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- updating email addresses (bottom of page and "Contact me" in index.html
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90 sng 49 <div id="header">
91     <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>
92 sng 52 <H3>Offline Documentation: Boot parameters</H3>
93 sng 49 <div style="margin:0; padding: 3px; width: 980; position relative;">
94 sng 180 <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>30/06/2011 - v 3.2.0</H4></div>
95     <div style="position: absolute; right: 0px;"><H4>Last update: 06/06/2011</H4></div>
96 sng 49 </div>
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102 sng 52 <a class="here" href="../README.html">Offline Documentation</a>
103 sng 49
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113     <a name="boot-top"></a>
116     <!-- Intro -->
118     <H2 style="margin-top: 0;"><a name="boot-intro"></a>Intro <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#boot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
119     <p>Booting a linux system means loading a kernel, which is actually the operating system. Well, this is not exactly true, and it is not the only thing that happens during boot up phase, but it is not my intension to explain it here.
120     <br><br>
121     The kernel is loaded by Isolinux (the CD boot manager), which is able to pass a number of parameters to it, through its configuration file <b>isolinux.cfg</b>.
122     <br><br>
123     These parameters, called boot parameters, are documented by the kernel itself, and can differentiate its behavior dramatically. In our case, each CD (SystemRescueCD and Clonezilla Live) accept a different set of parameters, because they are based on <a href="http://www.gentoo.org/" target="_blank">gentoo</a> and <a href="http://www.debian.org/" target="_blank">debian</a>, respectively.
124     <br><br>
125     While in the splash screen of <b>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</b>, you can edit the boot parameters by pressing TAB. They will be presented to you, and you can add or remove what you want. You must be careful not to change or remove the parameters that are dedicated to the CD itself, as altering them will certainty make it unbootable. When you are done, just press ENTER to boot.
126     </p>
129     <!-- sysresccd -->
130     <H2><a name="sysresccd"></a>SystemRescueCD boot parameters <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#boot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
131     <!-- note -->
132     <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/info.png"></td><td>
133 sng 180 The following info applies to <b>SystemRescueCD v. 2.1.1</b>. In case<br>
134 sng 49 you need to get info for a more recent version of <b>SystemRescueCD</b><br>
135     please see the page "<a href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Booting_the_CD-ROM" target="_blank">Sysresccd-manual-en Booting the CD-ROM</a>"
136     </td></tr></table></div>
137     <p>A typical sysresccd isolinux entry is:</p>
139     <p class="newcode">kernel rescuecd<br>
140     append initrd=initram.igz video=ofonly</p>
141     <!--empty-line-->
142     <p>The kernel used is <b>rescuecd</b>, and anything after the word <b>append</b> is a boot parameter.<br><br>
143     <!--empty-line-->
144     Available kernels (boot images):</p>
146     <ul class="otherpage" style="padding: 0px 10px 20px 40px">
147 sng 57 <!-- Please do not delete these comented lines-->
148     <!-- SysRescCD documentation section. Please use "update-boot-params" script to update -->
149     <!--kernels-Documentation-->
150     <li><b>rescuecd</b> Default for 32bit systems, with Framebuffer disabled, best choice.
151 sng 149 </li><li><b>rescue64</b> Default 64 bit kernel. Use it if you want to chroot to a 64bit linux system installed on your hard disk, or if you have to run 64 bit programs. This kernel is able to boot with 32bit programs, and it requires a processor with 64bit instructions (amd64 / em64t).
152 sng 57 </li><li><b>altker32</b> an alternative kernel for 32bit systems. Boot with this kernel if you have problems with <b>rescuecd</b>
153     </li><li><b>altker64</b> an alternative kernel for 64bit systems. Boot with this kernel in case you have problems with <b>rescue64</b>.
