx: loads needed kernel modules, multiple comma separated
527 occurrences are permitted (example: doload=3c59x,e1000)
528 * noload=xxx: prevents loading kernel modules, multiple comma separated
529 occurrences are permitted (example: noload=3c59x,e1000). Use this option
530 if you have a problem when the system loads a particular module.
531 * nonet: this will disable the network auto detection at startup
533 * scandelay=x: pauses x seconds during the startup to allow slow devices
534 to initialize. This is required when you boot a USB device. A delay of
535 only few seconds should be enough.
537 * doxdetect: Since version 0.3.5 the auto-configuration is done in X.Org
538 itself, mkxf86config is disabled by default. This option forces the system to
539 run the mkxf86config startup script and to run the hardware auto-detection
540 from this script. Use this option if you have problems with the graphical
541 environment configuration. This option replaces the option noxdetect that
542 was useful in previous versions.
543 * nodetect: prevents generic hardware auto-detection. Use this option if
544 you have problems with the hardware auto-detection.
546 * nomodeset: Do not load the Kernel-Mode-Setting video driver. You can
547 use that option if you are experiencing problems with your screen during
548 the boot process (just after modules are being loaded).
549 * dostartx: load the X.Org graphical environment.
550 * forcevesa: Forces X.Org to use the safe VESA driver instead of the best
551 video driver detected for your video card. Use this option if you cannot
552 get the graphical environment working with the default options.
553 * forcevesa=xxx: The startx command will load the Xvesa server instead
554 of Xorg, and use the screen resolution given as parameter (eg: 1024x768,
555 1280x1024x32).
557 * all-generic-ide: In case of problems related to your hard disk, try to
558 enable this option (eg rescuecd all-generic-ide)
559 * nodmraid: Disable dmraid, for some motherboards with built-in RAID
560 controller.
561 * nomdadm: Disable mdadm, for software RAID.
563 * acpi-off / noapic / irqpool: use these options if you have problem when
564 the kernel boots: if it hangs on a driver or if it crashes, ...
566 * lowmem: For systems with smaller memory, some daemons are not started
567 including sshd and nfsd.
569 * skipmount=/dev/xxx: The system mounts all the storage devices at boot
570 time to find the sysrcd.dat file. If your hard disk is broken it should
571 not be mounted. Boot with skipmount=/dev/sda1 skipmount=/dev/sda2 to ignore
572 these two partitions.
574 Network configuration and remote access
575 * nonm: to disable the Network-Manager service that conflicts with the
576 standard network command line tools such as ifconfig and ip. You can use
577 this option if you want to configure the network using these commands. This
578 option is not necessary when SystemRescueCd is booting from the network
579 since the service is automatically stopped in that case. This option
580 requires SystemRescueCd-1.5.5 or more recent.
581 * dodhcp: to request a DHCP server provide network attributes including
582 an IP address, gateway... If there are multiple interfaces on the computer
583 it will run the dhcp client on all of them by default, when no argument is
584 specified with this option. Thanks to emiliano SystemRescueCd-1.7.0-beta009
585 and more recent allows you to optionally specify which interfaces should
586 be configured with dhcp. This way you can combine static and dynamic
587 addresses in the automatic Ethernet configuration. For example you can now
588 use options like that: dodhcp=eth0,eth2 eth1= to use dhcp
589 for eth0 and eth2 and a static address on eth1.
590 * nodhcp: never run the dhcp client in the initramfs boot script. May
591 be useful if you use PXE boot on a computer with several ethernet
592 interfaces. Support for this option is available in SystemRescueCd-1.5.5
593 and more recent
594 * ethx=ipaddr/cidr: Sets the static IP address of all the ethernet
595 interfaces on the system. The /cidr extension is optional. For instance,
596 if you use option ethx= on a machine with two ethernet adapters,
597 both eth0 and eth1 will be configured with You can use the
598 format ethx= (using the cidr notation) if you don't use the
599 default netmask.
600 * eth0=ipaddr/cidr: This option is similar to ethx=ipaddr/cidr but it
601 configures only one interface at a time. To configure the network on a
602 server that has two interfaces, use, for example: eth0=
603 eth1=
604 * dns=ipaddr: Sets the static IP address of the DNS nameserver you want
605 to use to resolve the names. For instance dns= means that
606 you want to use as the DNS server.
607 * gateway=ipaddr: Sets the static IP address of the default route on your
608 network. For instance gateway= means that the computer can
609 connect to a computer outside of the local network via
610 * dhcphostname=myhost: Sets the hostname that the DHCP client will send
611 to the DHCP server. This may be required if the default hostname cannot
612 be used with your DHCP configuration. This option has been introduced
613 in SystemRescueCd-1.3.5.
614 * rootpass=123456: Sets the root password of the system running on the
615 livecd to 123456. That way you can connect from the network and ssh on
616 the livecd and give 123456 password as the root password.
617 * vncserver=x:123456: The vncserver boot option has been introduced in
618 SystemRescueCd-1.0.2. This options forces the system to configure the
619 VNC-server and to start it automatically at boot time. You have to replace
620 x with the number of displays you want, and 123456 with your password. The
621 password must be between 6 and 8 characters, else the boot option will be
622 ignored. In other words the vncserver=2:MyPaSsWd option will give you access
623 to two displays (display=1 on tcp/5901 and display=2 on tcp/5902). Display
624 0 is reserved for X.Org since SystemRescueCd-1.1.0. SystemRescueCd-1.5.7 and
625 more recent accept a password longer than 8 chars (between 5 and 12 chars)
626 * nameif=xxx: You can specify what interface name to give to a particular
627 interface using the mac address. You need SystemRescueCd-1.1.0 or
628 newer to do that. Here is how you can specify which interface is
629 using which mac address on a machine with two network interfaces:
630 nameif=eth0!00:0C:29:57:D0:6E,eth1!00:0C:29:57:D0:64. Be careful, you have
631 to respect the separator (comma between the interfaces and exclamation
632 marks between the name and the mac address). You can also use the magic
633 keyword BOOTIF with SystemRescueCd-1.5.4 and more recent when you boot from
634 pxelinux. The pxeboot loader will set BOOTIF to the name of the interface
635 used to boot. You can then use something like nameif=eth0!BOOTIF if you
636 want the boot interface to be called eth0 on a computer with several
637 Ethernet interfaces.
639 Network boot using PXE
640 SystemRescueCd provides several options for booting from the network
641 using PXE.
642 These options can be combined with other network boot options such as ethx
643 (cf previous section). See PXE network booting to get a global overview
644 of SystemRescueCd and PXE and Manage remote servers using PXE.
645 The second stage downloads the kernel + initramfs using DHCP/TFTP.
646 The third stage of the PXE boot process acquires the root files system.
647 Several protocols are available.
649 * netboot=tftp://ip/path/sysrcd.dat: from a TFTP server. The filesystem
650 is loaded into memory. As a consequence computers with less than 400MB of
651 memory won't be able to boot this way. The system will continue to work
652 if the network is disconnected after the boot process.
653 * netboot=http://ip:port/path/sysrcd.dat: from a Web server. The file system
654 is loaded into memory. Computers with smaller memory won't be able to boot
655 this way. The the system continues to work if the network is disconnected
656 after the boot process.
657 * netboot=nfs://ip:/path: mount an NFSv3 directory. The NFS url must be the
658 path of the directory that contains sysrcd.dat. Only NFSv3 can be used,
659 NFSv4 is not supported. NFS allows computers with smaller memory to boot
660 SystemRescueCd from the network. After the boot process, continued network
661 connection is required or you will loose access to the root file system.
662 * netboot=nbd://ip:port: connect to an NBD server configured with sysrcd.dat
663 on ip:port. NBD is easier to configure than NFS (only one TCP port involved)
664 and it allows computers with smaller memory to boot SystemRescueCd from
665 the network. After the boot process, the network connection continues to
666 be required to access the root file system.
668 For information on activating speakup, see the speakup info page.
670 Options provided for autorun
671 * ar_source=xxx: place where the autorun are stored. It may
672 be the root directory of a partition (/dev/sda1), an nfs
673 share (nfs://, a samba share
674 (smb://, or an http directory
675 (
676 * autoruns=[0-9]: comma separated list of the autorun scrip to be run. For
677 example autoruns=0,2,7 the autorun sc autorun0, autorun2, autorun7 are
678 run. Use autoruns=no to disable all the autorun scripts with a number.
679 * ar_ignorefail: continue to execute the scripts chain even if a script
680 failed (returned a non-zero status)
681 * ar_nodel: do not delete the temporary copy of the autorun scripts located
682 in /var/autorun/tmp after execution
683 * ar_disable: completely disable autorun, the simple autorun script will
684 not be executed
685 * ar_nowait: do not wait for a keypress after the autorun script have
686 been executed.
688 Clonezilla Live boot parameters
689 ****************************************
690 [[ info.png ]]
691 The following info applies to Clonezilla Live v. 1.2.8-46
692 In case you need to get info for a more recent version of Clonezilla Live
693 please see the page "The boot parameters for Clonezilla live {{
694 http://clonezilla.org/fine-print-live-doc.php?path=clonezilla-live/doc/99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc
695 }}"
697 A typical Clonezilla Live isolinux entry is:
699 kernel /live/vmlinuz1
700 append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
701 ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"
702 ocs_live_extra_param="" ocs_live_keymap="" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang=""
703 vga=791 nolocales
705 The kernel used is vmlinuz, and anything after the word append is a boot
706 parameter.
708 The following info comes from the
709 page titled The boot parameters for Clonezilla live {{
710 http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/fine-print.php?path=./99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc
711 }}.
713 Clonezilla live is based on Debian live with clonezilla installed. Therefore
714 there are 2 kinds of boot parameters:
716 * Boot parameters from live-initramfs. You can refer to this manual of
717 live-initramfs.
718 * Boot parameters specially for Clonezilla. All of them are named as
719 "ocs_*", e.g. ocs_live_run, ocs_live_extra_param, ocs_live_batch, ocs_lang.
720 * ocs_live_run is the main program to run in Clonezilla live to save
721 or restore. or other command. Available program: ocs-live-general,
722 ocs-live-restore or any command you write. Use the Absolute path in
723 Clonezilla live.
724 e.g. ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"
725 //NOTE// You might have to use "sudo" command inside your own script,
726 or you can assign it like: ocs_live_run="sudo bash /my-clonezilla"
727 * ocs_live_extra_param will be used only when ocs_live_run=ocs-live-restore
728 (not for ocs-live-general or any other), then it will be passed to
729 ocs-sr. Therefore these parameters are actually those of ocs-sr.
730 e.g. ocs_live_extra_param="--batch -c restoredisk sarge-r5 hda"
731 * ocs_live_keymap is for keymap used in Clonezilla live. Man install-keymap
732 for more details.
733 e.g. ocs_live_keymap="NONE" (won't change the default layout)
734 ocs_live_keymap="/usr/share/keymaps/i386/azerty/fr-latin9.kmap.gz"
735 (French keyboard)
736 * batch mode or not (yes/no), if no, will run interactively.
737 e.g. ocs_live_batch="no"
738 * ocs_lang is the language used in Clonezilla live. Available value:
739 en_US.UTF-8, zh_TW.UTF-8... (see $DRBL_SCRIPT_PATH/lang/bash/)
740 e.g. ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8"
741 * ocs_debug (or ocs-debug) is for you to enter command line prompt before
742 any clonezilla-related action is run. This is easier for you to debug.
743 * ocs_daemonon, ocs_daemonoff, ocs_numlk, ocs_capslk.
744 Ex. for the first 2 parameters, ocs_daemonon="ssh", then ssh service will
745 be turned on when booting. For the last 2 parameters, use "on" or "off",
746 e.g. ocs_numlk=on to turn on numberlock when booting.
747 * ocs_prerun, ocs_prerun1, ocs_prerun2... is for you to run a command before
748 Clonezilla is started. E.g. ocs_prerun="/live/image/myscript.sh". If you
749 have more commands to run, you can assign them in the order: ocs_prerun=...,
750 ocs_prerun1=..., ocs_prerun2=.... If more than 10 parameters, remember
751 to use ocs_prerun01, ocs_prerun02..., ocs_prerun11 to make it in order.
752 * ocs_live_run_tty. This option allows you to specify the tty where
753 $ocs_live_run is run. By default $ocs_live_run is run on /dev/tty1
754 only. If you want to use ttyS0, for example, add live-getty and
755 console=ttyS0,38400n81 in the boot parameter.
756 //NOTE//
757 * If "live-getty console=ttyS0,38400n81" are assigned in the boot
758 parameters, ocs_live_run_tty will honor ttyS0, even other value is assigned
759 to ocs_live_run_tty in boot parameter.
760 * It's recommended to assign ocs_lang and ocs_live_keymap in the boot
761 parameters too.
762 * ip, this option allows you to specify the network parameters for
763 network card. In Clonezilla live a patched live-initramfs is used, which
764 is different from the original live-initramfs so that you can assign
765 DNS server, too. Its format is: ip=ethernet port,IP address, netmask,
766 gateway, DNS. E.g. If you want to assing eth0 with IP address,
767 netmask, gateway, DNS server, you can
768 assign the following in the boot parameter:
769 ip=eth0:
770 If more than one network card, you can use "," to separate them, e.g.:
771 ip=eth0:,eth1:
772 * Besides, "live-netdev" (yes, not ocs_live_netdev) can be used when
773 using PXE booting, you can force to assign the network device to get
774 filesystem.squashfs. This is useful when there are two or more NICs are
775 linked. E.g. live-netdev="eth1" allows you to force the live-initramfs
776 to use eth1 to fetch the root file system filesystem.squashfs.
778 With the above options, we have the following examples:
780 * A PXE config example for you to boot Clonezilla live via PXE, and ssh
781 service is on, the password of account "user" is assigned:
782 ----------------------------------------
783 label Clonezilla Live
784 MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live
786 kernel vmlinuz1
787 append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788
788 fetch=tftp:// usercrypted=bkuQxLqLRuDW6
789 ocs_numlk="on" ocs_daemonon="ssh"
790 ----------------------------------------
791 The usercrypted password is created by:
792 echo YOUR_PASSWORD | mkpasswd -s
793 ("mkpasswd" is from package "whois" in Debian or Ubuntu. Check your
794 GNU/Linux to see which package provides this command if you are not using
795 Debian or Ubuntu. Replace YOUR_PASSWORD with your plain text password,
796 and remember do not put any " in the boot parameters of live-initramfs
797 (while it's ok for those ocs_* boot parameters), i.e. do NOT use something
798 like usercrypted="bkuQxLqLRuDW6").
799 //NOTE// If you do not assign salt to mkpasswd, the encrypted password
800 will not be the same every time you create it.
801 For more about usercrypted discussion, please check the here.
803 * How to put your own binary driver in Clonezilla live without modifying
804 /live/filesystem.squashfs:
806 * Boot clonezilla live
807 * Become root by running "sudo su -"
808 * Copy the dir lsi, which contains a precompiled kernel module matching
809 the running kernel in Clonezilla live and a script to run it, to a working
810 dir, e.g.:
811 cp -r /live/image/lsi /home/partimag
812 * cd /home/partimag
813 * /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-live-dev -c -s -i lsi -u lsi -x
814 "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
815 * /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-iso -s -i lsi -u lsi -x
816 "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
817 * ///NOTE/// In this example, the 2 files in dir lsi are: megasr.ko (the
818 binary driver) and prep-lsi.sh. The contents of prep-lsi.sh:
820 ------------------------
821 #!/bin/bash
822 cp -f /live/image/lsi/megasr.ko /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/
823 chown root.root /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/megasr.ko
824 depmod -a modprobe megasr
825 sleep 1
826 ------------------------
827 * To put your customized script with a PXE version of Clonezilla live
828 (You have to use Clonezilla live version 1.2.2-2 or later):
829 In this example, we assume (1) The IP address of your PXE server is
830, (2) the customized script (custom-ocs-2) is put on
831 your PXE server's tftpd root dir (E.g. On DRBL server, the path is
832 /tftpboot/nbi_img/. It might be different in your case if you are not use
833 DRBL server as a PXE server).
834 Therefor your pxelinux.cfg/default file is like:
835 ------------------------
836 label Clonezilla Live
839 MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live
841 kernel vmlinuz1
842 append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788
843 ip=frommedia fetch=tftp://
844 ocs_prerun="busybox tftp -g -b 10240 -r custom-ocs-2 -l
845 /tmp/custom-ocs-2" ocs_live_run="bash /tmp/custom-ocs-2"
846 ocs_live_keymap="NONE" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" nolocales
848 Boot Clonezilla live via network
850 ------------------------
851 The content of custom-ocs-2 can be like:
853 ------------------------
854 #!/bin/bash
855 . /opt/drbl/sbin/drbl-conf-functions
856 . /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-functions
857 . /etc/ocs/ocs-live.conf
859 # Load language file
860 ask_and_load_lang_set en_US.UTF-8
862 # 1. Mount the clonezilla image home.
863 # Types: local_dev, ssh_server, samba_server, nfs_server
864 prep-ocsroot -t nfs_server
866 # 2. Restore the image
867 if mountpoint /home/partimag/ &>/dev/null; then
868 ocs-sr -l en_US.UTF-8 -c -p choose restoredisk ask_user ask_user
869 else
870 [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] & $SETCOLOR_FAILURE
871 echo "Fail to find the Clonezilla image home /home/partimag!"
872 echo "Program terminated!"
873 [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] & $SETCOLOR_NORMAL
874 fi
875 ------------------------
876 live-initramfs manual
877 ---------------------
878 This is the manual of live-initramfs {{
879 http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/live-initramfs-param.php }}
881 live-initramfs(7)
882 =================
883 :man source: 1.157.3
884 :man manual: Debian Live
886 Name
887 ----
888 live-initramfs - Debian Live initramfs hook
890 Synopsis
891 --------
892 BOOT=live
894 as kernel parameter at boot prompt.
896 Description
897 -----------
899 live-initramfs is a hook for the initramfs-tools, used to generate
900 a initramfs
901 capable to boot live systems, such as those created by *live-helper*(7).
902 This includes the Debian Live isos, netboot tarballs, and usb stick images.
904 At boot time it will look for a (read-only) media containing a "/live"
905 directory where a root filesystems (often a compressed filesystem image like
906 squashfs) is stored. If found, it will create a writable environment, using
907 aufs, for Debian like systems to boot from.
909 You probably do not want to install this package onto a non-live system,
910 although it will do no harm.
912 live-initramfs is a fork of casper.
913 casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen
914 &lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
915 and Matt Zimmerman &lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
917 Boot options
918 ------------
920 Here is the complete list of recognized boot parameters by live-initramfs.
922 access=*ACCESS*::
924 Set the accessibility level for physically or visually impared users. ACCESS
925 must be one of v1, v2, v3, m1, or m2. v1=lesser visual impairment,
926 v2=moderate
927 visual impairment, v3=blindness, m1=minor motor difficulties, m2=moderate
928 motor
929 difficulties.
931 console=*TTY,SPEED*::
933 Set the default console to be used with the "live-getty" option. Example:
934 "console=ttyS0,115200"
936 debug::
938 Makes initramfs boot process more verbose.
940 fetch=*URL*::
942 Another form of netboot by downloading a squashfs image from a given url,
943 copying to ram and booting it. Due to current limitations in busyboxs wget
944 and DNS resolution, an URL can not contain a hostname but an IP only.
946 Not working: http://example.com/path/to/your_filesystem.squashfs
947 Working:
949 Also note that therefore it's currently not possible to fetch an image from a
950 namebased virtualhost of an httpd if it is sharing the ip with the main httpd
951 instance.
953 hostname=*HOSTNAME*, username=*USER*, userfullname=*USERFULLNAME*::
955 Those parameters lets you override values read from the config file.
957 ignore_uuid
959 Do not check that any UUID embedded in the initramfs matches the discovered
960 medium. live-initramfs may be told to generate a UUID by setting
961 LIVE_GENERATE_UUID=1 when building the initramfs.
963 integrity-check::
965 If specified, an MD5 sum is calculated on the live media during boot and
966 compared to the value found in md5sum.txt found in the root directory of the
967 live media.
972 [DEVICE]:[AUTOCONF]]***::
974 Let you specify the name(s) and the options of the interface(s) that
975 should be
976 configured at boot time. Do not specify this if you want to use dhcp
977 (default).
978 It will be changed in a future release to mimick official kernel boot param
979 specification
980 (e.g. ip=,:::::eth1:dhcp).
982 ip=[**frommedia**]::
984 If this variable is set, dhcp and static configuration are just skipped
985 and the
986 system will use the (must be) media-preconfigured /etc/network/interfaces
987 instead.
989 {keyb|kbd-chooser/method}=**KEYBOARD**,
990 {klayout|console-setup/layoutcode}=**LAYOUT**,
991 {kvariant|console-setup/variantcode}=**VARIANT**,
992 {kmodel|console-setup/modelcode}=
993 **CODE**, koptions=**OPTIONS**::
995 Configure the running keyboard as specified, if this one misses
996 live-initramfs
997 behaves as if "keyb=us" was specified. It will be interfered from
998 "locale=" if
999 locale is only 2 lowecase letters as a special case. You could also specify
1000 console layout, variant, code, and options (no defaults).
1002 live-getty::
1004 This changes the auto-login on virtual terminals to use the (experimental)
1005 live-getty code. With this option set the standard kernel argument
1006 "console=" is
1007 parsed and if a serial console is specified then live-getty is used to
1008 autologin
1009 on the serial console.
1011 {live-media|bootfrom}=**DEVICE**::
1013 If you specify one of this two equivalent forms, live-initramfs will
1014 first try
1015 to find this device for the "/live" directory where the read-only root
1016 filesystem should reside. If it did not find something usable, the
1017 normal scan
1018 for block devices is performed.
1020 Instead of specifing an actual device name, the keyword 'removable' can
1021 be used
1022 to limit the search of acceptable live media to removable type only. Note
1023 that
1024 if you want to further restrict the media to usb mass storage only, you
1025 can use
1026 the 'removable-usb' keyword.
1028 {live-media-encryption|encryption}=**TYPE**::
1030 live-initramfs will mount the encrypted rootfs TYPE, asking the passphrase,
1031 useful to build paranoid live systems :-). TYPE supported so far are
1032 "aes" for
1033 loop-aes encryption type.
