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91 <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>
92 <H3>Offline Documentation: Identifying devices in Linux</H3>
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94 <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>30/06/2011 - v 3.2.0</H4></div>
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113 <a name="annex-a-top"></a>
114
115
116 <!-- Intro -->
117
118 <H2 style="margin-top: 0;"><a name="annex-a-intro"></a>Intro <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
119 <p>This page is intended to help new Linux users and Windows users identify their hard disks / CD ROMs in a Linux box.<br><br>
120 <!--empty-line-->
121 Linux disks and partition names may be different from other operating systems. You need to know the names that Linux uses when you format, mount or select partitions or disks.<br><br>
122 <!--empty-line-->
123 Linux uses the so called <b>device name</b> to access disks and partitions. You can think of it as a link to the actual driver of the disk. All available devices have a corresponding file in <b>/dev</b> (e.g. /dev/hda1).<br><br>
124 <!--empty-line-->
125 In general, each disk / CD-ROM has a three letter name, for example <b>hda</b>. Each partition in such a disk has a number associated with it, starting from 1. So the first partition of disk <b>hda</b> would be <b>hda<font color="Red">1</font></b>, the second <b>hda<font color="Red">2</font></b> and so on.<br><br>
126 <!--empty-line-->
127 Depending on the device type, Linux gives the following names to devices:</p>
128
129 <ul>
130 <li><b>IDE (ATA) floppies</b><br>
131 The first floppy drive is named <b>/dev/fd0</b>.<br>
132 The second floppy drive is named <b>/dev/fd1</b>.</li>
133 <!--empty-line-->
134 <li><b>IDE (ATA) disks /CD-ROMs</b><br>
135 The master disk on IDE primary controller is named <b>/dev/hda</b>.<br>
136 The slave disk on IDE primary controller is named <b>/dev/hdb</b>.<br>
137 The master and slave disks of the secondary controller can be called <b>/dev/hdc</b> and <b>/dev/hdd</b>, respectively.<br><br>
138 <!--empty-line-->
139 Linux represents the primary partitions as the drive name, plus the numbers 1 through 4. For example, the first primary partition on the first IDE drive is <b>/dev/hda1</b>. The logical partitions are numbered starting at 5, so the first logical partition on that same drive is <b>/dev/hda5</b>. Remember that the extended partition, that is, the primary partition holding the logical partitions, is not usable by itself. This applies to SCSI disks as well as IDE disks.</li>
140 <!--empty-line-->
141 <li><b>SCSI disks</b><br>
142 The first SCSI disk (SCSI ID address-wise) is named <b>/dev/sda</b>.<br>
143 The second SCSI disk (address-wise) is named <b>/dev/sdb</b>, and so on.</li>
144 <!--empty-line-->
145 <li><b>SCSI CD-ROMs</b><br>
146 The first SCSI CD-ROM is named <b>/dev/scd0</b>, also known as <b>/dev/sr0</b>.<br>
147 The second SCSI CD-ROM is named <b>/dev/scd1</b>, also known as <b>/dev/sr1</b>, and so on.</li>
148 <!--empty-line-->
149 <li><b>USB disks</b><br>
150 They are named just like SCSI disks. The only difference is that the partition number has to do with the file system on the disk. If it's <b>/dev/sdx<font color="Red">4</font></b>, then it's a VFAT file system and if it's <b>/dev/sdx<font color="Red">1</font></b> it's probably a linux (ext2, ext3) file system.</li>
151 </ul>
152
153
154
155 <!-- Examples -->
156 <H2><a name="annex-a-examples"></a>Examples <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
157 <p>In order to identify the disks of a system you have to work with, a basic knowledge of its configuration (how many disks it has, whether it's a dual-boot system etc.) is welcomed but not required. A more experienced user will not have to worry about it, though.<br><br>
158 <!--empty-line-->
159 Linux systems based on a 2.6.x kernel (like <b>Clonezilla Live</b> and <b>SystemRescueCD</b>) provide all the necessary support to identify a system's disk configuration, with just a couple of commands.</p>
160 <!--empty-line-->
161
162
163
164 <!-- Example 1 -->
165 <H3><a name="annex-a-ex1"></a>Example 1 [<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
166 <p>The first system I have to work with is a dual-boot system (Windows - Linux), with two disks and two DVD-ROMs.<br><br>
167 <!--empty-line-->
168 The first command will tell me what disks and partitions exist in the system. So here it is:</p>
169 <!--empty-line-->
170 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
171 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
172 <br>
173 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;<font color="Red">hda</font><br>
174 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;hda1<br>
175 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;hda2<br>
176 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;hda3<br>
177 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;hda4<br>
178 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdb</font><br>
179 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;hdb1<br>
180 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;hdb2<br>
181 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;hdb3<br>
182 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;hdb4<br>
183 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;hdb5</p>
184 <!--empty-line-->
185 <p>The output of this command tells me that the system has two disks (<b><font color="Red">hda</font></b> and <b><font color="Red">hdb</font></b>) which are the primary master and slave devices.<br><br>
186 <!--empty-line-->
187 The first disk contains four primary partitions (hda1-hda4) and the second one four primary partitions (hdb1-hdb4) and a logical one (hdb5). Wait a minute!!! this can't be right... In order to have a logical partition, I must have a primary that contains it, which means that in this case I can't have four primary partitions. So what is really happening here is that I have two primary and two logical, plus an extended primary which contains them.<br><br>
188 <!--empty-line-->
189 What remains to be found is what type of partitions they are. I will find that out by executing the following commands:<p>