154     </li>
155 sng 49 </ul>
157     <p><br>The boot parameters you can use are:</p>
158     <div class="otherpage">
159     <!-- Please do not delete these comented lines-->
160     <!-- SysRescCD documentation section. Please use "update-boot-params" script to update -->
161     <!--SysRescCD-Documentation-->
162 sng 57 <a name="General_boot_options" id="General_boot_options"></a><p><b> General boot options</b></p>
163 sng 77 <p>Press &lt;TAB&gt; to add additional options (in SystemRescueCd-1.5 and more recent)
164 sng 49 </p>
165 sng 149 <ul><li><b>docache</b>: causes the CD-ROM to be fully loaded into memory. A slower start but once complete, programs start faster and the CD drive will be released allowing normal access to other CDs. This requires 400MB of memory to cache everything (including the <code>bootdisks</code> and <code>isolinux</code> directories). Add <code>lowmem</code> if you have less that 400MB of memory of to prevent these directories from being copied.
166 sng 77 </li><li><b>setkmap=kk</b>: which defines the keymap to load where <code>kk</code> (example: <code>setkmap=de</code> for German keyboards). This way you won't be prompted for the keyboard configuration during the boot.
167 sng 149 </li><li><b>root=/dev/xdnp</b>: the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/" rel="nofollow">root=&lt;device&gt; option</a> boots an existing linux system. For example, if you have linux Gentoo installed on <code>/dev/sda6</code>, use <code>rescuecd root=/dev/sda6</code> to start it. Keep in mind that you must use a 64bit kernel if your system is made of 64bit programs. This option works with LVM volumes. Use <code>rescuecd root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00</code>. Support is also provided for <code>root=auto</code>, which scans all the block devices for a linux system. The first linux system found will be started. So <code>root=auto</code> lets you start the system installed from the CD-ROM in case you have problem with your boot loader or kernel. It's also possible to specify a partition using its <code>filesystem label</code> or <code>filesystem uuid</code>. If the label of the partition where linux is installed is <code>mylinux</code>, then boot it using <code>rescuecd root=LABEL=mylinux</code>. Similarly <code>root=UUID=b3d3bec5-997a-413e-8449-0d0ec41ccba7</code>. See <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/" rel="nofollow">more details</a>.
168     </li><li><b>initscript=service:action</b>: This option allows one to start/stop a service at boot time. For instance if you need the samba service to be started, you can boot with: <code>initscript=samba:start</code>. This does the same thing as <code>/etc/init.d/samba start</code>. Use this option a multiple of times for different services. All the actions that are supported by an initscript can be used.
169     </li><li><b>backstore=xxx</b>: SystemRescueCd comes with support for the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/" rel="nofollow">backing-stores</a>. A backing-store saves all the changes you can make. so that you keep these changes the next time you boot. By default, sysresccd automatically scan removable devices (eg: USB sticks) at boot time and uses the first backing-store it finds. A backing-store is not mandatory and if the scan fails, it will store the files which have changed in memory. To disable the disks scan at boot time specify <code>backstore=off</code> on the boot command line. If you want to save your backing-store file on a harddisk, boot with <code>backstore=alldev</code> to scan all devices (not just removable devices). The default location for a backing-stores file is any file named <code>sysrcd.bs</code> located at the root of a disk which is often a USB stick. Change the path by using <code>backstore=/sysrcd/mybackstore.bs</code>. See <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/" rel="nofollow">backing-stores</a>.
170     </li><li><b>isoloop=xxx</b>: Grub2 (currently in development: grub-1.98) provides a new feature to boot from an ISO image which is stored on the hard disk. If you put a copy of <code>systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso</code> on a partition that Grub2 can read then you can boot SystemRescueCd directly from the ISO image stored on your hard drive. This is very convenient if you frequently update SystemRescueCd and you want to boot it directly from Grub2. Grub2 knows what an ISO image is and it will load the kernel image (rescuecd/rescue64) and the initramfs (initram.igz) from the ISO into memory. It will then do its normal job and execute the kernel. The SystemRescueCd init script must then be aware that its <code>sysrcd.dat</code> file is in an ISO and not directly on the partition. For that reason, this <code>isoloop=xxx</code> boot option is required so you must use it in your <code>grub.cfg</code>. This option is only supported in SystemRescueCd-1.4.0 and more recent. This option specifies the path of the ISO image in the partition that grub considers as its root partition. It's important to understand that the path of the ISO image may be different from the path on your linux system. If you have a separate boot partition mounted on <code>/boot</code> and if you copy this ISO image to <code>/boot/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso</code> then the option has to be <code>isoloop=/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso</code>. This is because the boot partition is what Grub2 will consider as its root partition during the boot process. Please read <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Easy_install_SystemRescueCd_on_harddisk#Boot_the_ISO_image_from_the_disk_using_Grub2" title="Sysresccd-manual-en Easy install SystemRescueCd on harddisk">the section about isoloop</a> for more details.