1035 live-media-offset=**BYTES**::
1037 This way you could tell live-initramfs that your image starts at offset
1038 BYTES in
1039 the above specified or autodiscovered device, this could be useful to
1040 hide the
1041 Debian Live iso or image inside another iso or image, to create "clean"
1042 images.
1044 live-media-path=**PATH**::
1046 Sets the path to the live filesystem on the medium. By default, it is set to
1047 '/live' and you should not change that unless you have customized your media
1048 accordingly.
1050 live-media-timeout=**SECONDS**::
1052 Set the timeout in seconds for the device specified by "live-media="
1053 to become
1054 ready before giving up.
1056 {locale|debian-installer/locale}=**LOCALE**::
1058 Configure the running locale as specified, if not present the live-media
1059 rootfs
1060 configured locale will be used and if also this one misses live-initramfs
1061 behave
1062 as "locale=en_US.UTF-8" was specified. If only 2 lowercase letter are
1063 specified
1064 (like "it"), the "maybe wanted" locale is generated (like en:EN.UTF-8),
1065 in this
1066 case if also "keyb=" is unspecified is set with those 2 lowercase letters
1067 (keyb=us). Beside that facility, only UTF8 locales are supported by
1068 live-initramfs.
1070 module=**NAME**::
1072 Instead of using the default optional file "filesystem.module" (see below)
1073 another file could be specified without the extension ".module"; it should be
1074 placed on "/live" directory of the live medium.
1076 netboot[=**nfs**|**cifs**]::
1078 This tells live-initramfs to perform a network mount. The parameter
1079 "nfsroot="
1080 (with optional "nfsopts="), should specify where is the location of the root
1081 filesystem. With no args, will try cifs first, and if it fails nfs.
1083 nfsopts=::
1085 This lets you specify custom nfs options.
1087 noautologin::
1089 This parameter disables the automatic terminal login only, not touching
1090 gdk/kdm.
1092 noxautologin::
1094 This parameter disables the automatic login of gdm/kdm only, not touching
1095 terminals.
1097 nofastboot::
1099 This parameter disables the default disabling of filesystem checks in
1100 /etc/fstab. If you have static filesystems on your harddisk and you want
1101 them to
1102 be checked at boot time, use this parameter, otherwise they are skipped.
1104 nopersistent::
1106 disables the "persistent" feature, useful if the bootloader (like syslinux)
1107 has
1108 been installed with persistent enabled.
1110 noprompt
1112 Do not prompt to eject the CD or remove the USB flash drive on reboot.
1114 nosudo::
1116 This parameter disables the automatic configuration of sudo.
1118 swapon::
1120 This parameter enables usage of local swap partitions.
1122 nouser::
1124 This parameter disables the creation of the default user completely.
1126 noxautoconfig::
1128 This parameter disables Xorg auto-reconfiguration at boot time. This
1129 is valuable
1130 if you either do the detection on your own, or, if you want to ship a custom,
1131 premade xorg.conf in your live system.
1133 persistent[=nofiles]::
1135 live-initramfs will look for persistent and snapshot partitions or files
1136 labeled
1137 "live-rw", "home-rw", and files called "live-sn*", "home-sn*" and will
1138 try to,
1139 in order: mount as /cow the first, mount the second in /home, and just
1140 copy the
1141 contents of the latter in appropriate locations (snapshots). Snapshots
1142 will be
1143 tried to be updated on reboot/shutdown. Look at live-snapshot(1) for more
1144 informations. If "nofiles" is specified, only filesystems with matching
1145 labels
1146 will be searched; no filesystems will be traversed looking for archives
1147 or image
1148 files. This results in shorter boot times.
1150 persistent-path=PATH
1152 live-initramfs will look for persistency files in the root directory of
1153 a partition,
1154 with this parameter, the path can be configured so that you can have multiple
1155 directories on the same partition to store persistency files.
1157 {preseed/file|file}=**FILE**::
1159 A path to a file present on the rootfs could be used to preseed debconf
1160 database.
1162 package/question=**VALUE**::
1164 All debian installed packages could be preseeded from command-line that way,
1165 beware of blanks spaces, they will interfere with parsing, use a preseed
1166 file in
1167 this case.
1169 quickreboot::
1171 This option causes live-initramfs to reboot without attempting to eject the
1172 media and without asking the user to remove the boot media.
1174 showmounts::
1176 This parameter will make live-initramfs to show on "/" the ro filesystems
1177 (mostly compressed) on "/live". This is not enabled by default because could
1178 lead to problems by applications like "mono" which store binary paths on
1179 installation.
1181 silent
1183 If you boot with the normal quiet parameter, live-initramfs hides most
1184 messages
1185 of its own. When adding silent, it hides all.
1187 textonly
1189 Start up to text-mode shell prompts, disabling the graphical user interface.
1191 timezone=**TIMEZONE**::
1193 By default, timezone is set to UTC. Using the timezone parameter, you can
1194 set it
1195 to your local zone, e.g. Europe/Zurich.
1197 todisk=**DEVICE**::
1199 Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the entire read-only
1200 media to the specified device before mounting the root filesystem. It
1201 probably
1202 needs a lot of free space. Subsequent boots should then skip this step
1203 and just
1204 specify the "live-media=DEVICE" boot parameter with the same DEVICE used this
1205 time.
1207 toram::
1209 Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the whole read-only
1210 media
1211 to the computer's RAM before mounting the root filesystem. This could need
1212 a lot
1213 of ram, according to the space used by the read-only media.
1215 union=**aufs**|**unionfs**::
1217 By default, live-initramfs uses aufs. With this parameter, you can switch to
1218 unionfs.
1220 utc=**yes**|**no**::
1222 By default, Debian systems do assume that the hardware clock is set to
1223 UTC. You
1224 can change or explicitly set it with this parameter.
1226 xdebconf::
1228 Uses xdebconfigurator, if present on the rootfs, to configure X instead
1229 of the
1230 standard procedure (experimental).
1232 xvideomode=**RESOLUTION**::
1234 Doesn't do xorg autodetection, but enforces a given resolution.
1236 Files
1237 -----
1239 /etc/live.conf
1241 Some variables can be configured via this config file (inside the live
1242 system).
1244 /live/filesystem.module
1246 This optional file (inside the live media) contains a list of white-space or
1247 carriage-return-separated file names corresponding to disk images in the
1248 "/live"
1249 directory. If this file exists, only images listed here will be merged
1250 into the
1251 root aufs, and they will be loaded in the order listed here. The first entry
1252 in this file will be the "lowest" point in the aufs, and the last file in
1253 this list will be on the "top" of the aufs, directly below /cow. Without
1254 this file, any images in the "/live" directory are loaded in alphanumeric
1255 order.
1257 /etc/live-persistence.binds
1259 This optional file (which resides in the rootfs system, not in the live
1260 media)
1261 is used as a list of directories which not need be persistent: ie. their
1262 content does not need to survive reboots when using the persistence features.
1264 This saves expensive writes and speeds up operations on volatile data such as
1265 web caches and temporary files (like e.g. /tmp and .mozilla) which are
1266 regenerated each time. This is achieved by bind mounting each listed
1267 directory
1268 with a tmpfs on the original path.
1270 See also
1271 --------
1273 live-snapshot(1), initramfs-tools(8), live-helper(7), live-initscripts(7),
1274 live-webhelper(7)
1276 Bugs
1277 ----
1279 Report bugs against live-initramfs
1280 http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs.
1282 Homepage
1283 --------
1285 More information about the Debian Live project can be found at
1286 http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/ and
1287 http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/.
1289 Authors
1290 -------
1292 live-initramfs is maintained by Daniel Baumann &lt;daniel@debian.org&amp;gt;
1293 for the Debian project.
1295 live-initramfs is a fork of casper.
1296 casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen
1297 &lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
1298 and Matt Zimmerman &lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
1303 About Clonezilla Live
1304 ==============================================================================
1306 Intro
1307 ****************************************
1308 The DRBL-based PXEBoot Clonezilla is used to clone many computers
1309 simultaneously. It is an extremely useful tool, however, it does have several
1310 limitations. In order to use it, you must first prepare a DRBL server AND
1311 the machine to be cloned must boot from a network (e.g. PXE/Etherboot).
1313 To address these limitations, the Free Software Lab at the NCHC has combined
1314 Debian Live {{ http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/ }} with Clonezilla
1315 to produce "Clonezilla Live", a new software that can be used to easily
1316 clone individual machines.
1318 Clonezilla Live provides two modes of operation:
1320 * device-image
1321 In this mode of operation, a disk/partition can be saved to an
1322 image file. This image file can be used to restore the original
1323 disk/partition. With Clonezilla-SysRescCD, it can also be used to create an
1324 automated restore CD/DVD. This is the mode of operation we will discuss here.
1326 * device-device (cloning)
1327 This mode of operation creates an exact copy of the original disk/partition
1328 on the fly.
1330 When working in device-image mode, you will always have to specify three
1331 things:
1333 * The location of the image file
1334 * The working parameters for the operation
1335 * The disk/partition that will be saved/restored
1337 Clonezilla Live provides a user friendly interface in order to insert
1338 this data.
1340 When Clonezilla Live is booted up, either normally or copied to RAM, the
1341 contents of the whole CD/DVD can be found in folder /live/image. This
1342 is where you will find any extra files, such as the restorecd and the
1343 doc folders.
1345 Starting and stopping Clonezilla Live
1346 ****************************************
1347 When you boot into Clonezilla Live, the program (actually a script) starts
1348 automatically. There are many places where you can stop it, by selecting
1349 Cancel or answering N(o) to a question. When you do that you will probably
1350 get the following:
1351 Now you can choose to:
1352 (0) Poweroff
1353 (1) Reboot
1354 (2) Enter command line prompt
1355 (3) Start over
1356 [2]
1358 Select Poweroff or Reboot, only if you haven't already mounted a disk
1359 partition. I found out by experience, it is not always safe to let any live
1360 CD automatically unmount my partitions. So if you have already specified
1361 the image partition and/or the partition to save/restore, you should enter
1362 command line prompt and type:
1363 sudo su -
1364 mount | grep /dev/[sh]d
1365 and then unmount the partitions shown by the last command. So if the
1366 results of this command is for example:
1367 /dev/hda1 on /home/partimag type vfat (rw)
1368 just type the command:
1369 umount /dev/hda1
1370 and it's now safe to Poweroff of Reboot.
1372 If, on the other hand, you just want to restart the program, type:
1373 ocs-live
1375 About the Image file
1376 ****************************************
1377 One thing should be made clear about the image file: it is not a file,
1378 it is a folder, containing the actual image file and some data about the
1379 disk/partition it is associated with. So when you insert the image file name,
1380 you actually insert the folder name where the image will be saved/restored.
1382 Before you are able to insert the image file name, a list of partitions
1383 will be presented to you, so that you can choose where it should be
1384 saved/found. When you select one of them, it will be mounted and a list
1385 of folders will be presented to you, so you can select the base image
1386 directory (first level directory within the partition), which will then
1387 be mounted under /home/partimag. This way you can, for example, create a
1388 folder called all_my_images in one of your disk partitions, and move all
1389 your image files in there; Clonezilla Live will be able to find them!!!
1391 Another thing that should be pointed out is that only unmounted partitions
1392 will be included in the above list. This means that if you have stopped
1393 the program at some point after specifying the partition where the image
1394 file resides, and it has been mounted, it will not be present in the list
1395 the next time it is presented to you, and you will not be able to use it.
1397 There are two things you can do in this case; either unmount the partition,
1398 as stated above, or select
1399 skip Use existing /home/partimag
1401 instead of any other option, when you restart the program. The later of
1402 course means that you still want to use the previously specified partition
1403 as the image file location.
1405 Fianlly I should say that Clonezilla Live is able to use a remote
1406 disk/partition as the location of the image file, mounted through ssh,
1407 samba or nfs. Using any of these options is a more advanced topic, way
1408 beyond the scope of this presentation.
1410 Scripts' options
1411 ****************************************
1412 This section presents the options which are available at the "Clonezilla
1413 advanced extra parameters" screens, if the "Expert" mode is selected. For
1414 other options, see Getting backups and Restoring data.
1416 Backup options
1417 ---------------------
1418 > Imaging program priority
1420 -q2 Priority: partclone > partimage > dd
1421 -q1 Priority: Only dd (supports all filesystem, but inefficient)
1422 -q Priority: ntfsclone > partimage > dd
1423 Priority: partimage > dd (no ntfsclone)
1425 This option chooses which imaging programs are preferred. By default,
1426 Clonezilla Live uses partclone for nearly all filesystems, including
1427 ext2/3/4, NTFS and FAT32. If a filesystem isn't supported by partclone,
1428 but is supported by partimage (spesifically: if the filesystem is HFS,
1429 HPFS or JFS), it is cloned by partimage. If it isn't supported by either
1430 (for example Linux swap, though it doesn't make any sense to clone swap
1431 partitions), it is cloned by dd. Unlike partclone or partimage, dd copies
1432 all blocks of the partition instead of only used, resulting in slower
1433 imaging process and bigger images.
1435 Normally the default option -q2 should be preferred. Try another option
1436 if you have problems and believe they are caused by the imaging program used.
1438 > Various parameters
1440 These options are available at the second "Clonezilla advanced extra
1441 parameters" screen.
1442 -c Client waits for confirmation before cloning
1443 This option causes Clonezilla Live to ask if you really want to clone the
1444 disk/partition just before it starts cloning. It is enabled by default.
1446 -j2 Clone the hidden data between MBR and 1st partition
1447 If this option is set, the 15 hidden sectors between Master Boot Record
1448 and the first partition are copied. This area usually contains some data
1449 necessary for booting. The option is enabled by default and should be kept
1450 enabled if you are cloning a bootable disk.
1452 -nogui Use text output only, no TUI/GUI output
1453 Causes Clonezilla Live to force the used programs to use only command-line
1454 interface even if text-based or graphical user interface is available.
1456 -a Do NOT force to turn on HD DMA
1457 Prevents Clonezilla Live from using DMA for communicating with hard
1458 drives. Slows cloning down but in some conditions cloning without this
1459 option can be impossible.
1461 -rm-win-swap-hib Remove page and hibernation files in Win if exists
1462 This option prevents Clonezilla Live from cloning your page file if you
1463 are cloning a partition containing Windows. Often the page file is big
1464 and unneeded, and skipping it may speed cloning up without causing any
1465 harm. Mind you, this option is disabled by default because sometimes the
1466 page file may be necessary.
1468 -ntfs-ok Skip checking NTFS integrity, even bad sectors (ntfsclone only)
1469 This option works only if you selected the -q option and you're cloning
1470 a NTFS partition. It prevents the integrity check of NTFS partitions and
1471 speeds the cloning process up a little. However, if the check is disabled,
1472 there is a risk that the filesystem is damaged and the image created from
1473 it is useless.
1475 -rescue Continue reading next one when disk blocks read errors
1476 If this option is set, Clonezilla Live continues cloning even if a read
1477 error occurs. If there is one, the disk image will be corrupted, but
1478 failing hard drives can only be cloned with this option enabled.
1480 -fsck-src-part Check and repair source file system before saving
1481 This option causes Clonezilla Live to check the integrity of the partition(s)
1482 to be cloned. If the filesystem of the partition is damaged, Clonezilla Live
1483 also attempts to repair it automatically. Enabling this option reduces the
1484 risk that the image contains a damaged filesystem. However, the option is
1485 disabled by default because the automatic filesystem repair attempt may
1486 cause data loss.
1488 -gm Generate image MD5 checksums
1489 Causes Clonezilla Live to calculate MD5 checksum(s) of image(s) created. If
1490 the image gets corrupted afterwards, the checksum allows to notice the
1491 corruption before the image is restored. Mind you, calculating the checksum
1492 takes some time and slows the process down a little.
1494 -gs Generate image SHA1 checksums
1495 This option is identical to the above, but creates SHA1 checksum(s) instead
1496 of MD5. SHA1 is considered to be more accurate checksum algorithm than MD5,
1497 but MD5 is more popular.
1499 > Compression method
1501 -z1p Use parallel gzip compression (testing), for multicore/CPU
1502 -z1 gzip compression (fast with a smaller image)
1503 -z2p Use parallel bzip2 compression (testing), for multicore/CPU
1504 -z2 bzip2 compression (slowest but smallest image)
1505 -z3 lzo compression (faster with image size approx. to that of
1506 gzip)(NOTE!!)
1507 -z4
1508 lzma_compression_(slowest_but_also_small_image,_faster_decompression_than_bzip2)
1509 -z5p Use_parallel_xz_compression_(testing),_for_multicore/CPU
1510 -z5
1511 xz_compression_(slowest_but_also_small_image,_faster_decompression_than_bzip2)
1512 -z6p Use_parallel_lzip_compression_(testing),_for_multicore/CPU
1513 -z6
1514 lzip_compression_(slowest_but_also_small_image,_faster_decompression_than_bzip2)
1515 -z0 No compression (fastest but largest image size)
1517 This option chooses the method which is used to compress the image while
1518 creating it.
1520 If no compression is used at all, there won't be any negative speed impact
1521 caused by compression. However, the image file size is the size of all the
1522 data backed up - for example, if you clone a 160 GB hard drive containing
1523 60 gigabytes of data, the resulting disk image will be 60 gigabytes in size.
1525 Gzip and lzop are fast compression methods. Lzop is many times faster than
1526 gzip, but creates slightly larger images. Clonezilla Live warns that lzop
1527 requires good-quality RAM, but I (the contributor who wrote this chapter)
1528 think other compression methods require good RAM too.
1530 Bzip2, lzma, xz and lzip are powerful compression methods. Lzma creates a
1531 little smaller images than bzip2, and decompressing lzma-compressed images
1532 is faster than decompressing bzip2 images. But there is no free lunch:
1533 lzma compression method is very slow compared even to bzip2, which isn't
1534 fast method either.
1536 Lzma method is becoming obsolete, and both xz and lzip are attempting to
1537 become its successor. They are a bit less powerful compression methods than
1538 lzma, but much faster. The differences between xz and lzip are virtually
1539 non-existent.
1541 If you don't use the i486 version of Clonezilla-SysRescCD and your
1542 processor contains multiple cores and/or supports Hyper-Threading, parallel
1543 gzip, bzip2, xz and lzip compression methods are also available. Parallel
1544 compression means that each processor core compresses a different part of the
1545 image at a time. Without parallel compression one core compresses everything.
1547 The speed impact caused by parallel compression depends on the number
1548 of processor cores available. In addition, Hyper-Threading increases the
1549 speed by about 30 % if parallel compression is used. For example, if your
1550 processor contains four cores and supports Hyper-Threading, speed with
1551 parallel compression is nearly 5,2 times as high as without. However,
1552 parallel compression is currently an experimental feature.
1554 > Splitting
1556 This option (command line: -i [number]) decides if the created image files
1557 are splitted into smaller pieces, and if yes, how large the pieces are. This
1558 setting doesn't usually matter, but some filesystems (most importantly
1559 FAT32) don't allow files larger than four gigabytes. If you're saving the
1560 disk image to a FAT32 partition, enter 4000 or less. (Value 0 disables
1561 splitting, so don't use it in that case.) If the filesystem allows files
1562 big enough, enter any value which isn't too small (you don't want to split
1563 the image into too many pieces, do you?)
1565 Clonezilla Live warns that it is no longer safe to disable splitting because
1566 value 0 can confuse init. I (the contributor) don't know what the warning
1567 exactly means and haven't been able to reproduce the problem. Anyway,
1568 entering a very big value, for example 999999999999, is a safe way to keep
1569 the image in one piece.
1571 > Postaction
1573 -p true Do nothing when the clone finishes
1574 -p reboot Reboot client when the clone finishes
1575 -p poweroff Shutdown client when the clone finishes
1577 In this screen you can decide what Clonezilla Live does when the
1578 disk/partition is cloned.
1580 Spiros told above that he has found out that it's not always safe to allow
1581 Live CDs automatically unmount partitions, and I have lost data when trying
1582 auto-unmount with a script. So, avoid -p reboot and -p poweroff options
1583 if possible. You have been warned.
1585 Restore options (script ocs-sr)
1586 ---------------------
1587 > Various parameters
1589 These options are available at the first "Clonezilla advanced extra
1590 parameters" screen.
1591 -g auto Reinstall grub in client disk MBR (only if grub config exists)
1592 Causes Clonezilla Live to reinstall GRUB into the Master Boot Record
1593 of the disk if at least one partition contains GRUB config file
1594 (/boot/grub/menu.lst). The option is enabled by default and shouldn't
1595 cause any harm. However, it should be disabled if you for example have
1596 another bootloader in MBR and chainload GRUB with it.
1598 -e1 auto Automatically adjust filesystem geometry for a NTFS boot partition
1599 if exists
1600 The NTLDR bootloader used by Windows isn't able to determine automatically
1601 where the files it needs are stored. It only knows their physical locations,
1602 which sometimes change when the disk or partition is copied. If the locations
1603 are changed and this option is selected, the location information of the
1604 files is changed accordingly. This option is enabled by default and if
1605 it's disabled, the cloned Windows will fail to boot.
1607 -e2 sfdisk uses CHS of hard drive from EDD(for non-grub boot loader)
1608 This option requires that the -e1 auto option is selected. It causes
1609 Clonezilla Live to use disk read interface named EDD for determining the
1610 physical locations of the files when updating the location information
1611 used by NTLDR. The option is enabled by default because it reduces the
1612 risk that Windows doesn't boot.
1614 -hn0 PC Change MS Win hostname (based on IP address) after clone
1615 If this option is selected and a partition containing Microsoft Windows is
1616 cloned, its IP address -based hostname is changed after cloning. Computers
1617 which are on any network simultaneously need to have different hostnames,
1618 so this option is needed if a Windows system is cloned to another computer
1619 and the original computer is still used in addition to the one where the
1620 image was restored to.
1622 -hn1 PC Change MS Win hostname (based on MAC address) after clone
1623 This option causes the MAC address -based hostname of Windows to change. This
1624 option needs also be enabled in the above condition.
1626 -v Prints verbose messages (especially for udpcast)
1627 Causes Clonezilla Live to tell more information of what it does.
1629 -nogui Use text output only, no TUI/GUI output
1630 Causes Clonezilla Live to force the used programs to use only command-line
1631 interface even if text-based or graphical user interface is available.
