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78     <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>
79 sng 52 <H3>Offline Documentation: Identifying devices in Linux</H3>
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81     <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>26/03/2010 - v 3.1.0</H4></div>
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103     <a name="annex-a-top"></a>
104    
105    
106     <!-- Intro -->
107    
108     <H2 style="margin-top: 0;"><a name="annex-a-intro"></a>Intro <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
109     <p>This page is intended to help new Linux users and Windows users identify their hard disks / CD ROMs in a Linux box.<br><br>
110     <!--empty-line-->
111     Linux disks and partition names may be different from other operating systems. You need to know the names that Linux uses when you format, mount or select partitions or disks.<br><br>
112     <!--empty-line-->
113     Linux uses the so called <b>device name</b> to access disks and partitions. You can think of it as a link to the actual driver of the disk. All available devices have a corresponding file in <b>/dev</b> (e.g. /dev/hda1).<br><br>
114     <!--empty-line-->
115     In general, each disk / CD-ROM has a three letter name, for example <b>hda</b>. Each partition in such a disk has a number associated with it, starting from 1. So the first partition of disk <b>hda</b> would be <b>hda<font color="Red">1</font></b>, the second <b>hda<font color="Red">2</font></b> and so on.<br><br>
116     <!--empty-line-->
117     Depending on the device type, Linux gives the following names to devices:</p>
118    
119     <ul>
120     <li><b>IDE (ATA) floppies</b><br>
121     The first floppy drive is named <b>/dev/fd0</b>.<br>
122     The second floppy drive is named <b>/dev/fd1</b>.</li>
123     <!--empty-line-->
124     <li><b>IDE (ATA) disks /CD-ROMs</b><br>
125     The master disk on IDE primary controller is named <b>/dev/hda</b>.<br>
126     The slave disk on IDE primary controller is named <b>/dev/hdb</b>.<br>
127     The master and slave disks of the secondary controller can be called <b>/dev/hdc</b> and <b>/dev/hdd</b>, respectively.<br><br>
128     <!--empty-line-->
129     Linux represents the primary partitions as the drive name, plus the numbers 1 through 4. For example, the first primary partition on the first IDE drive is <b>/dev/hda1</b>. The logical partitions are numbered starting at 5, so the first logical partition on that same drive is <b>/dev/hda5</b>. Remember that the extended partition, that is, the primary partition holding the logical partitions, is not usable by itself. This applies to SCSI disks as well as IDE disks.</li>
130     <!--empty-line-->
131     <li><b>SCSI disks</b><br>
132     The first SCSI disk (SCSI ID address-wise) is named <b>/dev/sda</b>.<br>
133     The second SCSI disk (address-wise) is named <b>/dev/sdb</b>, and so on.</li>
134     <!--empty-line-->
135     <li><b>SCSI CD-ROMs</b><br>
136     The first SCSI CD-ROM is named <b>/dev/scd0</b>, also known as <b>/dev/sr0</b>.<br>
137     The second SCSI CD-ROM is named <b>/dev/scd1</b>, also known as <b>/dev/sr1</b>, and so on.</li>
138     <!--empty-line-->
139     <li><b>USB disks</b><br>
140     They are named just like SCSI disks. The only difference is that the partition number has to do with the file system on the disk. If it's <b>/dev/sdx<font color="Red">4</font></b>, then it's a VFAT file system and if it's <b>/dev/sdx<font color="Red">1</font></b> it's probably a linux (ext2, ext3) file system.</li>
141     </ul>
142    
143    
144    
145     <!-- Examples -->
146     <H2><a name="annex-a-examples"></a>Examples <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
147     <p>In order to identify the disks of a system you have to work with, a basic knowledge of its configuration (how many disks it has, whether it's a dual-boot system etc.) is welcomed but not required. A more experienced user will not have to worry about it, though.<br><br>
148     <!--empty-line-->
149     Linux systems based on a 2.6.x kernel (like <b>Clonezilla Live</b> and <b>SystemRescueCD</b>) provide all the necessary support to identify a system's disk configuration, with just a couple of commands.</p>
150     <!--empty-line-->
151    
152    
153    
154     <!-- Example 1 -->
155     <H3><a name="annex-a-ex1"></a>Example 1 [<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
156     <p>The first system I have to work with is a dual-boot system (Windows - Linux), with two disks and two DVD-ROMs.<br><br>
157     <!--empty-line-->
158     The first command will tell me what disks and partitions exist in the system. So here it is:</p>
159     <!--empty-line-->
160     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
161     major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
162     <br>
163     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;<font color="Red">hda</font><br>
164     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;hda1<br>
165     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;hda2<br>
166     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;hda3<br>
167     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;hda4<br>
168     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdb</font><br>
169     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;hdb1<br>
170     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;hdb2<br>
171     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;hdb3<br>
172     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;hdb4<br>
173     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;hdb5</p>
174     <!--empty-line-->
175     <p>The output of this command tells me that the system has two disks (<b><font color="Red">hda</font></b> and <b><font color="Red">hdb</font></b>) which are the primary master and slave devices.<br><br>
176     <!--empty-line-->
177     The first disk contains four primary partitions (hda1-hda4) and the second one four primary partitions (hdb1-hdb4) and a logical one (hdb5). Wait a minute!!! this can't be right... In order to have a logical partition, I must have a primary that contains it, which means that in this case I can't have four primary partitions. So what is really happening here is that I have two primary and two logical, plus an extended primary which contains them.<br><br>
178     <!--empty-line-->
179     What remains to be found is what type of partitions they are. I will find that out by executing the following commands:<p>