171 sng 49 </li></ul>
172 sng 57 <a name="Hardware.2C_drivers_and_troubleshooting_options" id="Hardware.2C_drivers_and_troubleshooting_options"></a><p><b><br> Hardware, drivers and troubleshooting options</b></p>
173 sng 49 <ul><li><b>dodebug</b>: Enables verbose messages in linuxrc
174     </li></ul>
175 sng 77 <ul><li><b>doload=xxx</b>: loads needed kernel modules, multiple comma separated occurrences are permitted (example: <code>doload=3c59x,e1000</code>)
176     </li><li><b>noload=xxx</b>: prevents loading kernel modules, multiple comma separated occurrences are permitted (example: <code>noload=3c59x,e1000</code>). Use this option if you have a problem when the system loads a particular module.
177 sng 49 </li><li><b>nonet</b>: this will disable the network auto detection at startup
178     </li></ul>
179 sng 149 <ul><li><b>scandelay=x</b>: pauses x seconds during the startup to allow slow devices to initialize. This is required when you boot a USB device. A delay of only few seconds should be enough.
180 sng 49 </li></ul>
181     <ul><li><b>doxdetect</b>: Since version 0.3.5 the auto-configuration is done in X.Org itself, mkxf86config is disabled by default. This option forces the system to run the mkxf86config startup script and to run the hardware auto-detection from this script. Use this option if you have problems with the graphical environment configuration. This option replaces the option <code>noxdetect</code> that was useful in previous versions.
182     </li><li><b>nodetect</b>: prevents generic hardware auto-detection. Use this option if you have problems with the hardware auto-detection.
183     </li></ul>
184 sng 180 <ul><li><b>nomodeset</b>: Do not load the Kernel-Mode-Setting video driver. You can use that option if you are experiencing problems with your screen during the boot process (just after modules are being loaded).
185     </li><li><b>dostartx</b>: load the X.Org graphical environment.
186 sng 49 </li><li><b>forcevesa</b>: Forces X.Org to use the safe VESA driver instead of the best video driver detected for your video card. Use this option if you cannot get the graphical environment working with the default options.
187     </li><li><b>forcevesa=xxx</b>: The <code>startx</code> command will load the <code>Xvesa</code> server instead of <code>Xorg</code>, and use the screen resolution given as parameter (eg: <code>1024x768</code>, <code>1280x1024x32</code>).
188     </li></ul>
189     <ul><li><b>all-generic-ide</b>: In case of problems related to your hard disk, try to enable this option (eg <code>rescuecd all-generic-ide</code>)
190     </li><li><b>nodmraid</b>: Disable dmraid, for some motherboards with built-in RAID controller.
191     </li><li><b>nomdadm</b>: Disable mdadm, for software RAID.
192     </li></ul>
193     <ul><li><b>acpi-off</b> / <b>noapic</b> / <b>irqpool</b>: use these options if you have problem when the kernel boots: if it hangs on a driver or if it crashes, ...
194     </li></ul>
195     <ul><li><b>lowmem</b>: For systems with smaller memory, some daemons are not started including sshd and nfsd.
196     </li></ul>
197 sng 149 <ul><li><b>skipmount=/dev/xxx</b>: The system mounts all the storage devices at boot time to find the sysrcd.dat file. If your hard disk is broken it should not be mounted. Boot with <code>skipmount=/dev/sda1 skipmount=/dev/sda2</code> to ignore these two partitions.
198 sng 49 </li></ul>
199 sng 57 <a name="Network_configuration_and_remote_access" id="Network_configuration_and_remote_access"></a><p><b><br> Network configuration and remote access</b></p>
200 sng 77 <ul><li><b>nonm</b>: to disable the Network-Manager service that conflicts with the standard network command line tools such as <code>ifconfig</code> and <code>ip</code>. You can use this option if you want to configure the network using these commands. This option is not necessary when SystemRescueCd is booting from the network since the service is automatically stopped in that case. This option requires SystemRescueCd-1.5.5 or more recent.
