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77 <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>
78 <H3>Offline Documentation: Identifying devices in Linux</H3>
79 <div style="margin:0; padding: 3px; width: 980; position relative;">
80 <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>26/03/2010 - v 3.1.0</H4></div>
81 <div style="position: absolute; right: 0px;"><H4>Last update: 18/05/2010</H4></div>
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99 <a name="annex-a-top"></a>
100
101
102 <!-- Intro -->
103
104 <H2 style="margin-top: 0;"><a name="annex-a-intro"></a>Intro <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
105 <p>This page is intended to help new Linux users and Windows users identify their hard disks / CD ROMs in a Linux box.<br><br>
106 <!--empty-line-->
107 Linux disks and partition names may be different from other operating systems. You need to know the names that Linux uses when you format, mount or select partitions or disks.<br><br>
108 <!--empty-line-->
109 Linux uses the so called <b>device name</b> to access disks and partitions. You can think of it as a link to the actual driver of the disk. All available devices have a corresponding file in <b>/dev</b> (e.g. /dev/hda1).<br><br>
110 <!--empty-line-->
111 In general, each disk / CD-ROM has a three letter name, for example <b>hda</b>. Each partition in such a disk has a number associated with it, starting from 1. So the first partition of disk <b>hda</b> would be <b>hda<font color="Red">1</font></b>, the second <b>hda<font color="Red">2</font></b> and so on.<br><br>
112 <!--empty-line-->
113 Depending on the device type, Linux gives the following names to devices:</p>
114
115 <ul>
116 <li><b>IDE (ATA) floppies</b><br>
117 The first floppy drive is named <b>/dev/fd0</b>.<br>
118 The second floppy drive is named <b>/dev/fd1</b>.</li>
119 <!--empty-line-->
120 <li><b>IDE (ATA) disks /CD-ROMs</b><br>
121 The master disk on IDE primary controller is named <b>/dev/hda</b>.<br>
122 The slave disk on IDE primary controller is named <b>/dev/hdb</b>.<br>
123 The master and slave disks of the secondary controller can be called <b>/dev/hdc</b> and <b>/dev/hdd</b>, respectively.<br><br>
124 <!--empty-line-->
125 Linux represents the primary partitions as the drive name, plus the numbers 1 through 4. For example, the first primary partition on the first IDE drive is <b>/dev/hda1</b>. The logical partitions are numbered starting at 5, so the first logical partition on that same drive is <b>/dev/hda5</b>. Remember that the extended partition, that is, the primary partition holding the logical partitions, is not usable by itself. This applies to SCSI disks as well as IDE disks.</li>
126 <!--empty-line-->
127 <li><b>SCSI disks</b><br>
128 The first SCSI disk (SCSI ID address-wise) is named <b>/dev/sda</b>.<br>
129 The second SCSI disk (address-wise) is named <b>/dev/sdb</b>, and so on.</li>
130 <!--empty-line-->
131 <li><b>SCSI CD-ROMs</b><br>
132 The first SCSI CD-ROM is named <b>/dev/scd0</b>, also known as <b>/dev/sr0</b>.<br>
133 The second SCSI CD-ROM is named <b>/dev/scd1</b>, also known as <b>/dev/sr1</b>, and so on.</li>
134 <!--empty-line-->
135 <li><b>USB disks</b><br>
136 They are named just like SCSI disks. The only difference is that the partition number has to do with the file system on the disk. If it's <b>/dev/sdx<font color="Red">4</font></b>, then it's a VFAT file system and if it's <b>/dev/sdx<font color="Red">1</font></b> it's probably a linux (ext2, ext3) file system.</li>
137 </ul>
138
139
140
141 <!-- Examples -->
142 <H2><a name="annex-a-examples"></a>Examples <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
143 <p>In order to identify the disks of a system you have to work with, a basic knowledge of its configuration (how many disks it has, whether it's a dual-boot system etc.) is welcomed but not required. A more experienced user will not have to worry about it, though.<br><br>
144 <!--empty-line-->
145 Linux systems based on a 2.6.x kernel (like <b>Clonezilla Live</b> and <b>SystemRescueCD</b>) provide all the necessary support to identify a system's disk configuration, with just a couple of commands.</p>
146 <!--empty-line-->
147
148
149
150 <!-- Example 1 -->
151 <H3><a name="annex-a-ex1"></a>Example 1 [<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
152 <p>The first system I have to work with is a dual-boot system (Windows - Linux), with two disks and two DVD-ROMs.<br><br>
153 <!--empty-line-->
154 The first command will tell me what disks and partitions exist in the system. So here it is:</p>
155 <!--empty-line-->
156 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
157 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
158 <br>
159 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;<font color="Red">hda</font><br>
160 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;hda1<br>
161 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;hda2<br>
162 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;hda3<br>
163 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;hda4<br>
164 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdb</font><br>
165 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;hdb1<br>
166 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;hdb2<br>
167 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;hdb3<br>
168 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;hdb4<br>
169 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;hdb5</p>
170 <!--empty-line-->
171 <p>The output of this command tells me that the system has two disks (<b><font color="Red">hda</font></b> and <b><font color="Red">hdb</font></b>) which are the primary master and slave devices.<br><br>
172 <!--empty-line-->
173 The first disk contains four primary partitions (hda1-hda4) and the second one four primary partitions (hdb1-hdb4) and a logical one (hdb5). Wait a minute!!! this can't be right... In order to have a logical partition, I must have a primary that contains it, which means that in this case I can't have four primary partitions. So what is really happening here is that I have two primary and two logical, plus an extended primary which contains them.<br><br>
174 <!--empty-line-->