1633 -b Run clone in batch mode (DANGEROUS!)
1634 Causes Clonezilla Live to run in batch mode. According to Clonezilla
1635 Live reference card, this option is dangerous, though I (the contributor)
1636 don't know why.
1638 -c Client waits for confirmation before cloning
1639 This option causes Clonezilla Live to ask if you really want to clone the
1640 disk/partition just before it starts cloning. It is enabled by default.
1642 -t Client does not restore the MBR (Mater Boot Record)
1643 Do NOT restore the MBR (Mater Boot Record) when restoring image. If this
1644 option is set, you must make sure there is an existing MBR in the current
1645 restored harddisk. Default is Yes.
1647 -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For Windows only)
1648 If this option is set, the MBR is overwritten by prebuilt one which
1649 chainloads Windows. Use this option if you have to restore Windows and
1650 make it bootable, but don't have the original MBR or backup of it.
1652 -r Try to resize the filesystem to fit partition size
1653 This option is useful if you are cloning a small disk to larger one. It
1654 tries to resize the restored filesystem to the size of the partition where
1655 it was restored to. It allows you to use the whole size of your new disk
1656 without resizing the partition afterwards. The option requires that the
1657 disk where the image is copied already contains a partition where the
1658 image is restored or that the option -k1 is enabled.
1660 -e sfdisk uses the CHS value of hard drive from the saved image
1661 Force to use the saved CHS (cylinders, heads, sectors) when using sfdisk. Of
1662 cource, there is no use of it when using any of -j0, -k or -k2 options.
1664 -icrc Ignore CRC checking of partclone
1665 This option causes partclone to skip checking the CRC32 checksums of
1666 the image. Enabling this option speeds the restore process up. However,
1667 if this option is enabled and the -cm and -cs options are disabled, there
1668 is no way to notice if the image has corrupted.
1670 -j1 Write MBR (512 B) again after image is restored. Not OK for partition
1671 table diffe
1672 When a disk image is restored, the partition table must be updated to
1673 reflect the actual partitions in the disk. If you don't want it to happen,
1674 enable this option. Then the Master Boot Record (including the partition
1675 table) is restored again after restoring the image. Note that using this
1676 option can destroy all the data in the target drive.
1678 -j2 Clone the hidden data between MBR and 1st partition
1679 If this option is set, the 15 hidden sectors between Master Boot Record
1680 and the first partition are restored. This area usually contains some data
1681 necessary for booting. The option is enabled by default and should be kept
1682 enabled if you are cloning a bootable disk.
1684 -cm Check image by MD5 checksums
1685 If the image folder contains MD5 checksum(s), this option causes Clonezilla
1686 Live to check if the image has corrupted by calculating its checksum and
1687 comparing it to the precalculated one. Mind you, calculating the checksum
1688 takes some time and slows the process down a little.
1690 -cs Check image by SHA1 checksums
1691 This option is identical to the above, but checks SHA1 checksum(s) instead
1692 of MD5.
1694 -a Do NOT force to turn on HD DMA
1695 Prevents Clonezilla Live from using DMA for communicating with hard
1696 drives. Slows cloning down but in some conditions cloning without this
1697 option can be impossible.
1699 -o0 Run script in $OCS_PRERUN_DIR before clone starts
1700 Run the scripts in the directory $OCS_PRERUN_DIR before clone is
1701 started. The location of the directory can be determined by editing the
1702 file drbl-ocs.conf. By default it is /opt/drbl/share/ocs/prerun.
1704 -o1 Run script in $OCS_POSTRUN_DIR as clone finishes
1705 Run the scripts in the directory $OCS_POSTRUN_DIR when clone is
1706 finished. The location of the directory can be determined by editing the
1707 file drbl-ocs.conf. By default it is /opt/drbl/share/ocs/postrun. The
1708 command will be run before that assigned in -p.
1710 The scripts will be executed by the program "run-parts". run-parts only
1711 accepts that the name of the scripts must consist entirely of upper and
1712 lower case letters, digits and underscores. So if your file name has an
1713 illegal character ".", run-parts won't run it. You can test which files
1714 will be executed by entering the command:
1715 run-parts --test /opt/drbl/share/ocs/postrun
1717 > Partition table
1719 This option decides what is done to the partition table of the target drive.
1720 Use the partition table from the image
1721 This option causes Clonezilla Live to copy the partition table from the
1722 image. Use this option if you are cloning a whole disk or somehow know that
1723 the partition tables are identical (for example, if you are restoring a
1724 partition to the same disk where it was copied from and haven't repartitioned
1725 the drive after creating the backup). This is the default option.
1727 -k Do NOT create a partition table on the target disk
1728 Do NOT create partition in target harddisk. If this option is set,
1729 you must make sure there is an existing partition table in the current
1730 restored harddisk.
1732 -k1 Create partition table proportionally (OK for MRB format, not GPT)
1733 Causes Clonezilla Live to create the partition table automatically using
1734 sfdisk after restoring the images. This option works nearly always, but
1735 sometimes cloned Windows don't boot. Note that this option doesn't work if
1736 you have GUID Partition Table on your disk. (Most likely you don't have one.)
1738 -k2 Enter command line prompt to create partition manually later
1739 Like the -k option, this option doesn't create the partition table
1740 automatically. However, after restoring the image you are led to command
1741 line prompt where you can create the partition table manually. Don't use
1742 this option if you don't know how the partition table can be created.
1744 -j0 Use dd to create partition (NOT OK if logical drives exist)
1745 Use dd to dump the partition table from saved image instead of sfdisk.
1747 We read in DRBL FAQ/Q&A {{
1748 http://drbl.sourceforge.net/faq/fine-print.php?path=./2_System/23_Missing_OS.faq#23_Missing_OS.faq
1749 }}:
1751 When I use clonezilla to clone MS windows, there is no any problem
1752 when saving an image from template machine. However, after the image
1753 is restored to another machine, it fails to boot, the error message is
1754 "Missing Operating System" or just a blinking underscore. What's going on ?
1755 Usually this is because GNU/Linux and M$ windows interpret the CHS (cylinder,
1756 head, sector) value of harddrive differently. Some possible solutions:
1757 1. Maybe you can change the IDE harddrive setting in BIOS, try to use
1758 LBA instead of auto mode.
1759 2. Try to choose both
1760 [*] -j0 Use dd to create partition table instead of sfdisk
1761 and
1762 [*] -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For
1763 Windows only)
1764 when you restore the image.
1765 3. Try to choose
1766 [*] -t1 Client restores the prebuilt MBR from syslinux (For
1767 Windows only)
1768 and *uncheck*
1769 [ ] -g auto Reinstall grub in client disk MBR (only if grub
1770 config exists)
1771 [ ] -r Try to resize the filesystem to fit partition size
1772 when you restore the image. You can refer to this discussion {{
1773 http://www.ecs.umass.edu/pipermail/umasslug/2008-August/003380.html
1774 }}. Thanks to Alex Mckenzie for posting this on the forum.
1775 4. You can try to boot the machine with MS Windows 9x bootable floppy,
1776 and in the DOS command prompt, run: "fdisk /mbr".
1777 5. You can try to boot the machine with MS Windows XP installation
1778 CD, enter recovery mode (by pressing F10 key in MS XP, for example),
1779 then in the console, run "fixmbr" to fix it. Maybe another command
1780 "fixboot" will help, too. For more info, refer to this doc {{
1781 http://support.microsoft.com/?scid=kb%3Ben-us%3B314058&x=7&y=14 }}
1782 6. Use ntfsfixboot to fix it. This program is included in Clonezila live
1783 and its name is partclone.ntfsfixboot, and you can use it to adjust FS
1784 geometry on NTFS partitions. By default this should be done by Clonezilla
1785 with the option -e1 and -e2 checked. If not, you can force to do that
1786 again. For more info, please run "partclone.ntfsfixboot --help" or refer
1787 to http://sourceforge.net/projects/ntfsfixboot/.
1788 7. Use ntfsreloc to adjust FS geometry on NTFS partitions. For more info,
1789 refer to http://www.linux-ntfs.org/doku.php?id=contrib:ntfsreloc. //NOTE//
1790 ntfsreloc is an older version of partclone.ntfsfixboot.
1791 8. If you get error messages like "0xc0000225, 0xc00000e", and something
1792 about Winload.exe, refer to this.
1793 9. Some more discussions are available here.
1795 It has been confirmed that activating the -j0 option, usually fixes the
1796 problem.
1798 This option doesn't work if you use LVM (Logical Volume Manager).
1800 exit Exit
1801 This option ends the restore process and enters command line prompt.
1803 > Postaction
1805 -p true Do nothing when the clone finishes
1806 -p reboot Reboot client when the clone finishes
1807 -p poweroff Shutdown client when the clone finishes
1809 When image restoration finishes, do one of the following: choose action
1810 (default), poweroff or reboot.
1812 Saving image files in NTFS partitions
1813 ****************************************
1814 Although not recomended, you may find yourself having to save your image
1815 file in a NTFS (Windows XP) partition. You may never have a problem doing
1816 this, but you may get a message like the following one, when the partition
1817 gets mounted:
1818 Volume is scheduled for check
1819 Please boot into Windows TWICE, or use 'force' mount option"
1820 and the backup procedure fails. There are two things you can do here:
1822 * Exit the program, reboot and use Windows XP Recovery Console to fix the
1823 NTFS file system. From Recovery Console
1824 prompt, execute the command:
1825 chkdsk /f X:
1827 where X: is the drive letter of the disk. When done, boot back into
1828 Clonezilla Live and repeat the backup procedure.
1830 If the disk/partition you are trying to backup is not the Windows System
1831 disk (usually C:), you can boot Windows, and execute the command in a DOS
1832 window. To open a DOS window click Start / Run... and at the prompt Open:
1833 type cmd.
1835 If the Windows version you use is not XP and you're trying to backup the
1836 Windows System drive, boot into SystemRescueCD (graphical mode is not
1837 needed) and run the following command:
1838 ntfsfix /dev/hda1
1840 where /dev/hda1 is the partition name in GNU/Linux. When done, boot back
1841 into Clonezilla Live and repeat the backup procedure.
1843 * If Windows XP Recovery Console is not available, you don't have the time
1844 to execute the procedure described above, or even if you have executed it
1845 but you still get the same message, and you are absolutely sure that you
1846 get this message because the NTFS partition is really scheduled for check,
1847 and it's not because Windows crushed or have become corrupt, you can mount
1848 the patririon by hand and tell Clonezilla Live to use it. Assuming the
1849 partition is /dev/hda1, exit the program and execute the commands:
1850 sudo su -
1851 ntfs-3g -o force /dev/hda1 /home/partimag
1852 ocs-live
1854 and when you get to the screen "Mount clonezilla image directory", select
1855 skip Use existing /home/partimag
1860 Getting backups
1861 ==============================================================================
1863 Intro
1864 ****************************************
1865 In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting
1866 a backup of a virtual disk (/dev/sdb). The image file will be saved in a
1867 partition in another virtual disk (/dev/sda1).
1869 The first thing you do when you want to get a backup of a disk/partition,
1870 is make sure both the souce (to be backed up) and target (to hold the
1871 image file) partitions are in excellent condition (error free). This is the
1872 logical thing to do, cause I wouldn't want to backup a corrupt partition,
1873 or end up with a corrupt image file.
1875 There is one more step I would want to take: I should check that my BIOS
1876 boot settings are correct, in order to boot from my CD/DVD drive.
1878 Having done all of the above, I am ready to boot from Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
1880 [[ info.png ]]
1881 The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.8-46
1883 Getting the backup
1884 ****************************************
1885 Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
1886 ---------------------
1887 If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
1888 English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
1889 and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
1890 Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
1891 comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
1892 that continue from this step.
1894 If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
1895 Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
1896 displayed.
1898 The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
1899 are the following:
1901 append initrd=/live/initrd.img boot=live config nomodeset nolocales noprompt
1902 noswap edd=on ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1903 ocs_prerun="/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1904 ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791
1906 By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
1907 values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
1908 (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
1910 append initrd=/live/initrd.img boot=live config nomodeset nolocales noprompt
1911 noswap edd=on ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
1912 ocs_prerun="/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
1913 ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791
1915 Screen "Choose Language"
1916 ---------------------
1917 [[ backup-00.png ]]
1918 I select "en_US.UTF-8 English" and press ENTER.
1920 Screen "Configuring console-data"
1921 ---------------------
1922 [[ backup-01.png ]]
1923 I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
1924 US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
1926 Screen "Configuring console-data"
1927 ---------------------
1928 [[ backup-02.png ]]
1929 As I (the contributor who wrote a great deal of this page) use Finnish
1930 keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish / Standard / Standard". Because
1931 you most likely use a different keyboard, choose the one you use.
1933 Screen "Start Clonezilla"
1934 ---------------------
1935 [[ backup-03.png ]]
1936 I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
1938 Screen "Clonezilla"
1939 ---------------------
1940 [[ backup-04.png ]]
1941 I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
1943 Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
1944 ---------------------
1945 In this screen I can select the way the image file directory will be saved.
1946 Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
1947 samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
1948 about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
1950 [[ backup-05.png ]]
1951 I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
1953 Next screen
1954 ---------------------
1955 This is where I choose the location of the image file. It will be saved
1956 at the root directory of the selected partition.
1958 [[ backup-06.png ]]
1959 I select partition sda1 and press ENTER.
1961 [[ backup-07.png ]]
1962 and then ENTER again.
1964 [[ backup-08.png ]]
1965 This screen displays the mounting result.
1966 As we can see, /dev/sda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
1968 Next Screen
1969 ---------------------
1970 [[ backup-09.png ]]
1971 I select Beginner mode to accept the default backup options. If you select
1972 Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
1973 found here.
1975 Screen "Select mode"
1976 ---------------------
1977 Here I can select the desired operation.
1979 [[ backup-10.png ]]
1980 I select "savedisk" and press ENTER.
1982 Next Screen
1983 ---------------------
1984 [[ backup-11.png ]]
1985 In this screen I select the image name.
1986 I type "Backup_32-2011_sdb", which in my opinion is more informative name
1987 than the default.
1989 Next Screen
1990 ---------------------
1991 [[ backup-12.png ]]
1992 Then I am asked to select the disk to save.
1993 I just press ENTER again.
1995 Next screen
1996 ---------------------
1997 [[ backup-12a.png ]]
1998 And I press ENTER again to enable image validation.
2000 Starting the backup
2001 ---------------------
2002 [[ backup-13.png ]]
2003 Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2004 ask me to press ENTER.
2005 Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
2007 [[ backup-14.png ]]
2008 After that, the backup begins
2010 [[ backup-15.png ]]
2011 and when it's successfully completed, I press ENTER to get to the
2012 shell. Then, I execute the commands:
2013 sudo su -
2014 cd
2015 umount -a
2016 reboot
2018 to reboot the system.
2023 Getting backups on Samba
2024 ==============================================================================
2026 Intro
2027 ****************************************
2028 What if you don't have a spare local disk or partition or a USB disk? How
2029 will you be able to get a backup of your system? Well, if your PC is on
2030 the same LAN with another PC running Windows (or linux), you can use Samba
2031 to save your image file on that remote PC (which we will call Samba server
2032 from now on).
2034 Using Samba you will be able to mount a Windows share resource (or
2035 Samba share resource), from within Clonezilla Live, and save the image
2036 file there. Then you can boot that PC using SystemRescueCD and create a
2037 restore DVD.
2039 In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting
2040 a backup of my second disk (/dev/sdb). The image file will be save in my
2041 Samba server which is my laptop (ip:, Windows share resource name:
2042 all_my_images).
2044 What is Samba?
2045 ---------------------
2046 We read at http://us1.samba.org/samba/:
2048 Samba is an Open Source/Free Software suite that provides seamless file
2049 and print services to SMB/CIFS clients. Samba is freely available, unlike
2050 other SMB/CIFS implementations, and allows for interoperability between
2051 Linux/Unix servers and Windows-based clients.
2053 Samba is software that can be run on a platform other than Microsoft
2054 Windows, for example, UNIX, Linux, IBM System 390, OpenVMS, and other
2055 operating systems. Samba uses the TCP/IP protocol that is installed on the
2056 host server. When correctly configured, it allows that host to interact
2057 with a Microsoft Windows client or server as if it is a Windows file and
2058 print server.
2060 Gathering info
2061 ****************************************
2062 Before you can use this approach to get a backup, you have to get some
2063 info about the Samba server.
2065 The Samba server I have used for this example was my laptop, so I already
2066 knew most of the info required. If this is not the case for you, just ask
2067 the owner, user or system admin.
2069 The info required is:
2071 * The IP address of the Samba server
2072 * The domain on the Samba server
2073 This may exist if your PC is connected to a larger LAN (a corporation
2074 network, for example). In my case this is empty.
2075 * The user name and password you can use
2076 * The directory on the Samba server you can use to save your backup
2077 This is the name of the Windows share resource (Samba share resource)
2078 as it is known in the network, which is not necessarily the same as the
2079 local directory name. The user whose account will be used to login to the
2080 Samba server, must have write permission to this directory.
2082 Getting the backup
2083 ****************************************
2084 If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2085 English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2086 and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2087 Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2088 comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup.
2090 If you need to change these settings, go to the Getting backups page for
2091 instructions .
2093 Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2094 ---------------------
2095 [[ backup-03.png ]]
2096 I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2098 Screen "Clonezilla"
2099 ---------------------
2100 [[ backup-04.png ]]
2101 I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2103 Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2104 ---------------------
2105 In this screen I can select the way the image file directory will be saved.
2106 Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2107 samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2108 about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2110 [[ backup-smb-05.png ]]
2111 I select "samba server" and press ENTER.
2113 Screen "Mount Samba Server"
2114 ---------------------
2115 This is where I have to enter the IP address of my Samba server.
2116 [[ backup-smb-06.png ]]
2117 I type "" and press ENTER.
2119 Screen "Mount Samba Server" (second time)
2120 ---------------------
2121 This is where I have to enter the domain name on my Samba server.
2122 [[ backup-smb-07.png ]]
2123 I just press ENTER, as there is no domain in my LAN. If there is a domain
2124 in your network, you have to type its name (something like my_company.com)
2125 and press ENTER.
2127 Screen "Mount Samba Server" (third time)
2128 ---------------------
2129 This is where I have to enter the account (user) name on my Samba server.
2130 [[ backup-smb-08.png ]]
2131 I type "spiros" and press ENTER.
2133 Screen "Mount Samba Server" (fourth time)
2134 ---------------------
2135 This is where I have to enter the directory name on my Samba server, in
2136 which the image file will be saved. I type "/all_my_images" and press ENTER.
2137 [[ backup-smb-09.png ]]
2139 At this point I'm informed I'm going to be asked for the password for
2140 user spiros.
2141 [[ backup-smb-10.png ]]
2142 I will be able to continue only after entering it correctly.
2143 [[ backup-smb-11.png ]]
2145 Screen "Clonezilla - Opensource Clone System (OCS)"
2146 ---------------------
2147 [[ backup-09.png ]]
2148 I select Beginner mode to accept the default backup options. If you select
2149 Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be
2150 found here.
2152 Screen "Select mode"
2153 ---------------------
2154 Here I can select the desired operation.
2156 [[ backup-10.png ]]
2157 I select "savedisk" and press ENTER.
2159 Next Screen
2160 ---------------------
2161 [[ backup-11.png ]]
2162 In this screen I select the image name.
2163 I type "Backup_32-2011_sdb", which in my opinion is more informative name
2164 than the default.
2166 Next Screen
2167 ---------------------
2168 [[ backup-12.png ]]
2169 Finally I am asked to select the disk to save.
2170 I just press ENTER again.
2172 Next screen
2173 ---------------------
2174 [[ backup-12a.png ]]
2175 And I press ENTER again to enable image validation.
2177 Starting the backup
2178 ---------------------
2179 [[ backup-13.png ]]
2180 Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2181 ask me to press ENTER.
2182 Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
2184 [[ backup-14.png ]]
2185 After that, the backup begins
2187 [[ backup-15.png ]]
2188 and when it's successfully completed, I press ENTER to get to the
2189 shell. Then, I execute the commands:
2190 sudo su -
2191 cd
2192 umount -a
2193 reboot
2195 to reboot the system.
2200 Restoring data
2201 ==============================================================================
2203 Intro
2204 ****************************************
2205 Image files are always created for one purpose: restoring the data they
2206 contain. Images can be, for example, a backup solution: as long as hardware
2207 works, the computer can be restored to the state it was when creating the
2208 image. Another usage scenario is changing the hard drive: files can be
2209 copy-pasted from the old drive to the new, but that method doesn't make
2210 the new drive bootable. Disk images do.
2212 This page contains a demonstration of the latter case. On the Getting backups
2213 page, a 500 MB virtual disk containing 160 megabytes of data was copied
2214 to a 2 GB virtual disk which was empty. Now the 500 MB disk is changed to
2215 an empty 2 GB disk (still virtual) and I'll restore the data to that disk.
2217 When creating a disk image, one needs to check that both the source and
2218 target partitions are error free. That's not required when the image is
2219 restored, because restoration process can't damage the disk image. Note,
2220 however, that restoring an image erases all the data in the target
2221 disk/partition.
2223 You also need to check the BIOS settings to be able to boot from
2224 Clonezilla-SysRescCD. Some BIOSes contain a boot menu, others require
2225 editing settings pernamently. Details can be found on the manual of the
2226 motherboard or laptop.
2228 Now let's boot.
2230 [[ important.png ]]
2231 Restore process erases all the data on the target disk/partition.Before
2232 restoring make sure you have backup of all the data on the target
2233 disk/partition, even if the filesystem is corrupted.
2235 [[ info.png ]]
2236 The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.8-46
2238 Restoring data
2239 ****************************************
2240 Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
2241 ---------------------
2242 If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2243 English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2244 and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2245 Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2246 comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
2247 that continue from this step.
2249 If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
2250 Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
2251 displayed.
2253 The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
2254 are the following:
2256 append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2257 ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2258 ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2259 ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
2261 By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
2262 values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
2263 (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
2265 append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2266 ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2267 ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2268 ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
2270 Screen "Choose Language"
2271 ---------------------
2272 [[ backup-00.png ]]
2273 This is where the language can be selected. I select "en_US.UTF-8 English"
2274 and press ENTER.