201 sng 180 </li><li><b>dodhcp</b>: to request a DHCP server provide network attributes including an IP address, gateway... If there are multiple interfaces on the computer it will run the dhcp client on all of them by default, when no argument is specified with this option. Thanks to <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=5&amp;t=3454" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=5&amp;t=3454" rel="nofollow">emiliano</a> SystemRescueCd-1.7.0-beta009 and more recent allows you to optionally specify which interfaces should be configured with dhcp. This way you can combine static and dynamic addresses in the automatic Ethernet configuration. For example you can now use options like that: <pre>dodhcp=eth0,eth2 eth1=</pre> to use dhcp for eth0 and eth2 and a static address on eth1.
202 sng 149 </li><li><b>nodhcp</b>: never run the dhcp client in the initramfs boot script. May be useful if you use PXE boot on a computer with several ethernet interfaces. Support for this option is available in SystemRescueCd-1.5.5 and more recent
203 sng 49 </li><li><b>ethx=ipaddr/cidr</b>: Sets the static IP address of all the ethernet interfaces on the system. The <code>/cidr</code> extension is optional. For instance, if you use option <code>ethx=</code> on a machine with two ethernet adapters, both <code>eth0</code> and <code>eth1</code> will be configured with <code></code>. You can use the format <code>ethx=</code> (using the cidr notation) if you don't use the default netmask.
204 sng 149 </li><li><b>eth0=ipaddr/cidr</b>: This option is similar to <code>ethx=ipaddr/cidr</code> but it configures only one interface at a time. To configure the network on a server that has two interfaces, use, for example: <code>eth0= eth1=</code>.
205 sng 49 </li><li><b>dns=ipaddr</b>: Sets the static IP address of the DNS nameserver you want to use to resolve the names. For instance <code>dns=</code> means that you want to use <code></code> as the DNS server.
206     </li><li><b>gateway=ipaddr</b>: Sets the static IP address of the default route on your network. For instance <code>gateway=</code> means that the computer can connect to a computer outside of the local network via <code></code>.
207     </li><li><b>dhcphostname=myhost</b>: Sets the hostname that the DHCP client will send to the DHCP server. This may be required if the default hostname cannot be used with your DHCP configuration. This option has been introduced in SystemRescueCd-1.3.5.
208 sng 149 </li><li><b>rootpass=123456</b>: Sets the root password of the system running on the livecd to <code>123456</code>. That way you can connect from the network and ssh on the livecd and give <code>123456</code> password as the root password.
209     </li><li><b>vncserver=x:123456</b>: The <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/04/12/use-systemrescuecd-remotely-with-vnc-server/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/04/12/use-systemrescuecd-remotely-with-vnc-server/" rel="nofollow">vncserver boot option</a> has been introduced in SystemRescueCd-1.0.2. This options forces the system to configure the VNC-server and to start it automatically at boot time. You have to replace <code>x</code> with the number of displays you want, and <code>123456</code> with your password. The password must be between 6 and 8 characters, else the boot option will be ignored. In other words the <code>vncserver=2:MyPaSsWd</code> option will give you access to two displays (display=1 on tcp/5901 and display=2 on tcp/5902). Display 0 is reserved for X.Org since SystemRescueCd-1.1.0. SystemRescueCd-1.5.7 and more recent accept a password longer than 8 chars (between 5 and 12 chars)
210     </li><li><b>nameif=xxx</b>: You can <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/28/option-to-define-the-name-of-a-network-interface-using-the-mac-address/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/28/option-to-define-the-name-of-a-network-interface-using-the-mac-address/" rel="nofollow">specify what interface name to give</a> to a particular interface using the mac address. You need SystemRescueCd-1.1.0 or newer to do that. Here is how you can specify which interface is using which mac address on a machine with two network interfaces: <code>nameif=eth0!00:0C:29:57:D0:6E,eth1!00:0C:29:57:D0:64</code>. Be careful, you have to respect the separator (comma between the interfaces and exclamation marks between the name and the mac address). You can also use the magic keyword <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=7&amp;t=2538&amp;start=0" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=7&amp;t=2538&amp;start=0" rel="nofollow">BOOTIF</a> with SystemRescueCd-1.5.4 and more recent when you boot from pxelinux. The pxeboot loader will set BOOTIF to the name of the interface used to boot. You can then use something like <code>nameif=eth0!BOOTIF</code> if you want the boot interface to be called <code>eth0</code> on a computer with several Ethernet interfaces.