190 <!--empty-line-->
191 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/hda</font><br>
192 <br>
193 Disk /dev/hda: 320.0 GB, 320072933376 bytes<br>
194 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 38913 cylinders<br>
195 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
196 <br>
197 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
198 /dev/hda1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2919&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
199 /dev/hda2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2920&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8018&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
200 /dev/hda3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8019&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38549&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
201 /dev/hda4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38550&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38913&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris<br>
202 <br>
203 <br>
204 # <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/hdb</font><br>
205 <br>
206 Disk /dev/hdb: 250.0 GB, 250059350016 bytes<br>
207 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 30401 cylinders<br>
208 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
209 <br>
210 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
211 /dev/hdb1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5222&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
212 /dev/hdb2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5223&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5484&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris<br>
213 /dev/hdb3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5485&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14726&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236365&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;f&nbsp;&nbsp;W95&nbsp;Ext'd&nbsp;(LBA)<br>
214 /dev/hdb4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14727&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;30401&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
215 /dev/hdb5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5485&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14726&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</p>
216 <!--empty-line-->
217 <p>Ok, this clears things up. The first disk contains three Windows XP partitions (NTFS) and a Linux Swap partition. In fact, <b>/dev/hda1</b> is the system "disk" for Windows, since Windows will always be installed in the first partition of the primary master disk.<br><br>
218 <!--empty-line-->
219 The second disk, on the other hand, contains a Linux partition (<b>/dev/hdb1</b>), a Linux Swap partition <b>/dev/hdb2</b>, and an extended partition <b>/dev/hdb3</b> which contains two more Linux partitions (<b>/dev/hdb4</b> and <b>/dev/hdb5</b>).<br><br>
220 <!--empty-line-->
221 The final thing we need to know about this system is what CD/DVD-ROMs it has. So I execute the command:</p>
222 <!--empty-line-->
223 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
224 CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
225 <br>
226 drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdd</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdc</font><br>
227 drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;126<br>
228 drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
229 Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
230 Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
231 Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
232 Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
233 Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
234 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
235 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
236 Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
237 Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
238 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
239 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
240 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
241 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
242 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
243 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
244 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
245 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1</p>
246 <!--empty-line-->
247 <p>The system has two DVD-ROMs, <b><font color="Red">hdc</font></b> which is the secondary master and is a DVD writer, and <b><font color="Red">hdd</font></b> which is the secondary slave and is a DVD reader.<br><br>
248 <!--empty-line-->
249 At this point I will connect my USB stick, wait for a while and execute the command:</p>
250 <!--empty-line-->
251 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
252 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
253 <br>
254 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;hda<br>
255 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;hda1<br>
256 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;hda2<br>
257 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;hda3<br>
258 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;hda4<br>
259 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;hdb<br>
260 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;hdb1<br>
261 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;hdb2<br>
262 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;hdb3<br>
263 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;hdb4<br>
264 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;hdb5<br>
265 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1007615&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
266 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1006576&nbsp;sda4</p>
267 <!--empty-line-->
268 <p>As you can see, we have two more lines here, that reflect the changes to our system (the connection of the USB device). So my USB stick is recognized by the system as <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b>, and the disk itself contains a VFAT file system.</p>