2276 Screen "Configuring console-data"
2277 ---------------------
2278 [[ backup-01.png ]]
2279 I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
2280 US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
2282 Screen "Configuring console-data"
2283 ---------------------
2284 [[ backup-02.png ]]
2285 Because I haven't changed my keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish /
2286 Standard / Standard". Because you most likely use a different keyboard,
2287 choose the one you use.
2289 Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2290 ---------------------
2291 [[ backup-03.png ]]
2292 I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2294 Screen "Clonezilla"
2295 ---------------------
2296 [[ backup-04.png ]]
2297 I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2299 Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2300 ---------------------
2301 In this screen I can select the way the image file directory has been saved.
2302 Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2303 samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2304 about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2306 [[ backup-05.png ]]
2307 I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
2309 Next screen
2310 ---------------------
2311 This is where I choose the location of the image file.
2312 [[ restoration-06.png ]]
2313 I select partition sda1 and press ENTER.
2315 [[ backup-07.png ]]
2317 [[ restoration-08.png ]]
2318 This screen displays the mounting result.
2319 As we can see, /dev/sda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
2321 Next Screen
2322 ---------------------
2323 [[ backup-09.png ]]
2324 I select Beginner mode to accept the default restore options. If you
2325 select Expert mode, you can choose the options yourself. More details can
2326 be found here.
2328 Screen "Select mode"
2329 ---------------------
2330 Here I can select the desired operation.
2332 [[ restoration-10.png ]]
2333 I select "restoredisk" and press ENTER.
2335 Next Screen
2336 ---------------------
2337 [[ restoration-11.png ]]
2338 In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only
2339 one image.
2341 Next Screen
2342 ---------------------
2343 [[ restoration-12.png ]]
2344 Finally I am asked to select which disk the image will be restored to. After
2345 double-checking the disk doesn't contain anything important, I press ENTER.
2347 Starting the restoration
2348 ---------------------
2349 [[ restoration-13.png ]]
2350 Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2351 ask me to press ENTER.
2352 Then I will be asked to confirm the operation by pressing y and ENTER.
2354 [[ restoration-14.png ]]
2356 [[ important.png ]]
2357 This is the last confirmation Clonezilla Live asks.After this step there
2358 is no coming back.
2359 Then my confirmation is asked one last time. After checking one more time
2360 the disk doesn't contain any important data, I press y and ENTER.
2362 [[ restoration-15.png ]]
2363 After that, the restore process begins
2365 [[ restoration-16.png ]]
2366 and when it's successfully completed, I press ENTER to get to the
2367 shell. Then, I execute the commands:
2368 sudo su -
2369 cd
2370 umount -a
2371 reboot
2373 to reboot the system.
2378 Creating a Restore DVD - Part 1
2379 ==============================================================================
2381 Intro
2382 ****************************************
2383 Assuming you have used Clonezilla Live to make a backup of your system (disk
2384 /dev/sdb), you will probably be wondering what to do with it now. Well,
2385 one option would be to keep it to the disk you used to save it in, store
2386 the disk, and use it whenever you need it. Another option would be to
2387 create a DVD you can use to restore this image.
2389 Before, up to Clonezilla-SysRescCD 2.6.0, the process to create an automated
2390 restore DVD required entering command line prompt and writing some commands,
2391 which can be uncomfortable or even difficult for many people.
2393 Later, a TUI option to create an automated recovery disc was added to
2394 Clonezilla Live, and ocs-iso script included in Clonezilla-SysRescCD
2395 3.1.0 and newer has a TUI too. Old command-line options are no longer
2396 supported. This page walks you through the creation of an automated restore
2397 DVD via TUI.
2399 You have to boot Clonezilla Live, using Clonezilla-SysRescCD.
2401 [[ info.png ]]
2402 The following pressentation has been made usingClonezilla Live v 1.2.8-46
2404 Creating the disk image
2405 ****************************************
2406 Clonezilla-SysRescCD starting screen
2407 ---------------------
2408 If you're fine with US keymap and English language (available languages are
2409 English, Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese and Chinese [both simplified
2410 and traditional]) or don't mind editing the boot parameters, just select
2411 Clonezilla Live at the starting screen and press ENTER. When the system
2412 comes up, it will load the program that will preform the backup. After
2413 that continue from this step.
2415 If you need to change these settings, select one of the available Clonezilla
2416 Live menu entries, and press TAB. The current boot parameters will be
2417 displayed.
2419 The default parameters for booting Clonezilla Live on a 1024x768 screen,
2420 are the following:
2422 append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2423 ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2424 ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2425 ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" vga=791 nolocales
2427 By deleting the words in red, you instruct Clonezilla Live to ask you the
2428 values of these parameters. When the appropriate changes have been done
2429 (as shown bellow), just press ENTER to boot.
2431 append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs
2432 ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general" ocs_live_extra_param=""
2433 ocs_prerun="/live/image/restorecd/prerun.normal" ocs_live_batch="no"
2434 ocs_lang="" ocs_live_keymap="" vga=791 nolocales
2436 Screen "Choose Language"
2437 ---------------------
2438 [[ backup-00.png ]]
2439 I select "en_US.UTF-8 English" and press ENTER.
2441 Screen "Configuring console-data"
2442 ---------------------
2443 [[ backup-01.png ]]
2444 I select "Select keymap from full list" and press ENTER. If you're using
2445 US keymap, the default option "Don't touch keymap" is a better choice.
2447 Screen "Configuring console-data"
2448 ---------------------
2449 [[ backup-02.png ]]
2450 Because I haven't changed my keyboard, I select "pc / qwerty / Finnish /
2451 Standard / Standard". Because you most likely use a different keyboard,
2452 choose the one you use.
2454 Screen "Start Clonezilla"
2455 ---------------------
2456 [[ backup-03.png ]]
2457 I select "Start Clonezilla" and press ENTER.
2459 Screen "Clonezilla"
2460 ---------------------
2461 [[ backup-04.png ]]
2462 I select "device-image" and press ENTER.
2464 Screen "Mount clonezilla image directory"
2465 ---------------------
2466 In this screen I can select the way the image file directory has been saved.
2467 Available options are local directory, remote directory through ssh,
2468 samba or nfs and skip, to use the previously used directory. More info
2469 about the image file can be found at section "About the Image file".
2471 [[ backup-05.png ]]
2472 I select "local_dev" and press ENTER.
2474 Next screen
2475 ---------------------
2476 This is where I choose the location of the image file.
2477 [[ restore-06.png ]]
2478 I select partition sda1 and press ENTER.
2480 [[ backup-07.png ]]
2481 and then ENTER again.
2483 [[ restore-08.png ]]
2484 This screen displays the mounting result.
2485 As we can see, /dev/sda1 has been successfully mounted under /tmp/local-dev.
2487 Next Screen
2488 ---------------------
2489 [[ backup-09.png ]]
2490 I select Beginner mode to accept the default restore options, which are
2491 used if the recovery disk is ever used. If you select Expert mode, you
2492 can choose the options yourself. More details can be found here.
2494 Screen "Clonezilla: Select mode"
2495 ---------------------
2496 Here I can select the desired operation.
2498 [[ restore-10.png ]]
2499 I select "recovery-iso-zip" and press ENTER.
2501 Next Screen
2502 ---------------------
2503 [[ restore-11.png ]]
2504 In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only
2505 one image.
2507 Next Screen
2508 ---------------------
2509 [[ restore-12.png ]]
2510 Now I am asked to select which disk the image will be restored to, if the
2511 recovery disc is used. Because this image is a backup, I choose the same
2512 disk where the original data resides. If you're upgrading your hard drive,
2513 choose the new drive.
2515 Next Screen
2516 ---------------------
2517 [[ restore-13.png ]]
2518 In this screen I can select the language that the recovery disc uses. I
2519 choose "en_US.UTF-8".
2521 Next Screen
2522 ---------------------
2523 [[ restore-14.png ]]
2524 This screen allows me to select the keymap that the recovery disc
2525 uses. Unfortunately, changing the keymap requires knowing where the keymap
2526 file resides in Debian GNU/Linux. Because I don't know it, I just press
2527 ENTER to accept US keymap.
2529 Next Screen
2530 ---------------------
2531 [[ restore-15.png ]]
2532 I select "iso" to create a CD/DVD disk image which I can burn to a recordable
2533 CD/DVD disc. The good thing about recordable discs is that overwriting
2534 the backup by accident is impossible. The "zip" option creates a ZIP file
2535 which can be used to create a bootable pendrive or external hard drive.
2537 [[ restore-16.png ]]
2538 Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will
2539 ask me to press ENTER.
2541 Screen "Excessive Image Size"
2542 ---------------------
2543 [[ restore-16a.png ]]
2544 You will see this screen if the image file you're about to create is larger
2545 than a single layer DVD. The screen warns that mkisofs or genisoimage
2546 (the programs which actually create the image) might be unable to process
2547 a disk image that big. However, even bigger problem is that you need a
2548 dual layer DVD or Blu-ray disc to burn the image.
2550 Screen "Customization section"
2551 ---------------------
2552 [[ cust-menu-02.png ]]
2553 Now I am asked if I want to customize the boot menu of the disc. I answer
2554 "Yes". If you don't want to customize the menu, continue from this step.
2556 Screen "DVD Title"
2557 ---------------------
2558 [[ cust-menu-03.png ]]
2559 In this screen I select the title of the boot menu. I type "Home PC
2560 Restore DVD".
2562 Screen "Menu Items Caption"
2563 ---------------------
2564 [[ cust-menu-04.png ]]
2565 This screen allows me to select the caption for all menu items. I enter
2566 "Restore Win XP".
2568 Screen "Boot delay"
2569 ---------------------
2570 [[ cust-menu-05.png ]]
2571 I press ENTER to accept the default delay of 30 seconds. It means that
2572 when a computer is booted from the restore disc, it waits 30 seconds
2573 before choosing the default option automatically. You may want to reduce
2574 this delay if, for example, your keyboard doesn't work in boot menu and
2575 you must wait until the delay ends.
2577 Screen "Default Boot Item"
2578 ---------------------
2579 [[ cust-menu-06.png ]]
2580 In this screen I can select the default option of the menu. Selecting one
2581 of the options that restore the image makes using the disc even easier,
2582 but also raises the risk that the image is restored accidentally. Another
2583 reason to select such option may be that your keyboard doesn't work in
2584 boot menu, preventing you from choosing any non-default option. I select
2585 the first option that restores the image using pixel dimensions of 1024*768.
2587 Screen "Boot Screen Image"
2588 ---------------------
2589 [[ cust-menu-07.png ]]
2590 This screen allows me to select the background picture of the menu. Note
2591 that the picture must be in the same partition that contains the disk
2592 image, if you don't mind entering command line and mounting the right
2593 partition manually. I choose picture mysplash.png in the root of the
2594 partition. Because the partition has been mounted in /home/partimag,
2595 the full path of the picture is /home/partimag/mysplash.png.
2597 Screen "ISO Label"
2598 ---------------------
2599 [[ cust-menu-08.png ]]
2600 In this screen I can select the volume label of the disc. Volume label is
2601 the name of the disc you may see in various situations, for example in the
2602 notification you see when you insert the disc into your DVD writer. I type
2603 "Backup_52-2009_hdb".
2605 Screen "Publisher ID"
2606 ---------------------
2607 [[ cust-menu-09.png ]]
2608 This is where I choose the publisher ID of the ISO file
2609 and the disc. Publisher ID means the person or company who
2610 created the disc. However, at least in GNU/Linux reading
2611 the publisher ID is, strictly speaking, a challenge. Here {{
2612 http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/getting-volume-information-from-cds-iso- }}
2613 are instructions to read the publisher ID of a ISO file. I didn't find
2614 any working instructions to read the ID from the disc.
2616 Starting the creation of the disk image
2617 ---------------------
2618 [[ restore-17.png ]]
2619 After that, creation of the disk image begins. Note that no confirmation
2620 is asked it the disk image is small enough to fit to a CD.
2622 [[ restore-18.png ]]
2623 When the disk image is successfully created, I must reboot in order to
2624 burn the disc because my DVD burner is still in use. Clonezilla Live can
2625 be loaded into computer memory during boot in order to be able to burn
2626 disc(s) within it. However, due to a known bug, the disk image can't
2627 be created if Clonezilla Live has been loaded into memory. (source {{
2628 http://free.nchc.org.tw/clonezilla-live/stable/Known-issues-Clonezilla-live.txt
2629 }}) Thus, I press 1 and ENTER to reboot to another operating system and
2630 burn the image using graphical burning program. Follow this link for
2631 instructions. If you've created a ZIP file, follow this one instead.
2636 Creating a Restore DVD - Part 2
2637 ==============================================================================
2639 What to do with the disk image
2640 ****************************************
2641 The previous page contains partial instructions to create an automated
2642 recovery DVD. They're partial because they only tell how the disk image
2643 can be created, not what one should do with the image. Of course, partial
2644 instructions are not enough, but don't worry - this page is the other part.
2646 Earlier versions of Clonezilla Live allowed creating the DVD without
2647 reboot, but it's no longer possible due to a known bug. The disk image
2648 can't be created if Clonezilla Live has been loaded into memory (source {{
2649 http://free.nchc.org.tw/clonezilla-live/stable/Known-issues-Clonezilla-live.txt
2650 }}) and the image can't be burned to disc if Clonezilla Live isn't in
2651 memory. And if the computer must be rebooted anyway, it's a good idea to
2652 use one's favorite operating system and a graphical burning program for
2653 burning the disc. Doing so also allows reading these instructions while
2654 burning the disc.
2656 This page walks through burning the disc by using ImgBurn and K3b. The
2657 instructions can be adapted for many other burning programs as well. If
2658 your burning program is too different, download either of the programs
2659 mentioned - they both can be downloaded for free.
2661 In addition to a DVD, bootable pendrive or external hard drive can be
2662 created as well. If you want to do so, follow instructions below.
2664 Before following these instructions, insert a writable DVD or Blu-ray disc
2665 to your burner.
2667 Burning the disc
2668 ****************************************
2669 Using ImgBurn
2670 ---------------------
2671 ImgBurn {{ http://www.imgburn.com/ }} is a lightweight but very feature-rich
2672 disc burning program. It only requires about two megabytes disk space
2673 and contains a lot of settings. ImgBurn is closed-source freeware and -
2674 unfortunately - Windows-only software. I (Jyrki) personally use ImgBurn
2675 when burning discs within Windows.
2677 Launch ImgBurn and press Write image file to disc. Select the disk image
2678 you just created.
2680 At the settings window, keep Test Mode disabled. I also recommend
2681 keeping the Verify option enabled. Verifying the integrity of the disc
2682 after burning requires time and doesn't prevent the disc from becoming a
2683 so-called coaster, but it allows you to know immediately if the burning
2684 attempt failed, so you can try burning the disc again.
2686 Keep the number of copies as 1 (or increase it, if you really
2687 want multiple copies of the disc). Use your best judgment while
2688 choosing the burning speed: according to this forum thread {{
2689 http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/ }} lowering
2690 the burning speed gives very mixed results in quality. I personally use
2691 ¾ of the maximum speed of the disc, for example 12x on a disc rated 16x.
2693 After choosing the settings, press the big picture at the bottom-left of
2694 the window. Don't do anything that requires much computer resources while
2695 burning, because doing so increases the likelihood of burning failure.
2697 That's it. You own now an automated recovery disc.
2699 Using K3b
2700 ---------------------
2701 K3b (KDE Burn Baby Burn) is the disc burning program included in KDE
2702 Software Compilation. It comes with most, if not all, KDE-based GNU/Linux
2703 distributions. It can also be installed on other distributions, but I
2704 recommend against doing so - K3b requires KDE base packages to be installed,
2705 and it doesn't make much sense to install KDE base only for K3b.
2707 [[ k3b-00.png ]]
2708 I launch K3b and navigate to the folder where the disk image resides.
2710 [[ k3b-01.png ]]
2711 I double-click the file clonezilla-live-Backup_42-2010_sda.iso.
2713 [[ k3b-02.png ]]
2714 This window allows me to choose burning settings. I don't touch Image Type or
2715 Burn Medium, because they're auto-detected anyway. The maximum burning speed
2716 allowed by the disc is 16x, so I choose speed 12x. According to this forum
2717 thread {{ http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/
2718 }} low burning speed can decrease burning quality, so I always use speed
2719 near the maximum speed of the disc.
2721 I keep Writing Mode as Auto and number of copies as 1. I also keep the
2722 Simulate option disabled and enable the Verify written data option. The
2723 latter allows me to notice immediately if the burning attempt failed, so
2724 I can try burning the disc again, rather than owning a so-called coaster
2725 and relying on it if something happens to my data...
2727 [[ k3b-03.png ]]
2728 I click Start and the burning process begins.
2730 [[ k3b-04.png ]]
2731 Because I enabled the Verify written data option, K3b starts verifying
2732 the integrity of the disc right after burning.
2734 [[ k3b-05.png ]]
2735 The burning attempt succeeded.
2737 [[ restore-20.png ]]
2738 Here we can see the boot menu of the disc.
2740 ZIP file instructions
2741 ****************************************
2742 Often the image file is way too big to fit to even 8 GB DVD. Some people may
2743 also want to be able to overwrite the backup when it becomes outdated. In
2744 addition, netbooks don't have optical drives at all.
2746 One option is using recovery thumb drive or external hard drive instead
2747 of DVD. If the external HD is big enough, the disk image can be even over
2748 a terabyte in size. Recovery USB drive can also be used on netbooks and
2749 overwritten at will.
2751 Clonezilla Live allows creating a ZIP file instead of disk image. If you
2752 want to do so, follow this step-by-step guide.
2754 Before creating the disk image, make sure it is split to pieces of four
2755 gigabytes or less. It is split automatically if you use Beginner mode,
2756 and if you use Expert mode, you should already know how the splitting
2757 setting can be changed.
2759 Using GNU/Linux
2760 ---------------------
2761 After creating the disk image and booting into GNU/Linux, make sure that the
2762 filesystem of the partition where you plan to put the disk image is FAT32. If
2763 you don't know the filesystem, open terminal and run this command as root:
2765 parted -l
2767 Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
2768 you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above
2769 the command. For example, the above command can be executed by typing
2770 "sudo parted -l"
2771 Note: The l in parameter -l is lowercase L, not number 1.
2773 If your disk doesn't contain any FAT32 partition, but it contains a
2774 partition which is big enough and doesn't contain any important data,
2775 format the partition as FAT32. The command below needs root access too.
2777 [[ important.png ]]
2778 The command below erases all the data on the target partition.Make sure
2779 you don't format a wrong partition by accident.
2781 mkfs.vfat -F 32 /dev/sdc1
2783 Note: In the command replace /dev/sdc1 with the partition you wish to format.
2785 After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32,
2786 extract the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Also these commands
2787 need root rights.
2789 mount /dev/sdc1 /media/usb
2790 unzip clonezilla-live-Backup_42-2010_sdb.zip -d /media/usb/
2792 Note: In the last command I have assumed your image file is
2793 clonezilla-live-Backup_42-2010_sdb.zip. You will have to replace this with
2794 the actual name of the file.
2796 ZIP package contains a script to make the USB drive bootable. Let's run
2797 it. The latter of these commands needs root access.
2799 [[ important.png ]]
2800 The latter of the commands below replaces theexisting bootloader of the
2801 target disk, if there is one.Make sure you don't select a wrong disk
2802 by accident.
2804 cd /media/usb/utils/linux
2805 ./makeboot.sh /dev/sdc1
2807 That's all. Your thumb drive or external hard drive should be now an
2808 automatic recovery disk.
2810 Using Windows
2811 ---------------------
2812 If the Windows version you use is not Vista or 7, you need to be logged in
2813 as administrator. If you're not, but you have access to an admin account,
2814 log out and then log again in as admin.
2816 If you don't have admin rights at all, boot into SystemRescueCD (you don't
2817 need graphical mode this time) and follow the instructions for GNU/Linux. In
2818 SystemRescueCD all commands are run as root, so you don't need to add any
2819 prefix to the commands.
2821 After creating the disk image and booting into Windows, make sure that
2822 the filesystem of the partition where you plan to put the disk image is
2823 FAT32. If you don't know the filesystem, open My Computer, right-click the
2824 partition and select Properties. Then read the "File system" column. If
2825 there reads anything but FAT32, check other partitions of the disk too,
2826 if the disk contains multiple partitions. If you have a suitable FAT32
2827 partition, continue from this step.
2829 If your disk doesn't contain any FAT32 partition, but it contains a
2830 partition which is big enough and doesn't contain any important data,
2831 format the partition as FAT32.
2833 [[ important.png ]]
2834 Formatting erases all the data on the target partition.Make sure the
2835 partition contains nothing important.
2837 Right-click the partition and select Format.... If the Windows version
2838 you use is Vista or 7, an UAC prompt asks for admin password. Enter it.
2840 At the format window, choose the FAT32 filesystem. You can enter any volume
2841 label (it means the name of the partition you can see next to the partition
2842 letter) and enable Quick Format if you're in a hurry. If Quick Format is
2843 disabled, Windows checks if the partition is physically OK after formatting
2844 it. Enabling Quick Format makes the formatting process many times faster
2845 and, contrary to popular belief, hardly ever causes any harm.
2847 After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32, extract
2848 the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Navigate to the folder where
2849 you've saved the ZIP file and right-click it. Choose Extract all..., and when
2850 you're asked for location where the archive is extracted, enter the letter
2851 of the partition, for example H:\. Do NOT choose any folder in the partition!
2853 After that, browse to the folder X:\utils\win32, where X: is the letter
2854 of the partition. Then, double-click makeboot.bat. If the Windows version
2855 you use is Vista or 7, another UAC prompt appears. Enter the password
2856 again. Then just follow the prompts to make the USB drive bootable.
2858 Now you're done. Your thumb drive or external hard drive should be an
2859 automatic recovery disk.
2864 Restoring to a different location
2865 ==============================================================================
2867 Intro
2868 ****************************************
2869 In the past restoring to a different location was not supported by
2870 Clonezilla Live at all. Because of that, a script called reloc-img was
2871 added to Clonezilla-SysRescCD, which would help the user perform this task.
2873 Recent versions of Clonezilla Live partly support restoring to a
2874 different location, so the reloc-img script is obsolete, and has been
2875 removed. Clonezilla Live now supports:
2877 * Relocation of a disk image (restoring a whole disk)
2878 * Relocation of a partition image (restoring a partition)
2880 Clonezilla Live does not support:
2882 * Relocation of a single partition contained into a disk image.