180     <!--empty-line-->
181     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/hda</font><br>
182     <br>
183     Disk /dev/hda: 320.0 GB, 320072933376 bytes<br>
184     255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 38913 cylinders<br>
185     Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
186     <br>
187     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
188     /dev/hda1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2919&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
189     /dev/hda2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2920&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8018&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
190     /dev/hda3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8019&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38549&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
191     /dev/hda4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38550&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38913&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris<br>
192     <br>
193     <br>
194     # <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/hdb</font><br>
195     <br>
196     Disk /dev/hdb: 250.0 GB, 250059350016 bytes<br>
197     255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 30401 cylinders<br>
198     Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
199     <br>
200     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
201     /dev/hdb1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5222&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
202     /dev/hdb2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5223&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5484&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris<br>
203     /dev/hdb3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5485&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14726&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236365&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;f&nbsp;&nbsp;W95&nbsp;Ext'd&nbsp;(LBA)<br>
204     /dev/hdb4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14727&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;30401&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
205     /dev/hdb5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5485&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14726&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</p>
206     <!--empty-line-->
207     <p>Ok, this clears things up. The first disk contains three Windows XP partitions (NTFS) and a Linux Swap partition. In fact, <b>/dev/hda1</b> is the system "disk" for Windows, since Windows will always be installed in the first partition of the primary master disk.<br><br>
208     <!--empty-line-->
209     The second disk, on the other hand, contains a Linux partition (<b>/dev/hdb1</b>), a Linux Swap partition <b>/dev/hdb2</b>, and an extended partition <b>/dev/hdb3</b> which contains two more Linux partitions (<b>/dev/hdb4</b> and <b>/dev/hdb5</b>).<br><br>
210     <!--empty-line-->
211     The final thing we need to know about this system is what CD/DVD-ROMs it has. So I execute the command:</p>
212     <!--empty-line-->
213     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
214     CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
215     <br>
216     drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdd</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdc</font><br>
217     drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;126<br>
218     drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
219     Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
220     Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
221     Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
222     Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
223     Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
224     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
225     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
226     Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
227     Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
228     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
229     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
230     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
231     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
232     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
233     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
234     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
235     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1</p>
236     <!--empty-line-->
237     <p>The system has two DVD-ROMs, <b><font color="Red">hdc</font></b> which is the secondary master and is a DVD writer, and <b><font color="Red">hdd</font></b> which is the secondary slave and is a DVD reader.<br><br>
238     <!--empty-line-->
239     At this point I will connect my USB stick, wait for a while and execute the command:</p>
240     <!--empty-line-->
241     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
242     major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
243     <br>
244     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;hda<br>
245     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;hda1<br>
246     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;hda2<br>
247     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;hda3<br>
248     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;hda4<br>
249     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;hdb<br>
250     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;hdb1<br>
251     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;hdb2<br>
252     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;hdb3<br>
253     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;hdb4<br>
254     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;hdb5<br>
255     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1007615&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
256     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1006576&nbsp;sda4</p>
257     <!--empty-line-->
258     <p>As you can see, we have two more lines here, that reflect the changes to our system (the connection of the USB device). So my USB stick is recognized by the system as <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b>, and the disk itself contains a VFAT file system.</p>
259    
260    
261    
262    
263    
264    