211 sng 49 </li></ul>
212 sng 57 <a name="Network_boot_using_PXE" id="Network_boot_using_PXE"></a><p><b><br> Network boot using PXE</b></p>
213 sng 49 <p>SystemRescueCd provides several options for booting from the network using PXE.
214 sng 57 These options can be combined with other network boot options such as <code>ethx</code> (cf previous section). See <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_PXE_network_booting" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_PXE_network_booting" rel="nofollow">PXE network booting</a> to get a global overview of SystemRescueCd and PXE and <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Manage_remote_windows_linux_servers_using_SystemRescueCd" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Manage_remote_windows_linux_servers_using_SystemRescueCd" rel="nofollow">Manage remote servers using PXE</a>.
215 sng 49 </p><p>The second stage downloads the kernel + initramfs using DHCP/TFTP.
216     </p><p>The third stage of the PXE boot process acquires the root files system.
217     </p><p>Several protocols are available.
218     </p>
219     <ul><li><b>netboot=</b>tftp<b>://ip/path/sysrcd.dat</b>: from a TFTP server. The filesystem is loaded into memory. As a consequence computers with less than 400MB of memory won't be able to boot this way. The system will continue to work if the network is disconnected after the boot process.
220     </li><li><b>netboot=</b>http<b>://ip:port/path/sysrcd.dat</b>: from a Web server. The file system is loaded into memory. Computers with smaller memory won't be able to boot this way. The the system continues to work if the network is disconnected after the boot process.
221 sng 149 </li><li><b>netboot=</b>nfs<b>://ip:/path</b>: mount an NFSv3 directory. The NFS url must be the path of the directory that contains <code>sysrcd.dat</code>. Only NFSv3 can be used, NFSv4 is not supported. NFS allows computers with smaller memory to boot SystemRescueCd from the network. After the boot process, continued network connection is required or you will loose access to the root file system.
222     </li><li><b>netboot=</b>nbd<b>://ip:port</b>: connect to an NBD server configured with <code>sysrcd.dat</code> on ip:port. NBD is easier to configure than NFS (only one TCP port involved) and it allows computers with smaller memory to boot SystemRescueCd from the network. After the boot process, the network connection continues to be required to access the root file system.
223 sng 49 </li></ul>
224 sng 57 <p>For information on activating <b>speakup</b>, see the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Speakup-info" title="Speakup-info">speakup info page</a>.
225 sng 49 </p>
226 sng 57 <a name="Options_provided_for_autorun" id="Options_provided_for_autorun"></a><p><b><br> Options provided for autorun</b></p>
227     <ul><li><b>ar_source=xxx</b>: place where the autorun are stored. It may be the root directory of a partition (<code>/dev/sda1</code>), an nfs share (<code>nfs://</code>), a samba share (<code>smb://</code>), or an http directory (<code><a target="_blank" href="" class="external free" title="" rel="nofollow"></a></code>).
228 sng 49 </li><li><b>autoruns=[0-9]</b>: comma separated list of the autorun scrip to be run. For example <code>autoruns=0,2,7</code> the autorun sc <code>autorun0</code>, <code>autorun2</code>, <code>autorun7</code> are run. Use <code>autoruns=no</code> to disable all the autorun scripts with a number.
229     </li><li><b>ar_ignorefail</b>: continue to execute the scripts chain even if a script failed (returned a non-zero status)
230     </li><li><b>ar_nodel</b>: do not delete the temporary copy of the autorun scripts located in <code>/var/autorun/tmp</code> after execution
231     </li><li><b>ar_disable</b>: completely disable autorun, the simple <code>autorun</code> script will not be executed
232     </li><li><b>ar_nowait</b>: do not wait for a keypress after the autorun script have been executed.