2884 Imagine you have a disk backup image named hda-2009-02-02. The image
2885 contains three partitions, hda1 (operating system), hda2 (user data)
2886 and hda3 (other data).
2888 You want to restore your other data partition (hda3), to a different system
2889 (partition sdb2) but there is no way to restore (extract) a single partition
2890 from a disk image - you can only restore the whole disk.
2892 In order to address this situation, two new scripts have been written for
2893 Clonezilla-SysRescCD: imginfo and imgconvert
2895 Script imginfo
2896 ****************************************
2897 The script will be used to print info about existing image files.
2899 Its help screen is:
2901 # imginfo -h
2902 Clonezilla Live Image Information
2903 imginfo v. 0.2 - (C) 2009-2010 S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
2905 Usage: imginfo <options> <directory>
2907 Available options:
2908 s Search in sub-directories too
2909 i [name] Pring info for image [name]
2910 v Print version info and exit
2911 h Print this screen and exit
2913 Script imgconvert
2914 ****************************************
2915 The script will be used to convert an existing disk or partition image
2916 file to a new partition image file.
2918 imgconvert can create two type of images:
2920 * Temporary image
2921 This type of image is created by linking the data files of the existing
2922 disk image to the new partition image. This means that the original image
2923 must be present for the new image to be used. This is the default image
2924 type created by imgconvert.
2926 * Permanent image
2927 This type of image is created by copying the data files from the existing
2928 disk image to the new partition image. This means that the original image is
2929 not needed in order to use the new one. Permenant image files are created
2930 using the command line parameter -p.
2932 Its help screen is:
2934 # imgconvert -h
2935 Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2936 imgconvert v. 0.2 - (C) 2009-2011 S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
2938 Usage: imgconvert <options> [image] [partition] <new partition>
2940 Parameters are:
2941 [image] Disk image to be converted to partition image
2942 [partition] Partition name to convert. It must be a valid device name
2944 Available options:
2945 o [image] Save new imag as [image]
2946 p Save new partition instead of making a link to the old one
2947 v Print version info and exit
2948 h Print this screen and exit
2950 Using the scripts
2951 ****************************************
2952 Restoring to a partition
2953 ---------------------
2954 After booting into Clonezilla Live, I select
2956 Enter_shell Enter command line prompt
2958 when the menu is displayed and then I press 2 to exit to the shell.
2960 At this point I will mount my images partition (in this example /dev/sdc4),
2961 and use script imginfo to get info about my image files.
2963 $ sudo su -
2964 # mount /dev/sdc4 /home/partimag
2965 # cd /home/partimag
2966 # imginfo
2967 Image files found in: /home/partimag
2968 Image: usb250-img, disk: sda, size: 259MB, parts: 1
2969 part: sda4, size: 247.00MB, type: FAT16
2970 Image: sys-bck, disk: hda, size: 320.0GB, parts: 3
2971 part: hda1, size: 22.36GB, type: Linux
2972 part: hda2, size: 39.06GB, type: Linux
2973 part: hda3, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
2975 As you can see there are two disk images under /home/partimag: usb250-img
2976 and sys-bck.
2978 sys-bck is a backup of my old system, which had three partitions. What
2979 I need to do now is "copy" the hda3 partition to my current system, by
2980 transfering its data to partition sdb2.
2982 The way to proceed is:
2984 * Create a new partition image (containing hda3's data) based on the
2985 existing disk image file, by executing the command:
2987 # imgconvert sys-bck hda3 sdb2
2988 Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
2989 imgconvert v. 0.2 - (C) 2009-2011 S. Georgaras
2991 Determining input image
2992 Input image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck"
2993 Validating image... ok
2994 Determining input partition
2995 Input partition: "hda3"
2996 Validating input partition... ok
2997 Determining output image
2998 Output image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck-cnv"
2999 Validating output image... ok
3000 Checking permissions... ok
3001 Determining output partition
3002 Output partition: "sda2"
3003 Validating output partition... ok
3004 Creating output image: /home/partimag/sys-bck-cnv
3005 Linking files... done
3006 Fixing info files... done
3008 This command will create a temporary partition image file (automatically
3009 named sys-bck-cnv), which contains sdb2 only, as you can see by executing:
3011 # imginfo -i sys-bck-cnv
3012 Image: sys-bck-cnv, part: sdb2, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
3014 * Restart Clonezilla Live by pressing Control-D twice.
3016 * Restore the new image file into sdb2, by selecting
3018 Screen 1: Start_Clonezilla Start Clonezilla
3020 Screen 2: device-image disk/partition to/from image
3022 Screen 3: skip use existing /home/partimag
3024 Screen 4: Beginer / Expert
3026 Screen 5: restoreparts
3027 Restore_an_image_to_local_partition
3029 and continue as usual to restore the partition.
3031 Converting image files
3032 ---------------------
3033 # imgconvert -p -o other_data sys-bck hda3 sdb2
3034 Clonezilla Live Image Conversion
3035 imgconvert v. 0.2 - (C) 2009-2011 S. Georgaras
3037 Determining input image
3038 Input image: "/home/partimag/sys-bck"
3039 Validating image... ok
3040 Determining input partition
3041 Input partition: "hda3"
3042 Validating input partition... ok
3043 Determining output image
3044 Output image: "/home/partimag/other_data"
3045 Validating output image... ok
3046 Checking permissions... ok
3047 Determining output partition
3048 Output partition: "sda2"
3049 Validating output partition... ok
3050 Creating output image: /home/partimag/other_data
3051 Copying files... done
3052 Fixing info files... done
3054 # imginfo -i other_data
3055 Image: other_data, part: sdb2, size: 233.87GB, type: Linux
3057 # ls -la sys-bck
3058 total 1111972
3059 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-11-22 03:21 .
3060 drwxr-xr-x. 34 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:28 ..
3061 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4 2007-11-20 20:33 disk
3062 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1081716736 2007-11-20 20:32 hda1.aa
3063 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 45453312 2007-11-20 20:33 hda2.aa
3064 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10317824 2007-11-20 20:33 hda3.aa
3065 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2007-11-21 18:56 hda-chs.sf
3066 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2007-11-21 18:50 hda-chs.sf.orig
3067 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 512 2007-11-20 20:31 hda-mbr
3068 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 259 2007-11-21 18:59 hda-pt.sf
3069 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 259 2007-11-21 18:50 hda-pt.sf.orig
3070 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 15 2007-11-20 20:33 parts
3071 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17 2007-11-20 20:33 swappt-hda4.info
3072 #
3073 #
3074 # ls -la other_data
3075 total 24
3076 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:27 .
3077 drwxr-xr-x. 35 root root 4096 2009-04-06 21:27 ..
3078 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5 2009-04-06 21:27 parts
3079 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10317824 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb2.aa
3080 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb-chs.sf
3081 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 106 2009-04-06 21:27 sdb-pt.sf
3083 Booting a restored Linux system
3084 ****************************************
3085 A Linux system that has been restored to a new disk/partition, is usually
3086 not ready to be booted right after the restoration procedure is finished.
3088 There are two more steps that you may have to take:
3090 * Fix /etc/fstab
3091 * Reinstall GRUB.
3092 I will assume GRUB is your boot manager, as it is the usual case nowadays.
3094 For this example I will assume that you have restored a Linux system
3095 (that used to be in sdb), to a new disk (hda), and that it contains three
3096 partitions, / (the root partition), /home (user's partition) and a swap
3097 partition. You must be really careful here, as the name of the new disk
3098 depends on the system to be booted. If it uses one of the newest Linux
3099 kernels (using the libata disk driver), ALL your disks will be recognised
3100 as SCSI. More info: "Identifying devices in Linux" section "SCSI disks
3101 when there are none!!!".
3103 This is what we have:
3105 root partition home partition swap partition
3106 Old system /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdb3
3107 New system /dev/hda1 /dev/hda2 /dev/hda3
3109 Fixing /etc/fstab
3110 ---------------------
3111 Since we are still in Clonezilla Live, right after the restore procedure
3112 has finished, we will use it to mount our restored root partition, and
3113 edit its /etc/fstab. We issue the commands:
3115 mkdir /new-root
3116 mount /dev/hda1 /new-root
3117 vi /new-root/etc/fstab
3119 The contents of /etc/fstab could be something like
3121 /dev/sdb1 / reiserfs acl,user_xattr 1 1
3122 /dev/sdb2 /home reiserfs defaults 1 2
3123 /dev/sdb3 swap swap defaults 0 0
3125 and we have to change ti to
3127 /dev/hda1 / reiserfs acl,user_xattr 1 1
3128 /dev/hda2 /home reiserfs defaults 1 2
3129 /dev/hda3 swap swap defaults 0 0
3131 Finally, we unmount the partition, and we are ready to reboot
3133 umount /new-root
3134 reboot
3136 Reinstalling GRUB
3137 ---------------------
3138 When Clonezilla-SysRescCD menu appears, we select Tools > Super Grub Disk
3140 Then we select Super Grub Disk > Super Grub Disk (WITH HELP) > English
3141 Super Grub Disk > Gnu/Linux > Fix Boot of Gnu/Linux (GRUB). From this
3142 entry we will be able to reinstall GRUB to our hard disk.
3144 You may also want to have a look at Super Grub Disk "documentation {{
3145 http://www.supergrubdisk.org/wiki/SuperGrubDiskDocumentation }}".
3150 Fixing boot problems
3151 ==============================================================================
3153 Intro
3154 ****************************************
3155 Boot problems are probably the most feared computer problems. Without an
3156 operating system you can't access your data, get the work done or even
3157 google for help. That's why it's often a good idea to have an alternative
3158 operating system available for searching help if the main OS doesn't
3159 work. Also a copy of Clonezilla-SysRescCD can be invaluable help.
3161 Actually, the initial reason why I (Jyrki) installed GNU/Linux at all was
3162 that I wanted to be able to fix Windows boot problems if they occur. I
3163 installed both GNU/Linux and GRUB to my external hard drive, completely
3164 separating operating systems. Even if either bootloader stopped working,
3165 I'd still be able to boot one of my OSes.
3167 But such configuration is not easy to create, and when I installed GNU/Linux,
3168 I knew very little about it. If I didn't read the instructions I found
3169 here and there very carefully, I probably would have done a common mistake:
3170 installing GRUB to my internal hard drive. Such mistake would have caused
3171 two problems:
3173 * Inability to boot GNU/Linux at any computer expect the one which was
3174 used for installing
3175 * Inability to boot Windows when the external drive isn't connected
3177 In this page, I simulate that situation in a virtual machine and fix
3178 both problems.
3180 Symptoms
3181 ****************************************
3182 What happens when I try to boot the external hard drive on another computer
3183 depends on the BIOS of the computer. For example, on my computer I see a
3184 Black Screen of Death {{ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Screen_of_Death
3185 }} when I try booting from a disk with empty Master Boot Record. Other
3186 BIOSes may boot the local operating system or display an error message
3187 (for example "Disk boot failure", "Missing operating system" or "Operating
3188 system not found").
3190 The other problem is very easy to determine. When external drive is
3191 disconnected and I try to boot, I'll see this:
3193 [[ error-21.png ]]
3195 Goals
3196 ****************************************
3197 Because I still want to separate my operating systems completely,
3198 I try to restore NTLDR to the Master Boot Record of the internal disk,
3199 if possible. If that's not possible, I install there another bootloader
3200 that chainloads Windows.
3202 I could reinstall GNU/Linux completely and make sure that the GRUB is
3203 installed to the right disk this time, but it's not a good idea if I only
3204 need to overwrite the first 446 bytes (yes, bytes, not kilo- or megabytes)
3205 of the disk. So, I only install GRUB to the external disk, by using Super
3206 Grub Disk.
3208 Your problem (if you have one at all) most likely is different, but goals
3209 are often the same.
3211 You need to restore NTLDR if you...
3213 * ...just installed GNU/Linux, but the boot menu doesn't mention Windows
3214 at all. You're not willing to learn how Windows can be added to the boot
3215 menu, you just need to make your computer to boot Windows again right now.
3216 * ...cloned your Windows partition to your brand new computer but didn't
3217 clone the Master Boot Record.
3218 * ...are about to uninstall GNU/Linux and aren't willing to use GRUB as
3219 your bootloader.
3221 You need to install GRUB if you...
3223 * ...just installed Windows and want to make GNU/Linux bootable again.
3224 * ...cloned your GNU/Linux partition to your brand new computer but didn't
3225 clone the Master Boot Record.
3226 * ...just installed GNU/Linux but installed GRUB to a non-first hard drive
3227 by accident. (The symptom is that your computer still boots to the operating
3228 system you had installed already.)
3230 [[ info.png ]]
3231 The following pressentation has been made usingSuper Grub Disk v0.9799
3233 Restoring NTLDR
3234 ****************************************
3235 There are a lot of ways to restore NTLDR. However, sometimes there is no
3236 legal way to restore it, and I'm NOT telling about the illegal ones. The
3237 last resort is using syslinux to chainload Windows; there is usually no
3238 way to notice that syslinux is used instead of NTLDR.
3240 I've listed here the most important options in order I'd use them.
3242 Restoring NTLDR from a backup
3243 ---------------------
3244 If you've been smart enough to use Clonezilla Live to create a disk image
3245 of your first hard drive, it's very easy to restore NTLDR.
3247 Your NTLDR is safe in a file called hda-mbr or sda-mbr. You can use dd to
3248 overwrite your existing Master Boot Record.
3250 [[ important.png ]]
3251 Don't restore all 512 bytes of your Master Boot Record.The MBR contains
3252 your partition table and restoring it afterrepartitioning your disk erases
3253 all the data on the disk.
3255 If you normally use GNU/Linux, open terminal and run these commands as root:
3257 mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/usb
3258 dd if=/mnt/usb/Backup/sda-mbr of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1
3260 Note: In the commands I have assumed that your first hard drive is /dev/sda
3261 and that your disk image resides in the folder Backup in partition
3262 /dev/sdc1. You will have to replace them with the correct pieces of
3263 information.
3265 Note: How a command can be run as root depends on the GNU/Linux distribution
3266 you use. If it's Ubuntu or a distro based on it, simply put "sudo" above
3267 the command. For example, the latter of the above commands can be executed
3268 by typing "sudo dd if=/mnt/usb/Backup/sda-mbr of=/dev/sda bs=446 count=1"
3270 If you normally use another operating system, boot into SystemRescueCD and
3271 run the above commands. In SystemRescueCD all commands are run as root,
3272 so you don't need to add any prefix to the commands.
3274 If you don't know the name of the partition, run this command as root:
3276 fdisk -l
3278 It tells how many hard drives you have, how many partitions they contain
3279 and what filesystems the partitions use. If you know, for example, that
3280 the disk where you've saved the disk image contains only one partition,
3281 look for such disks.
3283 Using Bootrec.exe (Windows Vista/7 only)
3284 ---------------------
3285 You need Windows Vista/7 install disc for this. If you don't have one (for
3286 example, if you bought a laptop that was bundled with preinstalled Windows
3287 and manufacturer's recovery disc), download a recovery disc from here.
3289 Then boot from the disc.
3291 [[ windows7-00.png ]]
3292 After selecting language, time, currency and keyboard, click Next.
3294 [[ windows7-01.png ]]
3295 Click Repair your computer.
3297 [[ windows7-02.png ]]
3298 Choose the option Use recovery tools that can help fix problems starting
3299 Windows and click Next.
3301 [[ windows7-03.png ]]
3302 You'll see a dialog box named System Recovery Options. Click Command Prompt.
3304 [[ windows7-04.png ]]
3305 Then you only need to execute one command:
3307 Bootrec /FixMbr
3309 Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example,
3310 "bootrec /fixmbr".
3312 [[ windows7-05.png ]]
3314 Using FIXMBR (Windows XP only)
3315 ---------------------
3316 You need Windows XP install disc. Boot from it, and when you see the screen
3317 "Windows XP Home Edition Setup" or "Windows XP Professional Setup", press
3318 R to enter the Recovery Console. Then choose the Windows installation you
3319 want to log onto. If you have only one copy of Windows installed, press
3320 1 and ENTER. After that, enter the administator password and press ENTER.
3322 There is only one command to run:
3326 Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example, "fixmbr".
3328 Using FDISK (Windows 95/98/Me only)
3329 ---------------------
3330 For this, you need a floppy drive. You also need to run a Windows-only
3331 program, so your first challenge is to boot Windows without NTLDR.
3333 Don't worry, Super Grub Disk makes it possible. Boot into it.
3335 [[ supergrubdisk-01.png ]]
3336 Just choose the option "!WIN! :(((" and press ENTER.
3338 When you have Windows up and running, download the boot disk
3339 image appropriate to your version of Windows from Bootdisk.Com {{
3340 http://www.bootdisk.com/bootdisk.htm }}. Then put a floppy to your floppy
3341 drive.
3343 If the floppy isn't already formatted, open My Computer, right-click the
3344 floppy drive and select Format....
3346 At the format window, choose the capacity of 1,44 megabytes and Full format
3347 type. You can enter any label (it means the name of the floppy you can see
3348 next to the floppy drive letter) and disable the summary if you wish. Keep
3349 the Copy system files option disabled.
3351 When you have a formatted floppy in your drive, double-click the boot disk
3352 image you downloaded. When it's done, shut Windows down and check your
3353 BIOS settings to be able to boot from the floppy. Some BIOSes contain a
3354 boot menu, others require editing settings pernamently. Details can be
3355 found on the manual of the motherboard or laptop.
3357 Then boot from the floppy. When you're given three boot options, choose
3358 the option 2. Start computer without CD-ROM support. Wait a moment to
3359 enter command line and run this command:
3363 Note: The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example,
3364 "fdisk /mbr".
3366 Installing syslinux using Super Grub Disk
3367 ---------------------
3368 The above four are the only legal ways I know to restore NTLDR to the
3369 Master Boot Record. Unfortunately, sometimes none of them can be used. If
3370 that's the case, it's time to switch bootloader. GRUB can be configured to
3371 chainload Windows, and usually it even does that automatically, but this
3372 page isn't intended to help configuring GRUB. I assume that if you're
3373 primarily a Windows user and reading this page, you don't want to learn
3374 how to use GNU/Linux, you just want to make Windows bootable again.
3376 Maybe the easiest way to do so is installing syslinux using Super Grub
3377 Disk. Super Grub Disk configures it automatically to chainload the first
3378 active partition. The partition should contain Windows, Windows can't boot
3379 if its partition isn't active.
3381 Boot into Super Grub Disk.
3383 [[ supergrubdisk-01a.png ]]
3384 Choose the option "WIN => MBR & !WIN! :(((((((((((((((((((((" and
3385 press ENTER. Windows will be booted automatically right after installing
3386 syslinux.
3388 Installing GRUB
3389 ****************************************
3390 Contrary to various ways to restore NTLDR, there is only one way to install
3391 GRUB I recommend. That's Super Grub Disk, because it contains GRUB no
3392 matter what has happened to the hard drive(s). First, I boot into it.
3394 [[ supergrubdisk-01b.png ]]
3395 I select "Choose Language & HELP :-)))" and press ENTER.
3397 Screen "S.G.D. Language Selection."
3398 ---------------------
3399 [[ supergrubdisk-02.png ]]
3400 I select "English Super Grub Disk" and press ENTER.
3402 [[ supergrubdisk-03.png ]]
3403 I press ENTER...
3405 [[ supergrubdisk-04.png ]]
3406 ...and then ENTER again...
3408 [[ supergrubdisk-05.png ]]
3409 ...and then ENTER once again...
3411 [[ supergrubdisk-06.png ]]
3412 ...and finally ENTER one more time.
3414 Screen "English Super Grub Disk (Help)"
3415 ---------------------
3416 [[ supergrubdisk-07.png ]]
3417 I select "Advanced".
3419 Screen "Advanced (Help)"
3420 ---------------------
3421 [[ supergrubdisk-08.png ]]
3422 I select "GRUB" and press ENTER.
3424 Screen "GRUB (Help)"
3425 ---------------------
3426 [[ supergrubdisk-09.png ]]
3427 I select "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)" and press ENTER...
3429 [[ supergrubdisk-10.png ]]
3430 ...and ENTER.
3432 Screen "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)"
3433 ---------------------
3434 [[ supergrubdisk-11.png ]]
3435 I select "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)" and press ENTER. If you
3436 want to install GRUB to the Master Boot Record of the first hard drive,
3437 "Automatically Install" is a better choice. If you don't know if you
3438 want GRUB to the first or some other disk, you most likely want it to the
3439 first disk.
3441 Screen "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)"
3442 ---------------------
3443 [[ supergrubdisk-12.png ]]
3444 I confirm my decision by selecting "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)"
3445 again and pressing ENTER.
3447 Screen "Partition of GRUB"
3448 ---------------------
3449 [[ supergrubdisk-13.png ]]
3450 In this screen I can select the disk that contains the partition that
3451 contains the files needed by GRUB. In this case, that disk is the external
3452 hard drive. As you can see, the disk is only three megabytes in size -
3453 because the computer used for screenshots is still virtual. Actually, the
3454 "disk" where I'm installing GRUB is just a file.
3456 Next Screen
3457 ---------------------
3458 [[ supergrubdisk-14.png ]]
3459 This is where I choose the partition where GRUB files reside. This disk
3460 contains only one partition.
3462 Screen "Restore to MBR of Hard Disk"
3463 ---------------------
3464 [[ supergrubdisk-15.png ]]
3465 I select the external hard drive to install GRUB to its Master Boot Record.
3467 [[ supergrubdisk-12.png ]]
3468 Some text scrolled in the screen (too fast to read or take a screenshot)
3469 and I was back at this screen. I rebooted the computer. (In this situation,
3470 you can safely do a "hard reboot" by pressing reset button once or power
3471 button twice.)
3473 [[ grub-loading.png ]]
3474 GRUB booted successfully.
3479 Booting an old PC
3480 ==============================================================================
3482 Intro
3483 ****************************************
3484 Have you ever tried to boot an old PC off a CD-ROM, and found out it
3485 wouldn't, because its BIOS does not support it, or it's faulty or for any
3486 other reason? Well, I have. So this page is an effort to solve this problem.
3488 The only way to do it, is to boot of a floppy disk which will help me
3489 "load" whatever operation system I want from a CD. This means that I will
3490 have to write a boot loader to the floppy disk.