265    
266    
267     <!-- Example 2 -->
268     <H3><a name="annex-a-ex2"></a>Example 2 [<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
269     <p>The second system is a Linux box with one SCSI disk and a CD-ROM. Again I issue the command:</p>
270     <!--empty-line-->
271     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
272     major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
273     <br>
274     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;156290904&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
275     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228&nbsp;sda1<br>
276     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda2<br>
277     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda3<br>
278     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;sda4</p>
279     <!--empty-line-->
280     <p>From its output I see I only have one disk <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b>, which contains four partitions.<br><br>
281     <!--empty-line-->
282     Then I execute <b>fdisk</b>, which shows me that the disk contains one DOS and three Linux partitions.</p>
283     <!--empty-line-->
284     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/sda</font><br>
285     Disk /dev/sda: 160.0 GB, 160041885696 bytes<br>
286     255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19457 cylinders<br>
287     Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
288     <br>
289     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
290     /dev/sda1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT16<br>
291     /dev/sda2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1967&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
292     /dev/sda3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1968&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3926&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
293     /dev/sda4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3927&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;19456&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</p>
294     <!--empty-line-->
295     <p>Finally I query its CD-ROMs, by executing the command:</p>
296     <!--empty-line-->
297     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
298     CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
299     <br>
300     drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hda</font><br>
301     drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
302     drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
303     Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
304     Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
305     Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
306     Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
307     Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
308     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
309     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
310     Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
311     Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
312     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
313     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
314     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
315     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
316     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
317     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
318     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
319     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0</p>
320     <!--empty-line-->
321     <p>Which tells me that I only have an IDE CD-ROM, (<b><font color="Red">hda</font></b>), which is actually a CD writer.<br><br>
322     <!--empty-line-->
323     Then I connect my USB stick, and I get:</p>
324     <!--empty-line-->
325     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
326     major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
327     <br>
328     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;156290904&nbsp;sda<br>
329     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228&nbsp;sda1<br>
330     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda2<br>
331     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda3<br>
332     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;sda4<br>
333     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1007615&nbsp;<font color="Red">sdb</font><br>
334     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;20&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1006576&nbsp;sdb4</p>
335     <!--empty-line-->
336     <p>Although it's the same stick I used with the previous system, which was recognized as <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b> there, now its name is <b><font color="Red">sdb</font></b>. So, its name depends on the system it is connected to, and will not always be the same.</p>
337    
338    
339    
340    
341     <!-- SCSI - ATA -->
342     <H2><a name="annex-a-scsi-ata"></a>SCSI disks when there are none!!! <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
343     <p>I am confused!!! I am on a disk with two ATA (PATA) disks, but when I query the partition list, this is what I get:</p>
344     <!--empty-line-->
345     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
346     major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
347     <br>
348     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
349     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;sda1<br>
350     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;sda2<br>
351     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;sda3<br>
352     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;sda4<br>
353     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;<font color="Red">sdb</font><br>
354     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;sdb1<br>
355     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;sdb2<br>
356     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;sdb3<br>
357     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;sdb4<br>
358     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;sdb5</p>
359     <!--empty-line-->
360     <p>According to what's discussed up to now, the system seems to have two SCSI disks, but I know it actually has two ATA (PATA) disks. What's going on?.<br><br>
361     <!--empty-line-->