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277 <!-- Example 2 -->
278 <H3><a name="annex-a-ex2"></a>Example 2 [<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
279 <p>The second system is a Linux box with one SCSI disk and a CD-ROM. Again I issue the command:</p>
280 <!--empty-line-->
281 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
282 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
283 <br>
284 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;156290904&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
285 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228&nbsp;sda1<br>
286 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda2<br>
287 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda3<br>
288 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;sda4</p>
289 <!--empty-line-->
290 <p>From its output I see I only have one disk <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b>, which contains four partitions.<br><br>
291 <!--empty-line-->
292 Then I execute <b>fdisk</b>, which shows me that the disk contains one DOS and three Linux partitions.</p>
293 <!--empty-line-->
294 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/sda</font><br>
295 Disk /dev/sda: 160.0 GB, 160041885696 bytes<br>
296 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19457 cylinders<br>
297 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
298 <br>
299 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
300 /dev/sda1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT16<br>
301 /dev/sda2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1967&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
302 /dev/sda3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1968&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3926&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
303 /dev/sda4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3927&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;19456&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</p>
304 <!--empty-line-->
305 <p>Finally I query its CD-ROMs, by executing the command:</p>
306 <!--empty-line-->
307 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
308 CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
309 <br>
310 drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hda</font><br>
311 drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
312 drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
313 Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
314 Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
315 Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
316 Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
317 Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
318 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
319 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
320 Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
321 Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
322 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
323 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
324 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
325 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
326 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
327 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
328 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
329 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0</p>
330 <!--empty-line-->
331 <p>Which tells me that I only have an IDE CD-ROM, (<b><font color="Red">hda</font></b>), which is actually a CD writer.<br><br>
332 <!--empty-line-->
333 Then I connect my USB stick, and I get:</p>
334 <!--empty-line-->
335 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
336 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
337 <br>
338 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;156290904&nbsp;sda<br>
339 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228&nbsp;sda1<br>
340 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda2<br>
341 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda3<br>
342 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;sda4<br>
343 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1007615&nbsp;<font color="Red">sdb</font><br>
344 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;20&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1006576&nbsp;sdb4</p>
345 <!--empty-line-->
346 <p>Although it's the same stick I used with the previous system, which was recognized as <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b> there, now its name is <b><font color="Red">sdb</font></b>. So, its name depends on the system it is connected to, and will not always be the same.</p>
347
348
349
350
351 <!-- SCSI - ATA -->
352 <H2><a name="annex-a-scsi-ata"></a>SCSI disks when there are none!!! <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
353 <p>I am confused!!! I am on a disk with two ATA (PATA) disks, but when I query the partition list, this is what I get:</p>
354 <!--empty-line-->
355 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
356 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
357 <br>
358 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
359 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;sda1<br>
360 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;sda2<br>
361 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;sda3<br>
362 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;sda4<br>
363 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;<font color="Red">sdb</font><br>
364 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;sdb1<br>
365 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;sdb2<br>
366 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;sdb3<br>
367 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;sdb4<br>
368 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;sdb5</p>
369 <!--empty-line-->
370 <p>According to what's discussed up to now, the system seems to have two SCSI disks, but I know it actually has two ATA (PATA) disks. What's going on?.<br><br>
371 <!--empty-line-->