3492 The software I will use is Smart Boot Manager {{
3493 http://sourceforge.net/projects/btmgr/ }}, a small boot manager with a
3494 nice TUI (Text User Interface). Its floppy image, already accessible from
3495 the "Tools" menu, can be found in the bootdisk folder of the CD under the
3496 name sbm.img.
3498 Writing the image to a floppy disk
3499 ****************************************
3500 All you have to do is get to a PC equipped with a floppy drive, get a
3501 floppy disk which is in excellent condition (no bad sectors/blocks),
3502 and copy the image file to it.
3504 1. From Linux
3505 ---------------------
3506 You can either boot Clonezilla Live or SystemRescueCD, and when the system
3507 is fully up, execute the command:
3509 dd if=/path/to/sbm.img of=/dev/fd0
3511 where /path/to is
3512 /live/image/bootdisk for Clonezilla Live
3513 /mnt/livecd/bootdisk for SystemRescueCD
3515 2. From DOS
3516 ---------------------
3517 You can get into any DOS (boot FreeDOS from the CD, for example), and use
3518 any of the following programs found in the rawrite folder of the CD:
3520 * rawrite.exe: is just here for completeness, as it may be needed for someone
3521 * rawrite2.exe: should be the fastest
3522 * rawrite3.com: should work if rawrite2 fails for some reason
3523 * fdimage.exe: rawrite alternative
3525 I found these programms at the FreeDOS web site {{
3526 http://www.fdos.org/ripcord/rawrite/ }}, where the following info is
3527 included:
3529 Basic Usage (Rawrite):
3530 Depending on the exact version, the output and command line support may
3531 vary, i.e. not work
3532 Usage:
3533 MS-DOS prompt> RAWRITE
3534 and follow the prompts, -or-
3536 MS-DOS prompt> RAWRITE [-f ] [-d ] [-n(owait)] [-h(elp)]
3537 where: -f - name of disk image file
3538 -d - diskette drive to use, must be A or B
3539 -n - don't prompt for user to insert diskette
3540 -h - print usage information to stdout
3542 The diskette must be formatted or rawrite will not work.
3543 The contents of the disk do not matter and will be overwritten.
3544 When ran interactively (without command line options) you will be prompted
3545 for the disk image filename (you must remember this as there is no file
3546 chooser).
3547 You will also be prompted for the target/destination drive, either A or
3548 B for A: or B: respectively.
3549 Basic Usage (FDImage):
3550 fdimage is an updated DOS program meant to replace rawrite. It does not
3551 require a pre-formatted floppy diskette.
3553 FDIMAGE - Write disk image to floppy disk
3554 Version 1.5 Copyright (c) 1996-7 Robert Nordier
3556 Usage: fdimage [-dqsv] [-f size] [-r count] file drive
3558 -d Debug mode
3559 -f size Specify the floppy disk format by capacity, eg:
3560 160K, 180K, 320K, 360K, 720K, 1.2M, 1.44M, 2.88M
3561 -q Quick mode: don't format the disk
3562 -r count Retry count for format/write operations
3563 -s Single-sector I/O
3564 -v Verbose
3566 In order to write the image file to a pre-formatted diskette, execute
3567 the commands:
3569 X:
3570 cd rawrite
3571 rawrite2 -f X:bootdisksbm.img -d b:
3573 In order to write the image file and format the diskette at the same time,
3574 execute the commands:
3576 X:
3577 cd rawrite
3578 fdimage -f 1.44M X:bootdisksbm.img b:
3580 where X: is the drive name in DOS
3582 3. From Windows
3583 ---------------------
3584 The final alternative is to use Windows program rawwritewin.exe (found in
3585 the utils\rawrite folder of the CD), as shown in the following image:
3587 [[ rawwritewin.png ]]
3592 Using SystemRescueCD
3593 ==============================================================================
3595 Intro
3596 ****************************************
3597 SystemRescueCD is an excellent Live CD. It contains cloning software too
3598 (FSArchiver {{ http://www.fsarchiver.org/Main_Page }} and partimage,
3599 to be spesific), but is unable to clone a whole disk, instead of only
3600 individual partitions.
3602 Clonezilla Live is a great cloning solution, but it is unable to do anything
3603 but clone. For general system administration, you need a lot more functions
3604 - like these offered by SystemRescueCD.
3606 Clonezilla-SysRescCD has all of the functions of both discs. It's a
3607 multi boot CD, so switching between CDs requires a reboot, but using
3608 both individual discs requires switching the physical disc - in addition
3609 to rebooting.
3611 But, of course, to be able to use SystemRescueCD's functions, you need to
3612 know how to use them. We don't have permission to redistribute SystemRescueCD
3613 documentation, so this page contains only just enough information to allow
3614 you to look for more help in SystemRescueCD documentation.
3616 Which boot option to pick?
3617 ****************************************
3618 Here is a list of the most important boot options:
3620 1) SystemRescueCd: default boot options
3621 2) SystemRescueCd: all files cached to memory (docache)
3622 3) SystemRescueCd: framebuffer console in high resolution
3623 4) SystemRescueCd: do not ask for keyboard, use US keymap
3624 5) SystemRescueCd: directly start the graphical environment
3625 6) SystemRescueCd: 64bit kernel with default options
3627 If you're accustomed to graphical environment, choose the option directly
3628 start the graphical environment. In graphical environment you're able
3629 to use graphical programs, like GParted and Mozilla Firefox. Terminals
3630 are also available, so using graphical environment doesn't prevent using
3631 command line. The only negative thing of graphical environment is that it
3632 slows booting process down a bit - and it's often just plain unneeded.
3634 If you're accustomed to command line and know already that you're not
3635 going to use any graphical program, choose the option framebuffer console
3636 in high resolution. Booting to command line is a bit faster process than
3637 booting to graphical environment, and you can start X manually later.
3639 Alternatively, you can select default boot options. However, if you do so,
3640 the text in the screen will be bigger and you'll be able to see less text
3641 at once.
3643 If you want to chroot on an existing GNU/Linux partition containing 64-bit
3644 programs, select 64bit kernel with default options. Even if you don't want
3645 to chroot, 64-bit kernel may be a bit faster than 32-bit one. However,
3646 64-bit kernel requires a x86-64 processor, for example AMD Athlon 64 or
3647 Intel Core 2.
3649 You need the option all files cached to memory (docache) if you plan to burn
3650 discs while using SystemRescueCD. The option copies the whole SystemRescueCD
3651 to the memory of the computer during the boot process, allowing you to
3652 put another disc to your CD/DVD writer while using SystemRescueCD. The
3653 negative thing is that reading all the contents of the disc slows boot
3654 process down a lot.
3656 Finally, the option do not ask for keyboard, use US keymap may be useful if
3657 you have an English keyboard. By default, SystemRescueCD asks the keymap
3658 to use during boot. If you don't answer in 20 seconds, SystemRescueCD
3659 chooses the US keymap. However, if you have chosen the option do not ask
3660 for keyboard, use US keymap in the boot menu, SystemRescueCD chooses the
3661 US keymap immediately. No waiting, no questions.
3663 After booting
3664 ****************************************
3665 HELP!!! Where are the desktop and Start menu?
3666 ---------------------
3667 Simply type this command and press ENTER twice:
3669 wizard
3671 Connecting to the Internet
3672 ---------------------
3673 The CD doesn't contain any SystemRescueCD documentation, because we don't
3674 have permission to redistribute it. In addition, our time is limited and
3675 we can't rewrite it all. So, you need to connect to the Internet to be
3676 able to read SystemRescueCD's official online documentation.
3678 SystemRescueCD establishes an Internet connection automatically, if you're
3679 in a network using DHCP. Nowadays, most people are.
3681 If the network doesn't use DHCP, you have to configure Internet settings
3682 by hand. You should be able to do so if you've previously configured
3683 your settings in the operating system you normally use. First, stop the
3684 NetworkManager daemon:
3686 /etc/init.d/NetworkManager stop
3688 After that, run the following command:
3690 net-setup eth0
3692 Note: In the command replace eth0 with the network interface you want to use.
3694 When you're done
3695 ****************************************
3696 When you're done, you naturally want to either shut the computer down or
3697 reboot. Wait! Don't do it yet!
3699 Both I and Spiros have found out that letting a live CD to automatically
3700 unmount partitions is often a bad idea. It can damage the filesystems
3701 of the partitions which were mounted when the computer was shut down and
3702 destroy any files in the partitions, even them you didn't use within the CD.
3704 So, I recommend unmounting them refore shutdown or reboot. Just run these
3705 commands when you're done.
3707 If you want to reboot:
3709 cd
3710 umount -a
3711 reboot
3713 If you want to shut down:
3714 cd
3715 umount -a
3716 poweroff
3718 More info
3719 ****************************************
3720 Here are some links to the official SystemRescueCD resources.
3722 SystemRescueCD - http://www.sysresccd.org/Main_Page
3723 Detailed packages list- http://www.sysresccd.org/Detailed-packages-list
3724 Manual - http://www.sysresccd.org/Online-Manual-EN
3725 FAQ - http://www.sysresccd.org/FAQ
3726 Howto - http://www.sysresccd.org/Howto
3727 Forum - http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/
3732 Managing partitions
3733 ==============================================================================
3735 Intro
3736 ****************************************
3737 One of the most important maintenance tasks that can only be done by using
3738 a live CD is partitioning. No operating system allows partitioning the
3739 same disk where the OS itself resides. Trying to do so is like attempting
3740 to repair a car while its engine is turned on.
3742 Of course, SystemRescueCD contains multiple programs that are related to
3743 partitioning. Most important are GParted (graphical partitioning program),
3744 GNU Parted (text-based partitioning program), fdisk and sfdisk (partition
3745 table editors) and various filesystem tools (like ntfsprogs and e2fsprogs).
3747 This page contains some theory about partitions and filesystems, advice for
3748 choosing the right filesystem and a partitioning example by using GParted.
3750 [[ important.png ]]
3751 While partitioning, an user error or a bug can damage your
3752 partitions.Creating a disk image of the disk to bepartitioned beforehand
3753 is highly recommended.
3755 [[ info.png ]]
3756 The following pressentation has been made usingSystemRescueCD v 2.1.1
3758 Some theory
3759 ****************************************
3760 What is a partition?
3761 ---------------------
3762 A partition is a logical division of a hard disk created so that you can
3763 have different operating systems on the same hard disk or to create the
3764 appearance of having separate hard drives for file management, multiple
3765 users, or other purposes.
3767 In Windows, a one-partition hard disk is labelled the "C:" drive ("A:" and
3768 "B:" are typically reserved for diskette drives). A two-partition hard drive
3769 would typically contain "C:" and "D:" drives. (CD-ROM drives typically are
3770 assigned the last letter in whatever sequence of letters have been used
3771 as a result of hard disk formatting, or typically with a two-partition,
3772 the "E:" drive.).
3774 In UNIX-based systems, a partition is used to host the / (root) file system,
3775 and optionally the /opt, /usr and /home file systems. There may also be
3776 a swap partition, which doesn't host any file system.
3778 Each operatin system provides some kind of tool to create and manage
3779 partitions. Examples of such tools are fdisk in DOS/Windows, fdisk, sfdisk
3780 and parted in Linux, etc.
3782 What is the difference between primary, extended and logical partitions?
3783 ---------------------
3784 Information about partitions is saved in so-called partition table
3785 in Master Boot Record. MBR itself is only 512 bytes in size,
3786 and only 64 bytes are reserved for partition table. That's not
3787 enough, and there are many workarounds to bypass limitations
3788 caused by the size, for example logical block addressing {{
3789 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_block_addressing#Enhanced_BIOS
3790 }}. Extended partitions are another workaround.
3792 Partition table can only store information about four partitions. If one
3793 has, for example, two GNU/Linux distributions on the same disk, both of
3794 them having separate root partitions, shared /home and shared swap, the
3795 partition number limit has been hit already.
3797 A partition that is mentioned in the partition table is called primary
3798 partition. Because of the limit, one disk can only contain 1-4 primary
3799 partitions.
3801 An extended partition fixes the problem simply by containing more boot
3802 records, called Extended Boot Records (EBR). Each EBR contains information
3803 about one logical partition and, if the extended partition contains multiple
3804 logical partitions, link to the next EBR. Thus, an extended partition can
3805 contain unlimited amount of logical partitions.
3807 Extended partition contains only EBRs and logical partitions (and maybe
3808 unallocated space). Extended partition doesn't contain any filesystem and
3809 files can't be stored in it. Of course, logical partition can contain any
3810 filesystem (or be unformatted).
3812 Logical partitions can always be used for storing data: any operating
3813 system can see logical partitions. GNU/Linux supports both multiple primary
3814 extended partitions and extended partitions within each other, while
3815 Windows supports only the latter. GNU/Linux distributions can be installed
3816 to logical partitions as well, but Windows requires a lot of tweaking. See
3817 this outdated guide {{ http://www.goodells.net/multiboot/index.htm }}.
3819 What is LVM?
3820 ---------------------
3821 LVM means "Logical Volume Manager". It allows creating volume groups on top
3822 of hard drives and logical volumes within volume groups. Logical volumes
3823 are NOT the same thing as logical partitions!
3825 Volume groups can be created very flexibly: a volume group can allocate,
3826 for example, the first half of the first hard drive and the second half
3827 of the third drive. One can even create a massive volume group containing
3828 all storage he/she has.
3830 The computer sees a logical volume as a partition: logical volume can be
3831 left unformatted or contain any filesystem.
3833 LVM has many benefits: for example, if one has three hard drives 60 gigabytes
3834 each, he/she can create a 160-gigabyte partition for storing massive files
3835 and/or saving some disk space. In addition, logical volumes can be resized
3836 even when they're in use, so when creating logical volumes one doesn't need
3837 to worry if they're too small or big - if they are, he/she can resize them
3838 at any time.
3840 However, resizing a logical volume doesn't resize the filesystem in
3841 it, so using a filesystem that can be resized in use (online resizing)
3842 is recommended. Very few filesystems can be shrinked online, but most
3843 GNU/Linux filesystems (including ext3/4, ReiserFS, XFS and btrfs) can be
3844 grown online. It's generally a good idea to leave unallocated space within
3845 volume group, so logical volumes can later be grown without shrinking any
3846 other logical volume.
3848 Here come bad news for people who dualboot: Windows doesn't support LVM, it
3849 sees volume groups as unformatted partitions. If you try to access volume
3850 group within Windows, you're just prompted to format the partition. That
3851 prompt is annoying at best and dangerous at worst.
3853 More information about LVM can be found here (almost everything about LVM
3854 in a single page) and here (official SystemRescueCD documentation about LVM).
3856 What is a file system?
3857 ---------------------
3858 A file system is the way in which files are named and where they are placed
3859 logically for storage and retrieval. The DOS, Windows, OS/2, Macintosh,
3860 and UNIX-based operating systems all have file systems in which files are
3861 placed somewhere in a hierarchical (tree) structure. A file is placed in
3862 a directory (folder in Windows) or subdirectory at the desired place in
3863 the tree structure.
3865 The most important difference between filesystems is operating system
3866 support. Some filesystems are supported by all modern operating systems,
3867 but especially the newest filesystems are very rarely supported. Other
3868 important limits are maximum file size, journaling support and file
3869 permission metadata support.
3871 The reason that file size limits exist is that all filesystems reserve a
3872 fixed number of bits for storing the file size. If the size of the file,
3873 in bytes, is bigger than the biggest number that can be stored in file
3874 size bits, the operating system must refuse to store the file at all in
3875 order to prevent data corruption.
3877 File permission metadata means that the filesystem stores in the metadata
3878 of the file, among other things, information about who owns the file and
3879 what different users are allowed to do with the file. That metadata is
3880 especially useful in multi-user environment because it mostly prevents
3881 users from reading each other's files. Permissions can be bypassed, however.
3883 What is journaling?
3884 ---------------------
3885 Ideally, data in a partition never corrupts. But, in the real world,
3886 there are power failures and operating system freezes. And if a computer
3887 is forcefully shut down while something is written to the drive, the write
3888 operation can't be finished. That can damage the filesystem and destroy
3889 any files in the partition.
3891 Journaling partially fixes that problem by writing most changes to the
3892 disk twice: first to a special area called journal and, after that, to
3893 the filesystem itself. If power is lost while writing to the journal was
3894 in progress, the partial change is just ignored and never committed to the
3895 filesystem itself. If power failure or OS freeze happened while writing to
3896 filesystem itself, the write operation is finished by using the information
3897 in journal.
3899 Journaling is always a trade-off between reliability and performance. In
3900 fact, the ext3 and ext4 filesystems support multiple journaling modes in
3901 order to allow the user to choose the optimal compromise. The most popular
3902 choices are ordered and writeback.
3904 Both modes only write metadata changes to the journal before committing
3905 them: data itself is written directly to the main filesystem. The difference
3906 between the modes is that ordered mode guarantees that the data is written
3907 before the change is marked as committed. The difference may sound small, but
3908 in some cases ordered mode causes horrible performance. In Linux 2.6.30, the
3909 default journaling mode was changed to writeback - and it was quickly found
3910 out that writeback mode may cause massive data loss. See this forum post {{
3911 http://forums.raiden.net/viewtopic.php?p=155912#155912 }} for details. Most
3912 GNU/Linux distributions are now using ordered mode as the default again.
3914 In addition, on SSDs (Solid State Drives) and thumb drives write speed is
3915 much slower than read speed. They also have a limited number of writing
3916 cycles, so journaling reduces their lifetime. Thus, I (Jyrki) recommend
3917 against using journaling fileystems on such drives.
3919 What are the differences between most popular filesystems?
3920 ---------------------
3921 The following table quickly describes the most important differences
3922 between them.
3924 Operating system support
3925 #############################################################################
3926 Under Under Maximum Journaling Permissions
3927 Windows GNU/Linux file size
3928 #############################################################################
3929 FAT32 Native Built-in 4 GB No No
3930 NTFS Native Included 16 EB Yes Yes
3931 ext2 3rd party driver Native 16 GB-2 TB* No Yes
3932 ext3 3rd party driver Native 16 GB-2 TB* Yes Yes
3933 ext4 3rd party driver Native 16 GB-16 TB* Yes Yes
3934 exFAT Built-in (Vista/7)** Driver 64 ZB No Yes
3936 * Depends on cluster size
3937 ** This update {{ http://support.microsoft.com/kb/955704 }} adds exFAT
3938 support to Windows XP
3940 Operating system support:
3942 * "Native" means that the kernel supports the filesystem and the OS can
3943 boot from a partition using that FS.
3944 * "Built-in" means that the kernel supports the filesystem, but booting
3945 from a partition containing such FS is very difficult.
3946 * "Driver included" means that ntfs-3g (the driver that adds NTFS support
3947 to Linux) comes with most GNU/Linux distributions.
3948 * "3rd party driver" means that a driver to add filesystem support
3949 is available, but must be downloaded and installed separately. The
3950 ext2/3/4 driver is Ext2fsd and the exFAT driver is exfat {{
3951 http://code.google.com/p/exfat/ }}.
3953 Filesystems
3954 ****************************************
3955 This section contains more information about most popular filesystems.
3957 FAT32
3958 ---------------------
3959 The initial version of FAT (File Allocation Table), now referred as
3960 FAT12, was designed for floppy disks. A FAT12 partition can only be up
3961 to 32 megabytes in size. After that, PCs equipped with hard drives were
3962 introcuded by IBM and the sizes of hard drives began growing. Microsoft
3963 answered the need by developing first initial FAT16 and then final FAT16.
3965 FAT16 partition can be up to two gigabytes in size. In the middle of 1990s,
3966 that limit was becoming a problem. Microsoft pushed the limit up by updating
3967 FAT again.
3969 FAT32 was first introduced with Windows 95 OSR2. Windows 98,
3970 Windows Me, Windows 2000 and newer support FAT32 too. Linux
3971 kernel has supported FAT32 almost as long as Windows, but
3972 booting GNU/Linux from FAT32 partition is difficult and actually
3973 requires DOS to be installed in the partition as well. (more information {{
3974 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FAT_filesystem_and_Linux#Installing_Linux_on_and_booting_it_from_FAT_volumes_using_umsdos
3975 }})
3977 FAT32 partition can be up to two terabytes in size. There are already hard
3978 drives that exceed the limit. A single file within FAT32 partition can be
3979 up to four gigabytes in size.
3981 Because FAT32 is, in the end, based on FAT12, it has very few features. It
3982 doesn't support file permissions, hard/symbolic links, encryption,
3983 compression, alternative data streams, journaling... It lacks support for
3984 nearly anything that defines a modern filesystem. However, due to very
3985 few features, FAT32 is very fast filesystem if it's not fragmented or on
3986 a Flash-based drive. Mind you, FAT32 fragments very fast.
3988 Due to excellent operating system support, I recommend FAT32 for storing
3989 files which should be accessible in both Windows and GNU/Linux. FAT32
3990 is also a good filesystem on Solid State Drives and thumb drives due to
3991 its performance.
3993 ext2
3994 ---------------------
3995 Ext2 or ext2fs is the successor of extfs (extended file system). Extfs
3996 didn't support separated timestamps for access, data modification and inode
3997 modification. In order to add support for them, and make the filesystem
3998 extendable, a new filesystem had to be created.
4000 Ext2 was developed in January 1993, earlier than any other filesystem
4001 mentioned in this page.
4003 Because ext2 is designed for GNU/Linux, support in Linux kernel was
4004 implemented immediately. The first Windows driver supporting ext2, Ext2fsd
4005 0.01, was released on 25 January 2002. Ext2fsd works only on Windows NT
4006 operating systems starting from Windows 2000.
4008 The best property of ext2 is extensibility. The superblock contains
4009 information about which version the filesystem is (ext2, ext3 or ext4)
4010 and which extensions and features are in use. By using these pieces of
4011 information, the operating system or driver can decide whether or not
4012 mounting the partition is safe. That's the most important reason why most
4013 GNU/Linux distributions still use successors of ext2 as default filesystems.
4015 Depending on cluster size, ext2 partition can be up to 2-32 terabytes in
4016 size. File size limit is 16 GB-2 TB.
4018 Ext2 supports file permissions, both hard and symbolic links and extended
4019 file attributes. Encryption, compression and journaling are unsupported.
4021 Lack of journaling support is the worst limitation of ext2. What was done
4022 in order to get rid of the limitation?