233     </li></ul>
234     </p>
235     </div>
238     <!-- Clonezilla -->
239     <H2><a name="clonezilla"></a>Clonezilla Live boot parameters <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#boot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
240     <!-- note -->
241     <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr valign="top"><td><img src="images/info.png"></td><td>
242 sng 180 The following info applies to <b>Clonezilla Live v. 1.2.8-46</b><br>
243 sng 49 In case you need to get info for a more recent version of <b>Clonezilla Live</b><br>
244 sng 180 please see the page "<a href="http://clonezilla.org/fine-print-live-doc.php?path=clonezilla-live/doc/99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc" target="_blank">The boot parameters for Clonezilla live</a>"
245 sng 49 </td></tr></table></div>
247     <p>A typical Clonezilla Live isolinux entry is:</p>
249     <p class="newcode"> kernel /live/vmlinuz1<br>
250     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"<br>
251     ocs_live_extra_param="" ocs_live_keymap="" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang="" vga=791 nolocales</p>
252     <!--empty-line-->
253     <p>The kernel used is <b>vmlinuz</b>, and anything after the word <b>append</b> is a boot parameter.</p>
254     <!--empty-line-->
257     <p>The following info comes from the page titled <a href="http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/fine-print.php?path=./99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc" target="_blank">The boot parameters for Clonezilla live</a>.</p>
259     <!-- Please do not delete these comented lines-->
260     <!-- Clonezilla documentation section. Please use "update-boot-params" script to update -->
261     <!--Clonezilla-Documentation-->
262 sng 57 <div class="otherpage">Clonezilla live is based on <a target="_blank" href="http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/" >Debian live</a> with clonezilla installed. Therefore there are 2 kinds of boot parameters:
263 sng 49 <ol>
264     <li>Boot parameters from live-initramfs. You can refer to this <a href="#live-initramfs">manual of live-initramfs</a>.
265     <li>Boot parameters specially for Clonezilla. All of them are named as "ocs_*", e.g. ocs_live_run, ocs_live_extra_param, ocs_live_batch, ocs_lang.
266     <ul>
267     <li>ocs_live_run is the main program to run in Clonezilla live to save or restore. or other command. Available program: ocs-live-general, ocs-live-restore or any command you write. Use the Absolute path in Clonezilla live.<br>
268     e.g. ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"<br>
269     <font color="red">//NOTE// You might have to use "sudo" command inside your own script, or you can assign it like: ocs_live_run="sudo bash /my-clonezilla"</font><br>
270     <li>ocs_live_extra_param will be used only when ocs_live_run=ocs-live-restore (not for ocs-live-general or any other), then it will be passed to ocs-sr. Therefore these parameters are actually those of ocs-sr.<br>
271 sng 149 e.g. ocs_live_extra_param="--batch -c restoredisk sarge-r5 hda"
272 sng 49 <li>ocs_live_keymap is for keymap used in Clonezilla live. Man install-keymap for more details.<br>
273     e.g. ocs_live_keymap="NONE" (won't change the default layout)<br>
274     ocs_live_keymap="/usr/share/keymaps/i386/azerty/fr-latin9.kmap.gz" (French keyboard)
275     <li>batch mode or not (yes/no), if no, will run interactively.<br>
276     e.g. ocs_live_batch="no"
277     <li>ocs_lang is the language used in Clonezilla live. Available value: en_US.UTF-8, zh_TW.UTF-8... (see $DRBL_SCRIPT_PATH/lang/bash/)
278     e.g. ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8"
279     <li>ocs_debug (or ocs-debug) is for you to enter command line prompt before any clonezilla-related action is run. This is easier for you to debug.
280     <li>ocs_daemonon, ocs_daemonoff, ocs_numlk, ocs_capslk.<br>
281     Ex. for the first 2 parameters, ocs_daemonon="ssh", then ssh service will be turned on when booting. For the last 2 parameters, use "on" or "off", e.g. ocs_numlk=on to turn on numberlock when booting.
282 sng 180 <li>ocs_prerun, ocs_prerun1, ocs_prerun2... is for you to run a command before Clonezilla is started. E.g. ocs_prerun="/live/image/myscript.sh". If you have more commands to run, you can assign them in the order: ocs_prerun=..., ocs_prerun1=..., ocs_prerun2=.... If more than 10 parameters, remember to use ocs_prerun01, ocs_prerun02..., ocs_prerun11 to make it in order.