372 What is really happening here is that you have one of the newest Linux kernels (using the libata disk driver), which shows <b>ALL</b> disks as SCSI. That does not mean that the system thinks it has SCSI disks, it just names them as such.<br><br>
373 <!--empty-line-->
374 To make is clear, execute the commands:</p>
375 <!--empty-line-->
376 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sda</font><br>
377 <br>
378 /dev/sda:<br>
379 <br>
380 &nbsp;Model=WDC&nbsp;WD3200AAJB-00TYA0,&nbsp;FwRev=00.02C01,&nbsp;SerialNo=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;WD-WCAPZ0648927<br>
381 &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;HardSect&nbsp;NotMFM&nbsp;HdSw>15uSec&nbsp;SpinMotCtl&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;DTR>5Mbs&nbsp;FmtGapReq&nbsp;}<br>
382 &nbsp;RawCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;TrkSize=0,&nbsp;SectSize=0,&nbsp;ECCbytes=50<br>
383 &nbsp;BuffType=unknown,&nbsp;BuffSize=8192kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=16,&nbsp;MultSect=?16?<br>
384 &nbsp;CurCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;CurSects=16514064,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=268435455<br>
385 &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
386 &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
387 &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
388 &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4&nbsp;*udma5<br>
389 &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no&nbsp;WriteCache=enabled<br>
390 &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;Unspecified:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-1,2,3,4,5,6,7</font><br>
391 <br>
392 &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode<br>
393 <br>
394 <br>
395 # <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sdb</font><br>
396 <br>
397 /dev/sdb:<br>
398 <br>
399 &nbsp;Model=WDC&nbsp;WD2500JB-00GVC0,&nbsp;FwRev=08.02D08,&nbsp;SerialNo=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;WD-WCAL76141931<br>
400 &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;HardSect&nbsp;NotMFM&nbsp;HdSw>15uSec&nbsp;SpinMotCtl&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;DTR>5Mbs&nbsp;FmtGapReq&nbsp;}<br>
401 &nbsp;RawCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;TrkSize=57600,&nbsp;SectSize=600,&nbsp;ECCbytes=74<br>
402 &nbsp;BuffType=DualPortCache,&nbsp;BuffSize=8192kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=16,&nbsp;MultSect=?16?<br>
403 &nbsp;CurCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;CurSects=16514064,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=268435455<br>
404 &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
405 &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio1&nbsp;pio2&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
406 &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
407 &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4&nbsp;*udma5<br>
408 &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no&nbsp;WriteCache=enabled<br>
409 &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;Unspecified:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-1,2,3,4,5,6</font><br>
410 <br>
411 &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode</p>
412 <!--empty-line-->
413 <p>This is also valid for the CDs/DVDs of the system:</p>
414 <!--empty-line-->
415 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
416 CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
417 <br>
418 drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">sr1</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">sr0</font><br>
419 drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;126<br>
420 drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
421 Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
422 Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
423 Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
424 Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
425 Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
426 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
427 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
428 Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
429 Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
430 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
431 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
432 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
433 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
434 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
435 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
436 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
437 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1</p>
438 <!--empty-line-->
439 <p>While the <b><font color="Green">hdparm</font></b> shows they are ATA devices:</p>
440 <!--empty-line-->
441 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sr0</font><br>
442 <br>
443 /dev/sr0:<br>
444 <br>
445 &nbsp;Model=HL-DT-ST&nbsp;DVDRAM&nbsp;GSA-H42L,&nbsp;FwRev=SL01&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;,&nbsp;SerialNo=K286CQF2231&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<br>
446 &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;Removeable&nbsp;DTR<=5Mbs&nbsp;DTR>10Mbs&nbsp;nonMagnetic&nbsp;}<br>
447 &nbsp;RawCHS=0/0/0,&nbsp;TrkSize=0,&nbsp;SectSize=0,&nbsp;ECCbytes=0<br>
448 &nbsp;BuffType=unknown,&nbsp;BuffSize=0kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=0<br>
449 &nbsp;(maybe):&nbsp;CurCHS=0/0/0,&nbsp;CurSects=0,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=0<br>
450 &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
451 &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
452 &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
453 &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;*udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4<br>
454 &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no<br>
455 &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;unknown:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-4,5,6,7</font><br>
456 <br>
457 &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode<br>
458 <br></p>
459
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