4024 ext3
4025 ---------------------
4026 Ext3, the successor of ext2, was introduced in Linux kernel on November
4027 2001. It supports journaling, can be grown online and optionally indexes
4028 large directories.
4030 Ext2fsd can mount ext3 partition as ext2. Thus, ext3 support under Windows
4031 is just as good/bad as ext2 support.
4033 Partition and file size limits are the same as in ext2: partition size
4034 limit is 2-32 TB and file size limit 16 GB-2 TB, depending on cluster size.
4036 Ext3 is becoming obsolete because there is...
4038 ext4
4039 ---------------------
4040 Linux kernel support for ext4, the successor of ext3, was marked stable
4041 code on October 2008. Ext4 contains multiple performance and stability
4042 improvements over ext3.
4044 The most important new feature is extents. An extent is a contiguous area of
4045 storage that has been reserved for a file. When a process starts to write
4046 to a file, the whole extent is allocated even before the write operation
4047 begins. The idea is that even if the file is larger than expected, it
4048 doesn't fragment if it doesn't exceed the size of the extent.
4050 Another important improvement is larger partition size limit: an ext4
4051 partition can be even one exabyte in size. (An exabyte is a million
4052 terabytes.) In addition, a directory within an ext4 partition can contain up
4053 to 64 000 subdirectories (instead of 32 000, as in ext2/3) and timestamps
4054 are much more accurate. The file size limit is 16 GB-16 TB, depending on
4055 cluster size.
4057 Ext2fsd 0.50, released on 5 February 2011, supports ext4 and is able to
4058 mount ext4 partition even if extents are enabled. Thus, ext4 support under
4059 Windows is just as good/bad as ext2 support.
4061 Due to availability of Ext2fsd 0.50 and additional features, ext4 has become
4062 the de-facto GNU/Linux filesystem. Because journaling can be disabled,
4063 it is suitable for Solid State Drives and thumb drives too.
4065 NTFS
4066 ---------------------
4067 At the end of 1980s, IBM and Microsoft were developing OS/2 operating
4068 system. Both companies expected OS/2 1.1, released on 1988, to be the first
4069 popular operating system having a GUI, Presentation Manager. Even though it
4070 didn't become too popular during its first years, Microsoft didn't complain:
4071 Windows 2 didn't sell any better.
4073 But on May 1990, Microsoft released Windows 3.0. Millions of copies of it
4074 were sold during its first year, and Microsoft began to believe that OS/2
4075 had failed due to decisions of IBM. At autumn 1990, Microsoft stopped
4076 cooperating with IBM, recasted OS/2 3.0 as Windows NT and continued
4077 developing it alone, leaving IBM alone with OS/2.
4079 Windows NT was targeted for network file servers, and there were already
4080 competition, most importantly Novell NetWare and OS/2. Among other things,
4081 the filesystem of Windows NT had to be fast, space efficient and reliable.
4083 NTFS (New Technology File System) was introcuded with Windows NT 3.1. Newer
4084 versions of NTFS have been introduced with newer versions of Windows NT,
4085 and the filesystem is most likely still under development. All versions
4086 of Windows NT support NTFS, but support in Linux kernel was implemented
4087 as late as on December 2003.
4089 NTFS is still, in my opinion, the most feature-filled filesystem around. It
4090 supports file permissions, both hard and symbolic links, encryption,
4091 compression, alternative data streams, journaling... There are very few
4092 features NTFS doesn't support.
4094 Depending on cluster size, a NTFS partition can be up to 8 ZB-1 YB in
4095 size. (A zettabyte (ZB) is a milliard terabytes and a yottabyte (YB)
4096 a billion terabytes.) File size limit is 16 EB.
4098 Windows 7 can only be installed on a NTFS
4099 partition, and Vista requires a work-around {{
4100 http://www.computersplace.com/install-windows-vista-on-a-fat32-partition/windows-vista
4101 }} if one wants to install it on a FAT32 partition. Of course NTFS partitions
4102 can be used for data storage as well: due to features of NTFS, I recommend
4103 doing so on mechanical hard drives on Windows-only computers.
4105 exFAT
4106 ---------------------
4107 NTFS is a great filesystem, but due to its complexity and journaling, it's
4108 not suitable for Flash-based drives. Even Microsoft itself has recommended
4109 using FAT32 on removable Flash media.
4111 However, FAT32 only allows files up to four gigabytes in size. The limit
4112 is already becoming too small, for example a DVD disc image can exceed
4113 that limit. In addition, FAT32 lacks file permission support. In order
4114 to get rid of these limitations, Microsoft took FAT from its grave and
4115 updated it one more time.
4117 ExFAT (extended FAT), also known as FAT64, was introduced with Windows CE
4118 6.0, on November 2006. Windows Vista SP1, Windows 7 and newer support exFAT
4119 too, and by installing this update {{ http://support.microsoft.com/kb/955704
4120 }} Windows XP can be extended to support exFAT as well. GNU/Linux drivers
4121 are available too, but currently none of them are both stable and free. The
4122 best option seems to be exfat, an open-source driver in beta stage.
4124 The partition and file size limits of exFAT are the same: 64
4125 zettabytes. Another important improvement is file permission support that,
4126 oddly, is lacking in Windows Vista. In addition, a directory within an
4127 exFAT partition can contain up to 2 796 202 files (instead of 65 536,
4128 as in FAT32) and timestamps have become more accurate.
4130 No operating system can be installed to an exFAT partition, so such
4131 partitions can only be used for data storage. Due to lack of journaling
4132 and support for huge files, exFAT is a good filesystem on Solid State
4133 Drives and thumb drives that are only used within Windows Vista and/or 7.
4135 Partition list
4136 ---------------------
4137 The following table presents known partition types along with their IDs:
4139 0 Empty 80 Old Minix
4140 1 FAT12 81 Minix / old Linux
4141 2 XENIX root 82 Linux swap / Solaris
4142 3 XENIX usr 83 Linux
4143 4 FAT16 <32M 84 OS/2 hidden C: drive
4144 5 Extended 85 Linux extended
4145 6 FAT16 86 NTFS volume set
4146 7 HPFS/NTFS 87 NTFS volume set
4147 8 AIX 88 Linux plaintext
4148 9 AIX bootable 8e Linux LVM
4149 a OS/2 Boot Manager 93 Amoeba
4150 b W95 FAT32 94 Amoeba BBT
4151 c W95 FAT32 (LBA) 9f BSD/OS
4152 e W95 FAT16 (LBA) a0 IBM Thinkpad hibernation
4153 f W95 Ext'd (LBA) a5 FreeBSD
4154 10 OPUS a6 OpenBSD
4155 11 Hidden FAT12 a7 NeXTSTEP
4156 12 Compaq diagnostics a8 Darwin UFS
4157 14 Hidden FAT16 <32M a9 NetBSD
4158 16 Hidden FAT16 ab Darwin boot
4159 17 Hidden HPFS/NTFS b7 BSDI fs
4160 18 AST SmartSleep b8 BSDI swap
4161 1b Hidden W95 FAT32 bb Boot Wizard hidden
4162 1c Hidden W95 FAT32 (LBA) be Solaris boot
4163 1e Hidden W95 FAT16 (LBA) bf Solaris
4164 24 NEC DOS c1 DRDOS/sec (FAT-12)
4165 39 Plan 9 c4 DRDOS/sec (FAT-16
4166 3c PartitionMagic recovery c6 DRDOS/sec (FAT-16)
4167 40 Venix 80286 c7 Syrinx
4168 41 PPC PReP Boot da Non-FS data
4169 42 SFS db CP/M / CTOS / ...
4170 4d QNX4.x de Dell Utility
4171 4e QNX4.x 2nd part df BootIt
4172 4f QNX4.x 3rd part e1 DOS access
4173 50 OnTrack DM e3 DOS R/O
4174 51 OnTrack DM6 Aux1 e4 SpeedStor
4175 52 CP/M eb BeOS fs
4176 53 OnTrack DM6 Aux3 ee EFI GPT
4177 54 OnTrackDM6 ef EFI (FAT-12/16/32)
4178 55 EZ-Drive f0 Linux/PA-RISC boot
4179 56 Golden Bow f1 SpeedStor
4180 5c Priam Edisk f4 SpeedStor
4181 61 SpeedStor f2 DOS secondary
4182 63 GNU HURD or SysV fd Linux raid autodetect
4183 64 Novell Netware 286 fe LANstep
4184 65 Novell Netware 386 ff BBT
4185 70 DiskSecure Multi-Boot
4186 75 PC/IX
4188 The partitions you are most likely to see in use, are:
4190 * HPFS/NTFS (ID = 7)
4191 This is the Windows XP partition, also known as NTFS
4193 * W95 FAT32 (LBA) (ID = c)
4194 This is the Windows 95 - 98 partition
4195 It is used in any kind of disk and large USB devices (1 GB and more)
4197 * W95 Ext'd (LBA) (ID = f)
4198 Extended partition. It acts as a container for other partitions
4200 * Extended (ID = 5)
4201 Another extended partition type. It acts as a container for other partitions
4202 There is one more extended partition type (ID = 85), but Windows doesn't
4203 recognise it
4205 * Linux swap / Solaris (ID = 82)
4206 Swap partition, acting as Virtual Memory
4207 Modern computers with 1 - 2 GB of memory may not use it at all
4209 * Linux (ID = 83)
4210 Linux partitions, such as ext2, ext3 and reiserfs
4212 Partitioning example
4213 ****************************************
4214 This section contains a partitioning example. I simulate the following
4215 situation in a virtual machine:
4217 I have two partitions in my disk: /dev/sda1 that contains a GNU/Linux
4218 distribution, and /dev/sda2 that is a swap partition. Here we can see the
4219 output of parted:
4221 root@sysresccd /root % parted -l
4222 Model: ATA VBOX HARDDISK (scsi)
4223 Disk /dev/sda: 2097MB
4224 Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
4225 Partition Table: msdos
4227 Number Start End Size Type File system Flags
4228 1 32.3kB 1679MB 1679MB primary ext4 boot
4229 2 1679MB 2097MB 418MB primary linux-swap(v1)
4231 Warning: Unable to open /dev/sr0 read-write (Read-only file system).
4232 /dev/sr0 has been opened read-only.
4233 Error: /dev/sr0: unrecognised disk label
4235 Error: /dev/fd0: unrecognised disk label
4237 Now I'm going to install another distribution on the same disk. First of
4238 all, I need one more partition, because only one distro can be installed on
4239 one partition. In addition, I want to separate /home to its own partition
4240 in order to be able to share it between distributions.
4242 Because the whole disk is already allocated, I must shrink at least one
4243 existing partition in order to create new partitions. I'll shrink both of
4244 them to half (/dev/sda1 from 1,6 gigabytes to 800 megabytes, and /dev/sda2
4245 from 400 MB to 200 MB). In addition, I'll move /dev/sda2 right next to
4246 /dev/sda1 to keep the partitions in order.
4248 But how many partitions there will be in total? One, two,
4249 three... four! Phew, I was near to paint myself into a corner. If I created
4250 only primary partitions, I'd be unable to create any more partitions on
4251 the disk. Thus, I'll create an extended partition instead and two logical
4252 partitions within it. Then I'll be able to create more logical partitions
4253 later if required.
4255 There is one more challenge: moving /home to a separate partition. It's
4256 very easy to move the folder itself, but the distro in /dev/sda1 will
4257 surely be confused if it doesn't find /home when it boots next time. Thus,
4258 I must edit its /etc/fstab and configure it to mount the /home partition
4259 automatically - before booting the distro itself.
4261 Now there are only two decisions left: the numbers and sizes of the new
4262 partitions. I decide to install the new distro to /dev/sda5 and move /home
4263 to /dev/sda6. Let /dev/sda5 be 800 megabytes and /dev/sda6 200 MB in size.
4265 Now it's time to boot into SystemRescueCD. Graphical mode is required
4266 this time.
4267 [[ systemrescuecd.png ]]
4268 I close the terminal and open GParted by clicking the third icon in the
4269 bottom pane.
4270 [[ gparted-00.png ]]
4271 I right-click the partition /dev/sda1 and select Resize/Move.
4272 [[ gparted-01.png ]]
4273 I enter 799 MB as the new size, click the Free Space Following (MiB)
4274 combo box and press Resize/Move.
4275 [[ gparted-02.png ]]
4276 I right-click now /dev/sda2 and select Resize/Move.
4277 [[ gparted-03.png ]]
4278 I enter 0 MB as preceding free space and 200 MB as partition size, click
4279 the Free Space Following (MiB) combo box and press Resize/Move.
4280 [[ gparted-03a.png ]]
4281 I read the warning. As the swap partition doesn't contain /boot (or any
4282 files, for that matter), I just click OK.
4283 [[ gparted-04.png ]]
4284 I right-click the unallocated area and select New.
4285 [[ gparted-05.png ]]
4286 I select Extended Partition as the partition type. The size was already
4287 1000 megabytes (the maximum) and as said, an extended partition doesn't
4288 contain any filesystem. I click Add.
4289 [[ gparted-06.png ]]
4290 I right-click the unallocated area within the extended partition and
4291 select New.
4292 [[ gparted-07.png ]]
4293 I choose the ext4 filesystem and enter 799 MB as the partition size. After
4294 that, I click first the Free Space Following (MiB) combo box and then Add.
4295 [[ gparted-08.png ]]
4296 I right-click the remaining unallocated space and select New one more time.
4297 [[ gparted-09.png ]]
4298 I choose the ext4 filesystem again. The partition size setting was already
4299 199 megabytes (the whole available space), so I just press Add.
4300 [[ gparted-10.png ]]
4301 [[ important.png ]]
4302 The next step is to commit the changes.After that some operations, for
4303 examplepartition deletion, can no longer be undone.
4305 Finally I commit the changes by pressing the rightmost icon in the main bar.
4306 [[ gparted-11.png ]]
4307 After slowly reading the warning, I confirm my decisions by pressing Apply.
4308 [[ gparted-12.png ]]
4309 GParted begins to commit the changes...
4310 [[ gparted-13.png ]]
4311 ...and when everything is done, it shows me this window that I close.
4312 [[ gparted-14.png ]]
4313 Then I can see the brand new partitions.
4315 Moving /home
4316 ---------------------
4317 I close GParted and launch Terminal by pressing the second icon in the
4318 bottom pane.
4320 I create directories as mount points:
4322 mkdir /mnt/sda1
4323 mkdir /mnt/sda6
4325 Then I mount the partitions:
4327 mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/sda1
4328 mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/sda6
4330 I copy the directory to the new partition:
4332 cd /mnt/sda1
4333 rsync -aAPSX home/ /mnt/sda6
4335 I move the original directory out of my way and create a new directory in
4336 place of it:
4338 mv home home-old
4339 mkdir home
4341 After that, I unmount /dev/sda6, because it no longer needs to be mounted:
4343 umount /dev/sda6
4344 [[ terminal.png ]]
4345 Now I close Terminal and launch Geany by pressing the fourth icon in the
4346 bottom pane.
4347 [[ geany-00.png ]]
4348 I select File -> Open.
4349 [[ geany-01.png ]]
4350 I press File System and navigate to folder /mnt/sda1/etc.
4351 [[ geany-02.png ]]
4352 I double-click the file fstab.
4353 [[ geany-03.png ]]
4354 I add the following line:
4356 /dev/sda6 /home ext4 defaults 0 2
4358 Finally, I select File -> Save.
4359 [[ geany-04.png ]]
4360 It's a good idea to reboot the computer now and check if the distribution
4361 in /dev/sda1 still works. If yes, the /home-old directory can be removed
4362 and the disk is ready for the new distro.
4367 Data Recovery
4368 ==============================================================================
4370 Intro
4371 ****************************************
4372 Deleted or "lost" files can be recovered from failed or formatted drives
4373 and partitions, cdroms and memory cards using the software available in
4374 SystemRescueCD.
4376 Unless you can rule out hardware failure, you must not write to the failed
4377 device. The following software will passively try to recover your data
4378 from failed or failing hardware. If your data is not replaceable, do not
4379 attempt to write to the failed device if the following applications do
4380 not work but seek professional advice instead.
4382 If your device is damaged, it is advisable to image the device and work on
4383 the image file for data recovery. If hardware failure is not the problem,
4384 you can recover data directly from the device.
4386 To recover data from a failed device, you will need another device of equal
4387 or greater storage capacity onto which to save your data. If you need to make
4388 an image of the failed device, you will need yet another quantity of space.
4390 I should state here, that I haven't used any of these tools recently (other
4391 than plain and simple dd, a long time ago, which I found to be very slow),
4392 so I couldn't recommend any of them. Any comments on a tool's usability
4393 found in this page, is just what I found on the Net.
4395 Partition recovery
4396 ****************************************
4397 If you made a mistake while partitioning and the partition no longer appears
4398 in the partition table, so long as you have not written data in that space,
4399 all your data is still there and can be restored.
4401 When changing the partition table on your hard drive, you must ensure that
4402 no partition on the disk is mounted. This includes swap space. In order
4403 to restore your partition, execute:
4405 swapoff -a
4406 parted /dev/old_disk
4408 Then, use the rescue option:
4410 rescue START END
4412 where START is the area of the disk where you believe the partition began
4413 and END is it's end. If parted finds a potential partition, it will ask
4414 you if you want to add it to the partition table.
4416 Note: TestDisk can also be used to recover a "lost" partition.
4418 Disk / files recovery
4419 ****************************************
4420 Using dd
4421 ---------------------
4422 In order to duplicate a disk to another disk, execute
4424 dd if=/dev/old_disk of=/dev/new_disk conv=noerror,sync
4426 or to create an image file
4428 dd if=/dev/old_disk of=image_file conv=noerror
4430 Be careful, if you are copying a disk, the destination must also be a disk,
4431 not a partition. If you are copying a partition, the destination partition
4432 must be large enough. Copying the whole disk is recommended.
4434 To speed up the copy process, you can append bs=8k, it will read/write
4435 the disk by 16 sectors at a time.
4437 Using dd_rescue
4438 ---------------------
4439 Like dd, dd_rescue {{ http://www.garloff.de/kurt/linux/ddrescue/ }} does
4440 copy data from one file or block device to another. You can specify file
4441 positions (called seek and skip in dd). There are several differences:
4443 * dd_rescue does not provide character conversions.
4444 * The command syntax is different. Call dd_rescue -h.
4445 * dd_rescue does not abort on errors on the input file, unless you specify a
4446 maximum error number. Then dd_rescue will abort when this number is reached.
4447 * dd_rescue does not truncate the output file, unless asked to.
4448 * You can tell dd_rescue to start from the end of a file and move backwards.
4449 * It uses two block sizes, a large (soft) block size and a small (hard)
4450 block size. In case of errors, the size falls back to the small one and
4451 is promoted again after a while without errors.
4452 * It does not (yet) support non-seekable in- or output.
4454 In order to duplicate a disk to another disk, execute
4456 dd_rescue -A -v /dev/old_disk /dev/new_disk
4458 or to create an image file
4460 dd_rescue -A -v /dev/old_disk image_file
4462 The copying should go very quickly until it hits a bad sector and then it
4463 will slow down to take smaller chunks of data. People have reported very
4464 good results with this technique.
4466 Using GNU ddrescue
4467 ---------------------
4468 The GNU site describes GNU ddrescue as a data recovery tool, and lists
4469 these features:
4471 * It copies data from one file or block device (hard disc, CD-ROM, etc)
4472 to another, trying hard to rescue data in case of read errors.
4473 * It does not truncate the output file if not asked to, so every time you
4474 run it on the same output file, it tries to fill in the gaps.
4475 * It is designed to be fully automatic.
4476 * If you use the log file feature of GNU ddrescue, the data is rescued very
4477 efficiently (only the needed blocks are read). Also you can interrupt the
4478 rescue at any time and resume it later at the same point.
4479 * The log file is periodically saved to disc. So in case of a crash you
4480 can resume the rescue with little recopying.
4481 * If you have two or more damaged copies of a file, CD-ROM, etc, and run
4482 GNU ddrescue on all of them, one at a time, with the same output file,
4483 you will probably obtain a complete and error-free file. The probability
4484 of having damaged areas at the same places on different input files is
4485 very low. Using the log file, only the needed blocks are read from the
4486 second and successive copies.
4487 * The same log file can be used for multiple commands that copy different
4488 areas of the file, and for multiple recovery attempts over different subsets.
4490 The algorithm of GNU ddrescue is as follows:
4492 * Optionally read a log file describing the status of a multi-part or
4493 previously interrupted rescue.
4494 * Read the non-damaged parts of the input file, skipping the damaged areas,
4495 until the requested size is reached, or until interrupted by the user.
4496 * Try to read the damaged areas, splitting them into smaller pieces and
4497 reading the non-damaged pieces, until the hardware block size is reached,
4498 or until interrupted by the user.
4499 * Try to read the damaged hardware blocks until the specified number of
4500 retries is reached, or until interrupted by the user.
4501 * Optionally write a log file for later use.
4503 Note: GNU ddrescue is considered to be the best recovery tool available.
4505 In order to duplicate a disk to another disk, execute
4507 ddrescue -vr3 /dev/old_disk /dev/new_disk logfile
4509 or to create an image file
4511 ddrescue -vr3 /dev/old_disk image_file logfile
4513 If the disk is failing fast and you want to get the most data out of it
4514 on the first try, you should probably use "-n" on the first run. This
4515 will avoid splitting error areas. Subsequent runs can use "-r1" or "-r3",
4516 without "-n", to retry those error areas.
4518 To summarise, we execute:
4520 ddrescue -vn /dev/old_disk image_file logfile
4521 ddrescue -v -r3 -C /dev/old_disk image_file logfile
4523 Note: When working with CD-ROMs you should probably specific "-b 2048"
4525 Using Foremost
4526 ---------------------
4527 Foremost {{ http://foremost.sourceforge.net/ }} is a console program
4528 to recover files based on their headers, footers, and internal data
4529 structures. This process is commonly referred to as data carving. Foremost
4530 can work on image files, such as those generated by dd, Safeback, Encase,
4531 etc, or directly on a drive. The headers and footers can be specified
4532 by a configuration file or you can use command line switches to specify
4533 built-in file types. These built-in types look at the data structures of
4534 a given file format allowing for a more reliable and faster recovery.