362     What is really happening here is that you have one of the newest Linux kernels (using the libata disk driver), which shows <b>ALL</b> disks as SCSI. That does not mean that the system thinks it has SCSI disks, it just names them as such.<br><br>
363     <!--empty-line-->
364     To make is clear, execute the commands:</p>
365     <!--empty-line-->
366     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sda</font><br>
367     <br>
368     /dev/sda:<br>
369     <br>
370     &nbsp;Model=WDC&nbsp;WD3200AAJB-00TYA0,&nbsp;FwRev=00.02C01,&nbsp;SerialNo=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;WD-WCAPZ0648927<br>
371     &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;HardSect&nbsp;NotMFM&nbsp;HdSw>15uSec&nbsp;SpinMotCtl&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;DTR>5Mbs&nbsp;FmtGapReq&nbsp;}<br>
372     &nbsp;RawCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;TrkSize=0,&nbsp;SectSize=0,&nbsp;ECCbytes=50<br>
373     &nbsp;BuffType=unknown,&nbsp;BuffSize=8192kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=16,&nbsp;MultSect=?16?<br>
374     &nbsp;CurCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;CurSects=16514064,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=268435455<br>
375     &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
376     &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
377     &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
378     &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4&nbsp;*udma5<br>
379     &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no&nbsp;WriteCache=enabled<br>
380     &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;Unspecified:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-1,2,3,4,5,6,7</font><br>
381     <br>
382     &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode<br>
383     <br>
384     <br>
385     # <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sdb</font><br>
386     <br>
387     /dev/sdb:<br>
388     <br>
389     &nbsp;Model=WDC&nbsp;WD2500JB-00GVC0,&nbsp;FwRev=08.02D08,&nbsp;SerialNo=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;WD-WCAL76141931<br>
390     &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;HardSect&nbsp;NotMFM&nbsp;HdSw>15uSec&nbsp;SpinMotCtl&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;DTR>5Mbs&nbsp;FmtGapReq&nbsp;}<br>
391     &nbsp;RawCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;TrkSize=57600,&nbsp;SectSize=600,&nbsp;ECCbytes=74<br>
392     &nbsp;BuffType=DualPortCache,&nbsp;BuffSize=8192kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=16,&nbsp;MultSect=?16?<br>
393     &nbsp;CurCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;CurSects=16514064,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=268435455<br>
394     &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
395     &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio1&nbsp;pio2&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
396     &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
397     &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4&nbsp;*udma5<br>
398     &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no&nbsp;WriteCache=enabled<br>
399     &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;Unspecified:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-1,2,3,4,5,6</font><br>
400     <br>
401     &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode</p>
402     <!--empty-line-->
403     <p>This is also valid for the CDs/DVDs of the system:</p>
404     <!--empty-line-->
405     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
406     CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
407     <br>
408     drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">sr1</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">sr0</font><br>
409     drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;126<br>
410     drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
411     Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
412     Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
413     Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
414     Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
415     Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
416     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
417     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
418     Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
419     Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
420     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
421     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
422     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
423     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
424     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
425     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
426     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
427     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1</p>
428     <!--empty-line-->
429     <p>While the <b><font color="Green">hdparm</font></b> shows they are ATA devices:</p>
430     <!--empty-line-->
431     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sr0</font><br>
432     <br>
433     /dev/sr0:<br>
434     <br>
435     &nbsp;Model=HL-DT-ST&nbsp;DVDRAM&nbsp;GSA-H42L,&nbsp;FwRev=SL01&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;,&nbsp;SerialNo=K286CQF2231&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<br>
436     &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;Removeable&nbsp;DTR<=5Mbs&nbsp;DTR>10Mbs&nbsp;nonMagnetic&nbsp;}<br>
437     &nbsp;RawCHS=0/0/0,&nbsp;TrkSize=0,&nbsp;SectSize=0,&nbsp;ECCbytes=0<br>
438     &nbsp;BuffType=unknown,&nbsp;BuffSize=0kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=0<br>
439     &nbsp;(maybe):&nbsp;CurCHS=0/0/0,&nbsp;CurSects=0,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=0<br>
440     &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
441     &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
442     &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
443     &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;*udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4<br>
444     &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no<br>
445     &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;unknown:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-4,5,6,7</font><br>
446     <br>
447     &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode<br>
448     <br></p>
449    
450    
451     </div>
452    
453    
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