175 What remains to be found is what type of partitions they are. I will find that out by executing the following commands:<p>
176 <!--empty-line-->
177 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/hda</font><br>
178 <br>
179 Disk /dev/hda: 320.0 GB, 320072933376 bytes<br>
180 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 38913 cylinders<br>
181 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
182 <br>
183 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
184 /dev/hda1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2919&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
185 /dev/hda2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2920&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8018&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
186 /dev/hda3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8019&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38549&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
187 /dev/hda4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38550&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38913&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris<br>
188 <br>
189 <br>
190 # <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/hdb</font><br>
191 <br>
192 Disk /dev/hdb: 250.0 GB, 250059350016 bytes<br>
193 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 30401 cylinders<br>
194 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
195 <br>
196 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
197 /dev/hdb1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5222&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
198 /dev/hdb2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5223&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5484&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris<br>
199 /dev/hdb3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5485&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14726&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236365&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;f&nbsp;&nbsp;W95&nbsp;Ext'd&nbsp;(LBA)<br>
200 /dev/hdb4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14727&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;30401&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
201 /dev/hdb5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5485&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14726&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</p>
202 <!--empty-line-->
203 <p>Ok, this clears things up. The first disk contains three Windows XP partitions (NTFS) and a Linux Swap partition. In fact, <b>/dev/hda1</b> is the system "disk" for Windows, since Windows will always be installed in the first partition of the primary master disk.<br><br>
204 <!--empty-line-->
205 The second disk, on the other hand, contains a Linux partition (<b>/dev/hdb1</b>), a Linux Swap partition <b>/dev/hdb2</b>, and an extended partition <b>/dev/hdb3</b> which contains two more Linux partitions (<b>/dev/hdb4</b> and <b>/dev/hdb5</b>).<br><br>
206 <!--empty-line-->
207 The final thing we need to know about this system is what CD/DVD-ROMs it has. So I execute the command:</p>
208 <!--empty-line-->
209 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
210 CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
211 <br>
212 drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdd</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdc</font><br>
213 drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;126<br>
214 drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
215 Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
216 Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
217 Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
218 Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
219 Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
220 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
221 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
222 Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
223 Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
224 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
225 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
226 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
227 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
228 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
229 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
230 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
231 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1</p>
232 <!--empty-line-->
233 <p>The system has two DVD-ROMs, <b><font color="Red">hdc</font></b> which is the secondary master and is a DVD writer, and <b><font color="Red">hdd</font></b> which is the secondary slave and is a DVD reader.<br><br>
234 <!--empty-line-->
235 At this point I will connect my USB stick, wait for a while and execute the command:</p>
236 <!--empty-line-->
237 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
238 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
239 <br>
240 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;hda<br>
241 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;hda1<br>
242 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;hda2<br>
243 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;hda3<br>
244 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;hda4<br>
245 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;hdb<br>
246 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;hdb1<br>
247 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;hdb2<br>
248 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;hdb3<br>
249 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;hdb4<br>
250 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;hdb5<br>
251 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1007615&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
252 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1006576&nbsp;sda4</p>
253 <!--empty-line-->
254 <p>As you can see, we have two more lines here, that reflect the changes to our system (the connection of the USB device). So my USB stick is recognized by the system as <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b>, and the disk itself contains a VFAT file system.</p>