4536 It can be run on an image file created with any of the above tools, to
4537 extract files:
4539 foremost -i image -o /recovery/foremost
4541 Foremost can be instructed to recover only specific file types, using the
4542 -t command line parameter. In the following example Foremost will extract
4543 only jpg files:
4545 foremost -t jpg -i image -o /recovery/foremost
4547 Available types are: jpg, gif, png, bmp, avi, exe (Windows binaries and
4548 DLLs), wav, riff, wmv (will extract wma also), mov, pdf, ole (will extract
4549 any file using the OLE file structure; this includes PowerPoint, Word,
4550 Excel, Access, and StarWriter), doc, zip (will extract .jar files and Open
4551 Office docs as well; this includes SXW, SXC, SXI, and SX? for undetermined
4552 OpenOffice files), rar, html and cpp.
4554 Using TestDisk
4555 ---------------------
4556 TestDisk {{ http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/TestDisk }} was primarily
4557 designed to help recover "lost" partitions and/or make non-booting disks
4558 bootable again when these symptoms are caused by faulty software, certain
4559 types of viruses or human error (such as accidentally deleting a Partition
4560 Table). Partition table recovery using TestDisk is really easy.
4562 TestDisk can
4564 * Fix partition table, recover deleted partition
4565 * Recover FAT32 boot sector from its backup
4566 * Rebuild FAT12/FAT16/FAT32 boot sector
4567 * Fix FAT tables
4568 * Rebuild NTFS boot sector
4569 * Recover NTFS boot sector from its backup
4570 * Fix MFT using MFT mirror
4571 * Locate ext2/ext3 Backup SuperBlock
4573 Some great tutorials are available at TestDisk's site: "TestDisk Step
4574 By Step {{ http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/TestDisk_Step_By_Step }}",
4575 "Running TestDisk", "Data Recovery Examples" etc.
4577 Using PhotoRec
4578 ---------------------
4579 PhotoRec {{ http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/PhotoRec }} is file data recovery
4580 software designed to recover "lost" files including video, documents
4581 and archives from Hard Disks and CDRom and "lost" pictures (thus, its
4582 'Photo Recovery' name) from digital camera memory. PhotoRec ignores the
4583 filesystem and goes after the underlying data, so it will still work even
4584 if your media's filesystem has been severely damaged or re-formatted.
4586 For more safety, PhotoRec uses read-only access to handle the drive or
4587 memory support you are about to recover "lost" data from.
4589 Important: As soon as a pic or file is accidentally deleted, or you discover
4590 any missing, do NOT save any more pics or files to that memory device or
4591 hard disk drive; otherwise you may overwrite your "lost" data. This means
4592 that even using PhotoRec, you must not choose to write the recovered files
4593 to the same partition they were stored on.
4595 A great tutorial titled "PhotoRec Step By Step {{
4596 http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/PhotoRec_Step_By_Step }}" can be found at
4597 PhotoRec's site.
4599 Links & resources
4600 ****************************************
4601 This page is a compilation of the following pages:
4603 DataRecovery
4604 https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DataRecovery
4606 Hard Drive Recovery, Ubuntu-Style
4607 http://blogs.sun.com/superpat/tags/ddrescue
4609 Recover Data and (deleted) Partition with Linux from Hard Drives, CD-ROMs
4610 or DVDs
4611 http://sysblogd.wordpress.com/2008/01/05/data-recovery-with-linux-from-hard-drives-cd-roms-or-dvds/
4613 dd_rescue
4614 http://www.garloff.de/kurt/linux/ddrescue/
4616 gddrescue: a tool for recovering data from damaged media
4617 http://debaday.debian.net/2007/12/12/gddrescue-a-tool-for-recovering-data-from-damaged-media/
4619 Foremost
4620 http://foremost.sourceforge.net/
4622 TestDisk
4623 http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/TestDisk
4625 PhotoRec
4626 http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/PhotoRec
4631 Clonezilla-SysRescCD own scripts
4632 ==============================================================================
4634 Intro
4635 ****************************************
4636 In this page I will present the scripts I have ever written for
4637 Clonezilla-SysRescCD
4639 what-cd
4640 ****************************************
4641 Included in: SystemRescueCD
4643 This script determines the device names for your CDs/DVDs, and whether
4644 they can read/write CD/DVD-ROMs
4646 Its help screen is the following:
4648 # what-cd -h
4649 what-cd - v 1.0.0 - S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
4651 what-cd will try to identify your CD/DVDs
4652 You can use it to identify the device name of your CD-Reader (default),
4653 CD-Writer, DVD-Reader, and DVD-Writer.
4655 Usage: what-cd [options]
4656 Availabe options are:
4657 d Print info about DVDs
4658 w Print info about writers
4659 b Batch mode. Only print one device name.
4660 If more than one device is found, print
4661 nothing. For use with scripts
4662 e deviceID Eject device deviceID
4663 Accecpable values: -1...num of devices
4664 Use -1 when in batch mode
4665 v Print version info and exit
4666 h Print this screen and exit
4668 Its typical usage would be to identify the DVD writer:
4670 # what-cd -dw
4671 Device /dev/hdd (id=0) can not write DVDs
4672 Device /dev/hdc (id=1) can write DVDs
4674 When used in batch mode, it will only print a device name. This is
4675 especially useful in scripts, but also in the command line, as shown in
4676 section "Burning the DVD".
4678 # what-cd -dwb
4679 /dev/hdc
4681 continue-multi-cd
4682 ****************************************
4683 Included in: SystemRescueCD
4685 continue-multi-cd helps you append data to a multi session CD; that is
4686 it helps you prepare and burn any consecutive sessions to it. It may lack
4687 some of the functionality you would have had if you used the command line
4688 tools themselves (mksiofs and cdrecord), but because of it, it keeps you
4689 away from writing a lot of parameters.
4691 You could use it for example, to burn some extra documentation to
4692 Clonezilla-SysRescCD CD, but you cannot use it to change the configuration
4693 files of isolinux, as it just reads the first session when booting.
4695 Its help screen is the following:
4697 # continue-multi-cd -h
4698 continue-multi-cd - v 2.0.0 - S. Georgaras <sng@hellug.gr>
4700 Usage: continue-multi-cd [options] <path to be added to CD>
4702 Available options are:
4703 d Specify write device (in case auto detection does
4704 not work)
4705 c Close the CD. No more burning will be possible
4706 Default is to leave it open
4707 l Don't burn the CD after image creation
4708 o <image name> Save the image file as <image name>
4709 r Remove the image file after burning
4710 f On the fly burning of the CD. No image file will
4711 be created
4712 v Print version info and exit
4713 h Print this screen and exit
4715 You have to note one thing though: the folder <path to be added to CD>
4716 will not be present on the CD; only its contents will.
4718 Let's suppose that you want to add to the CD the folder extra-doc,
4719 which contains q-a.html and faq.html, and that its full path is
4720 /home/user/extra-doc. If you issue the command
4722 continue-multi-cd -mwr /home/user/extra-doc
4724 you will not have a extra-doc folder on the root of your CD, but the files
4725 q-a.html and faq.html will be present there.
4727 In order to have extra-doc on the CD, you have to copy it to a temporary
4728 location and pass that path to continue-multi-cd. Let's see how it's done:
4730 mkdir -p /tmp/for-the-cd
4731 cp -r /home/user/extra-doc /tmp/for-the-cd
4732 continue-multi-cd -r /tmp/for-the-cd
4733 rm -rf /tmp/for-the-cd
4738 Identifying devices in Linux
4739 ==============================================================================
4741 Intro
4742 ****************************************
4743 This page is intended to help new Linux users and Windows users identify
4744 their hard disks / CD ROMs in a Linux box.
4746 Linux disks and partition names may be different from other operating
4747 systems. You need to know the names that Linux uses when you format,
4748 mount or select partitions or disks.
4750 Linux uses the so called device name to access disks and partitions. You
4751 can think of it as a link to the actual driver of the disk. All available
4752 devices have a corresponding file in /dev (e.g. /dev/hda1).
4754 In general, each disk / CD-ROM has a three letter name, for example hda. Each
4755 partition in such a disk has a number associated with it, starting from 1. So
4756 the first partition of disk hda would be hda1, the second hda2 and so on.
4758 Depending on the device type, Linux gives the following names to devices:
4760 * IDE (ATA) floppies
4761 The first floppy drive is named /dev/fd0.
4762 The second floppy drive is named /dev/fd1.
4764 * IDE (ATA) disks /CD-ROMs
4765 The master disk on IDE primary controller is named /dev/hda.
4766 The slave disk on IDE primary controller is named /dev/hdb.
4767 The master and slave disks of the secondary controller can be called
4768 /dev/hdc and /dev/hdd, respectively.
4770 Linux represents the primary partitions as the drive name, plus the numbers
4771 1 through 4. For example, the first primary partition on the first IDE
4772 drive is /dev/hda1. The logical partitions are numbered starting at 5,
4773 so the first logical partition on that same drive is /dev/hda5. Remember
4774 that the extended partition, that is, the primary partition holding the
4775 logical partitions, is not usable by itself. This applies to SCSI disks
4776 as well as IDE disks.
4778 * SCSI disks
4779 The first SCSI disk (SCSI ID address-wise) is named /dev/sda.
4780 The second SCSI disk (address-wise) is named /dev/sdb, and so on.
4782 * SCSI CD-ROMs
4783 The first SCSI CD-ROM is named /dev/scd0, also known as /dev/sr0.
4784 The second SCSI CD-ROM is named /dev/scd1, also known as /dev/sr1, and so on.
4786 * USB disks
4787 They are named just like SCSI disks. The only difference is that the
4788 partition number has to do with the file system on the disk. If it's
4789 /dev/sdx4, then it's a VFAT file system and if it's /dev/sdx1 it's probably
4790 a linux (ext2, ext3) file system.
4792 Examples
4793 ****************************************
4794 In order to identify the disks of a system you have to work with, a basic
4795 knowledge of its configuration (how many disks it has, whether it's a
4796 dual-boot system etc.) is welcomed but not required. A more experienced
4797 user will not have to worry about it, though.
4799 Linux systems based on a 2.6.x kernel (like Clonezilla Live and
4800 SystemRescueCD) provide all the necessary support to identify a system's
4801 disk configuration, with just a couple of commands.
4803 Example 1
4804 ---------------------
4805 The first system I have to work with is a dual-boot system (Windows -
4806 Linux), with two disks and two DVD-ROMs.
4808 The first command will tell me what disks and partitions exist in the
4809 system. So here it is:
4811 # cat /proc/partitions
4812 major minor #blocks name
4814 3 0 312571224 hda
4815 3 1 23446836 hda1
4816 3 2 40957717 hda2
4817 3 3 245240257 hda3
4818 3 4 2923830 hda4
4819 3 64 244198584 hdb
4820 3 65 41945683 hdb1
4821 3 66 2104515 hdb2
4822 3 67 1 hdb3
4823 3 68 125909437 hdb4
4824 3 69 74236333 hdb5
4826 The output of this command tells me that the system has two disks (hda
4827 and hdb) which are the primary master and slave devices.
4829 The first disk contains four primary partitions (hda1-hda4) and the second
4830 one four primary partitions (hdb1-hdb4) and a logical one (hdb5). Wait a
4831 minute!!! this can't be right... In order to have a logical partition, I
4832 must have a primary that contains it, which means that in this case I can't
4833 have four primary partitions. So what is really happening here is that I have
4834 two primary and two logical, plus an extended primary which contains them.
4836 What remains to be found is what type of partitions they are. I will find
4837 that out by executing the following commands:
4839 # fdisk -l /dev/hda
4841 Disk /dev/hda: 320.0 GB, 320072933376 bytes
4842 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 38913 cylinders
4843 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
4845 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
4846 /dev/hda1 * 1 2919 23446836 7 HPFS/NTFS
4847 /dev/hda2 2920 8018 40957717+ 7 HPFS/NTFS
4848 /dev/hda3 8019 38549 245240257+ 7 HPFS/NTFS
4849 /dev/hda4 38550 38913 2923830 82 Linux swap / Solaris
4851 # fdisk -l /dev/hdb
4853 Disk /dev/hdb: 250.0 GB, 250059350016 bytes
4854 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 30401 cylinders
4855 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
4857 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
4858 /dev/hdb1 * 1 5222 41945683+ 83 Linux
4859 /dev/hdb2 5223 5484 2104515 82 Linux swap / Solaris
4860 /dev/hdb3 5485 14726 74236365 f W95 Ext'd (LBA)
4861 /dev/hdb4 14727 30401 125909437+ 83 Linux
4862 /dev/hdb5 5485 14726 74236333+ 83 Linux
4864 Ok, this clears things up. The first disk contains three Windows XP
4865 partitions (NTFS) and a Linux Swap partition. In fact, /dev/hda1 is the
4866 system "disk" for Windows, since Windows will always be installed in the
4867 first partition of the primary master disk.
4869 The second disk, on the other hand, contains a Linux partition (/dev/hdb1),
4870 a Linux Swap partition /dev/hdb2, and an extended partition /dev/hdb3
4871 which contains two more Linux partitions (/dev/hdb4 and /dev/hdb5).
4873 The final thing we need to know about this system is what CD/DVD-ROMs it
4874 has. So I execute the command:
4876 # cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info
4877 CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17
4879 drive name: hdd hdc
4880 drive speed: 0 126
4881 drive # of slots: 1 1
4882 Can close tray: 1 1
4883 Can open tray: 1 1
4884 Can lock tray: 1 1
4885 Can change speed: 1 1
4886 Can select disk: 0 0
4887 Can read multisession: 1 1
4888 Can read MCN: 1 1
4889 Reports media changed: 1 1
4890 Can play audio: 1 1
4891 Can write CD-R: 0 1
4892 Can write CD-RW: 0 1
4893 Can read DVD: 1 1
4894 Can write DVD-R: 0 1
4895 Can write DVD-RAM: 0 1
4896 Can read MRW: 1 0
4897 Can write MRW: 1 0
4898 Can write RAM: 0 1
4900 The system has two DVD-ROMs, hdc which is the secondary master and is a
4901 DVD writer, and hdd which is the secondary slave and is a DVD reader.
4903 At this point I will connect my USB stick, wait for a while and execute
4904 the command:
4906 # cat /proc/partitions
4907 major minor #blocks name
4909 3 0 312571224 hda
4910 3 1 23446836 hda1
4911 3 2 40957717 hda2
4912 3 3 245240257 hda3
4913 3 4 2923830 hda4
4914 3 64 244198584 hdb
4915 3 65 41945683 hdb1
4916 3 66 2104515 hdb2
4917 3 67 1 hdb3
4918 3 68 125909437 hdb4
4919 3 69 74236333 hdb5
4920 8 0 1007615 sda
4921 8 4 1006576 sda4
4923 As you can see, we have two more lines here, that reflect the changes to
4924 our system (the connection of the USB device). So my USB stick is recognized
4925 by the system as sda, and the disk itself contains a VFAT file system.
4927 Example 2
4928 ---------------------
4929 The second system is a Linux box with one SCSI disk and a CD-ROM. Again
4930 I issue the command:
4932 # cat /proc/partitions
4933 major minor #blocks name
4935 8 0 156290904 sda
4936 8 1 64228 sda1
4937 8 2 15735667 sda2
4938 8 3 15735667 sda3
4939 8 4 124744725 sda4
4941 From its output I see I only have one disk sda, which contains four
4942 partitions.
4944 Then I execute fdisk, which shows me that the disk contains one DOS and
4945 three Linux partitions.
4947 # fdisk -l /dev/sda
4948 Disk /dev/sda: 160.0 GB, 160041885696 bytes
4949 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19457 cylinders
4950 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
4952 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
4953 /dev/sda1 1 8 64228+ 6 FAT16
4954 /dev/sda2 9 1967 15735667+ 83 Linux
4955 /dev/sda3 1968 3926 15735667+ 83 Linux
4956 /dev/sda4 3927 19456 124744725 83 Linux
4958 Finally I query its CD-ROMs, by executing the command:
4960 # cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info
4961 CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17
4963 drive name: hda
4964 drive speed: 0
4965 drive # of slots: 1
4966 Can close tray: 1
4967 Can open tray: 1
4968 Can lock tray: 1
4969 Can change speed: 1
4970 Can select disk: 0
4971 Can read multisession: 1
4972 Can read MCN: 1
4973 Reports media changed: 1
4974 Can play audio: 1
4975 Can write CD-R: 1
4976 Can write CD-RW: 1
4977 Can read DVD: 1
4978 Can write DVD-R: 0
4979 Can write DVD-RAM: 0
4980 Can read MRW: 1
4981 Can write MRW: 1
4982 Can write RAM: 0
4984 Which tells me that I only have an IDE CD-ROM, (hda), which is actually
4985 a CD writer.
4987 Then I connect my USB stick, and I get:
4989 # cat /proc/partitions
4990 major minor #blocks name
4992 8 0 156290904 sda
4993 8 1 64228 sda1
4994 8 2 15735667 sda2
4995 8 3 15735667 sda3
4996 8 4 124744725 sda4
4997 8 16 1007615 sdb
4998 8 20 1006576 sdb4
5000 Although it's the same stick I used with the previous system, which was
5001 recognized as sda there, now its name is sdb. So, its name depends on the
5002 system it is connected to, and will not always be the same.
5004 SCSI disks when there are none!!!
5005 ****************************************
5006 I am confused!!! I am on a disk with two ATA (PATA) disks, but when I
5007 query the partition list, this is what I get:
5009 # cat /proc/partitions
5010 major minor #blocks name
5012 3 0 312571224 sda
5013 3 1 23446836 sda1
5014 3 2 40957717 sda2
5015 3 3 245240257 sda3
5016 3 4 2923830 sda4
5017 3 64 244198584 sdb
5018 3 65 41945683 sdb1
5019 3 66 2104515 sdb2
5020 3 67 1 sdb3
5021 3 68 125909437 sdb4
5022 3 69 74236333 sdb5
5024 According to what's discussed up to now, the system seems to have two SCSI
5025 disks, but I know it actually has two ATA (PATA) disks. What's going on?.
5027 What is really happening here is that you have one of the newest Linux
5028 kernels (using the libata disk driver), which shows ALL disks as SCSI. That
5029 does not mean that the system thinks it has SCSI disks, it just names them
5030 as such.
5032 To make is clear, execute the commands:
5034 # hdparm -i /dev/sda
5036 /dev/sda:
5038 Model=WDC WD3200AAJB-00TYA0, FwRev=00.02C01, SerialNo= WD-WCAPZ0648927
5039 Config={ HardSect NotMFM HdSw>15uSec SpinMotCtl Fixed DTR>5Mbs FmtGapReq }
5040 RawCHS=16383/16/63, TrkSize=0, SectSize=0, ECCbytes=50
5041 BuffType=unknown, BuffSize=8192kB, MaxMultSect=16, MultSect=?16?
5042 CurCHS=16383/16/63, CurSects=16514064, LBA=yes, LBAsects=268435455
5043 IORDY=on/off, tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120}, tDMA={min:120,rec:120}
5044 PIO modes: pio0 pio3 pio4
5045 DMA modes: mdma0 mdma1 mdma2
5046 UDMA modes: udma0 udma1 udma2 udma3 udma4 *udma5
5047 AdvancedPM=no WriteCache=enabled
5048 Drive conforms to: Unspecified: ATA/ATAPI-1,2,3,4,5,6,7
5050 * signifies the current active mode
5052 # hdparm -i /dev/sdb
5054 /dev/sdb:
5056 Model=WDC WD2500JB-00GVC0, FwRev=08.02D08, SerialNo= WD-WCAL76141931
5057 Config={ HardSect NotMFM HdSw>15uSec SpinMotCtl Fixed DTR>5Mbs FmtGapReq }
5058 RawCHS=16383/16/63, TrkSize=57600, SectSize=600, ECCbytes=74
5059 BuffType=DualPortCache, BuffSize=8192kB, MaxMultSect=16, MultSect=?16?
5060 CurCHS=16383/16/63, CurSects=16514064, LBA=yes, LBAsects=268435455
5061 IORDY=on/off, tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120}, tDMA={min:120,rec:120}
5062 PIO modes: pio0 pio1 pio2 pio3 pio4
5063 DMA modes: mdma0 mdma1 mdma2
5064 UDMA modes: udma0 udma1 udma2 udma3 udma4 *udma5
5065 AdvancedPM=no WriteCache=enabled
5066 Drive conforms to: Unspecified: ATA/ATAPI-1,2,3,4,5,6
5068 * signifies the current active mode
5070 This is also valid for the CDs/DVDs of the system:
5072 # cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info
5073 CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17
5075 drive name: sr1 sr0
5076 drive speed: 0 126
5077 drive # of slots: 1 1
5078 Can close tray: 1 1
5079 Can open tray: 1 1
5080 Can lock tray: 1 1
5081 Can change speed: 1 1
5082 Can select disk: 0 0
5083 Can read multisession: 1 1
5084 Can read MCN: 1 1
5085 Reports media changed: 1 1
5086 Can play audio: 1 1
5087 Can write CD-R: 0 1
5088 Can write CD-RW: 0 1
5089 Can read DVD: 1 1
5090 Can write DVD-R: 0 1
5091 Can write DVD-RAM: 0 1
5092 Can read MRW: 1 0
5093 Can write MRW: 1 0
5094 Can write RAM: 0 1
5096 While the hdparm shows they are ATA devices:
5098 # hdparm -i /dev/sr0
5100 /dev/sr0:
5102 Model=HL-DT-ST DVDRAM GSA-H42L, FwRev=SL01 , SerialNo=K286CQF2231
5103 Config={ Fixed Removeable DTR10Mbs nonMagnetic }
5104 RawCHS=0/0/0, TrkSize=0, SectSize=0, ECCbytes=0
5105 BuffType=unknown, BuffSize=0kB, MaxMultSect=0
5106 (maybe): CurCHS=0/0/0, CurSects=0, LBA=yes, LBAsects=0
5107 IORDY=on/off, tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120}, tDMA={min:120,rec:120}
5108 PIO modes: pio0 pio3 pio4
5109 DMA modes: mdma0 mdma1 mdma2
5110 UDMA modes: udma0 udma1 *udma2 udma3 udma4
5111 AdvancedPM=no
5112 Drive conforms to: unknown: ATA/ATAPI-4,5,6,7
5114 * signifies the current active mode


Name Value
svn:executable *

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