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263 <!-- Example 2 -->
264 <H3><a name="annex-a-ex2"></a>Example 2 [<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
265 <p>The second system is a Linux box with one SCSI disk and a CD-ROM. Again I issue the command:</p>
266 <!--empty-line-->
267 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
268 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
269 <br>
270 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;156290904&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
271 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228&nbsp;sda1<br>
272 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda2<br>
273 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda3<br>
274 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;sda4</p>
275 <!--empty-line-->
276 <p>From its output I see I only have one disk <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b>, which contains four partitions.<br><br>
277 <!--empty-line-->
278 Then I execute <b>fdisk</b>, which shows me that the disk contains one DOS and three Linux partitions.</p>
279 <!--empty-line-->
280 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/sda</font><br>
281 Disk /dev/sda: 160.0 GB, 160041885696 bytes<br>
282 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19457 cylinders<br>
283 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
284 <br>
285 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
286 /dev/sda1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT16<br>
287 /dev/sda2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1967&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
288 /dev/sda3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1968&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3926&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
289 /dev/sda4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3927&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;19456&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</p>
290 <!--empty-line-->
291 <p>Finally I query its CD-ROMs, by executing the command:</p>
292 <!--empty-line-->
293 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
294 CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
295 <br>
296 drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hda</font><br>
297 drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
298 drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
299 Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
300 Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
301 Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
302 Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
303 Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
304 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
305 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
306 Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
307 Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
308 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
309 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
310 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
311 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
312 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
313 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
314 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
315 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0</p>
316 <!--empty-line-->
317 <p>Which tells me that I only have an IDE CD-ROM, (<b><font color="Red">hda</font></b>), which is actually a CD writer.<br><br>
318 <!--empty-line-->
319 Then I connect my USB stick, and I get:</p>
320 <!--empty-line-->
321 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
322 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
323 <br>
324 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;156290904&nbsp;sda<br>
325 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228&nbsp;sda1<br>
326 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda2<br>
327 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda3<br>
328 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;sda4<br>
329 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1007615&nbsp;<font color="Red">sdb</font><br>
330 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;20&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1006576&nbsp;sdb4</p>
331 <!--empty-line-->
332 <p>Although it's the same stick I used with the previous system, which was recognized as <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b> there, now its name is <b><font color="Red">sdb</font></b>. So, its name depends on the system it is connected to, and will not always be the same.</p>
333
334
335
336
337 <!-- SCSI - ATA -->
338 <H2><a name="annex-a-scsi-ata"></a>SCSI disks when there are none!!! <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
339 <p>I am confused!!! I am on a disk with two ATA (PATA) disks, but when I query the partition list, this is what I get:</p>
340 <!--empty-line-->
341 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
342 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
343 <br>
344 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
345 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;sda1<br>
346 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;sda2<br>
347 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;sda3<br>
348 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;sda4<br>
349 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;<font color="Red">sdb</font><br>
350 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;sdb1<br>
351 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;sdb2<br>
352 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;sdb3<br>
353 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;sdb4<br>
354 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;sdb5</p>
355 <!--empty-line-->
356 <p>According to what's discussed up to now, the system seems to have two SCSI disks, but I know it actually has two ATA (PATA) disks. What's going on?.<br><br>
357 <!--empty-line-->
358 What is really happening here is that you have one of the newest Linux kernels (using the libata disk driver), which shows <b>ALL</b> disks as SCSI. That does not mean that the system thinks it has SCSI disks, it just names them as such.<br><br>
359 <!--empty-line-->
360 To make is clear, execute the commands:</p>
361 <!--empty-line-->
362 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sda</font><br>
363 <br>
364 /dev/sda:<br>
365 <br>
366 &nbsp;Model=WDC&nbsp;WD3200AAJB-00TYA0,&nbsp;FwRev=00.02C01,&nbsp;SerialNo=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;WD-WCAPZ0648927<br>
367 &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;HardSect&nbsp;NotMFM&nbsp;HdSw>15uSec&nbsp;SpinMotCtl&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;DTR>5Mbs&nbsp;FmtGapReq&nbsp;}<br>
368 &nbsp;RawCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;TrkSize=0,&nbsp;SectSize=0,&nbsp;ECCbytes=50<br>
369 &nbsp;BuffType=unknown,&nbsp;BuffSize=8192kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=16,&nbsp;MultSect=?16?<br>
370 &nbsp;CurCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;CurSects=16514064,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=268435455<br>
371 &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
372 &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
373 &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
374 &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4&nbsp;*udma5<br>
375 &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no&nbsp;WriteCache=enabled<br>
376 &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;Unspecified:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-1,2,3,4,5,6,7</font><br>
377 <br>
378 &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode<br>
379 <br>
380 <br>
381 # <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sdb</font><br>
382 <br>
383 /dev/sdb:<br>
384 <br>
385 &nbsp;Model=WDC&nbsp;WD2500JB-00GVC0,&nbsp;FwRev=08.02D08,&nbsp;SerialNo=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;WD-WCAL76141931<br>
386 &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;HardSect&nbsp;NotMFM&nbsp;HdSw>15uSec&nbsp;SpinMotCtl&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;DTR>5Mbs&nbsp;FmtGapReq&nbsp;}<br>
387 &nbsp;RawCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;TrkSize=57600,&nbsp;SectSize=600,&nbsp;ECCbytes=74<br>
388 &nbsp;BuffType=DualPortCache,&nbsp;BuffSize=8192kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=16,&nbsp;MultSect=?16?<br>
389 &nbsp;CurCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;CurSects=16514064,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=268435455<br>
390 &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
391 &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio1&nbsp;pio2&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
392 &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
393 &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4&nbsp;*udma5<br>
394 &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no&nbsp;WriteCache=enabled<br>
395 &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;Unspecified:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-1,2,3,4,5,6</font><br>
396 <br>
397 &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode</p>
398 <!--empty-line-->
399 <p>This is also valid for the CDs/DVDs of the system:</p>
400 <!--empty-line-->
401 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
402 CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
403 <br>
404 drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">sr1</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">sr0</font><br>
405 drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;126<br>
406 drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
407 Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
408 Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
409 Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
410 Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
411 Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
412 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
413 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
414 Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
415 Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
416 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
417 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
418 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
419 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
420 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
421 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
422 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
423 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1</p>
424 <!--empty-line-->
425 <p>While the <b><font color="Green">hdparm</font></b> shows they are ATA devices:</p>
426 <!--empty-line-->
427 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sr0</font><br>
428 <br>
429 /dev/sr0:<br>
430 <br>
431 &nbsp;Model=HL-DT-ST&nbsp;DVDRAM&nbsp;GSA-H42L,&nbsp;FwRev=SL01&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;,&nbsp;SerialNo=K286CQF2231&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<br>
432 &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;Removeable&nbsp;DTR<=5Mbs&nbsp;DTR>10Mbs&nbsp;nonMagnetic&nbsp;}<br>
433 &nbsp;RawCHS=0/0/0,&nbsp;TrkSize=0,&nbsp;SectSize=0,&nbsp;ECCbytes=0<br>
434 &nbsp;BuffType=unknown,&nbsp;BuffSize=0kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=0<br>
435 &nbsp;(maybe):&nbsp;CurCHS=0/0/0,&nbsp;CurSects=0,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=0<br>
436 &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
437 &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
438 &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
439 &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;*udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4<br>
440 &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no<br>
441 &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;unknown:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-4,5,6,7</font><br>
442 <br>
443 &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode<br>
444 <br></p>
445
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