283     <li>ocs_live_run_tty. This option allows you to specify the tty where $ocs_live_run is run. By default $ocs_live_run is run on /dev/tty1 only. If you want to use ttyS0, for example, add live-getty and console=ttyS0,38400n81 in the boot parameter.<br>
284 sng 49 <font color=red>//NOTE//</font><br>
285     <ul>
286 sng 149 <li>If "live-getty console=ttyS0,38400n81" are assigned in the boot parameters, ocs_live_run_tty will honor ttyS0, even other value is assigned to ocs_live_run_tty in boot parameter.
287 sng 49 <li>It's recommended to assign ocs_lang and ocs_live_keymap in the boot parameters too.
288     </ul>
289     <li>ip, this option allows you to specify the network parameters for network card. In Clonezilla live a patched live-initramfs is used, which is different from the original live-initramfs so that you can assign DNS server, too. Its format is: ip=ethernet port,IP address, netmask, gateway, DNS. E.g. If you want to assing eth0 with IP address, netmask, gateway, DNS server, you can assign the following in the boot parameter:<br>
290 sng 180 ip=eth0:<br>
291     If more than one network card, you can use "," to separate them, e.g.:<br>
292     ip=eth0:,eth1:<br>
293 sng 49 <li>Besides, "live-netdev" (yes, not ocs_live_netdev) can be used when using PXE booting, you can force to assign the network device to get filesystem.squashfs. This is useful when there are two or more NICs are linked. E.g. live-netdev="eth1" allows you to force the live-initramfs to use eth1 to fetch the root file system filesystem.squashfs.
294     </ul>
295     </ol>
296     <hr>
298     With the above options, we have the following examples:
299     <ol>
300     <li>A PXE config example for you to boot Clonezilla live via PXE, and ssh service is on, the password of account "user" is assigned:<br>
301     ----------------------------------------<br>
302     label Clonezilla Live<br>
303     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live<br>
304     MENU DEFAULT<br>
305     kernel vmlinuz1<br>
306     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788 fetch=tftp:// usercrypted=bkuQxLqLRuDW6 ocs_numlk="on" ocs_daemonon="ssh"<br>
307     ----------------------------------------<br>
309     The usercrypted password is created by:<br>
310     echo YOUR_PASSWORD | mkpasswd -s<br>
311     ("mkpasswd" is from package "whois" in Debian or Ubuntu. Check your GNU/Linux to see which package provides this command if you are not using Debian or Ubuntu. Replace YOUR_PASSWORD with your plain text password, and remember do not put any " in the boot parameters of live-initramfs (while it's ok for those ocs_* boot parameters), i.e. do NOT use something like usercrypted="bkuQxLqLRuDW6").<br>
312     //NOTE// If you do not assign salt to mkpasswd, the encrypted password will not be the same every time you create it.<br>
313     For more about usercrypted discussion, please check the <a href="http://lists.debian.org/debian-live/2008/10/msg00020.html" target=_blank>here</a>.
314     <br><br>
315     <li>How to put your own binary driver in Clonezilla live without modifying /live/filesystem.squashfs:
316     <ul>
317     <li>Boot clonezilla live
318     <li>Become root by running "sudo su -"
319     <li>Copy the dir lsi, which contains a precompiled kernel module matching the running kernel in Clonezilla live and a script to run it, to a working dir, e.g.: <br>
320     cp -r /live/image/lsi /home/partimag
321     <li>cd /home/partimag
322     <li>/opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-live-dev -c -s -i lsi -u lsi -x "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
323     <li>/opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-iso -s -i lsi -u lsi -x "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
324     <li>///NOTE/// In this example, the 2 files in dir lsi are: megasr.ko (the binary driver) and prep-lsi.sh. The contents of prep-lsi.sh:
325     <pre>
326     ------------------------
327     #!/bin/bash
328     cp -f /live/image/lsi/megasr.ko /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/
329     chown root.root /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/megasr.ko
330     depmod -a modprobe megasr
331     sleep 1
332     ------------------------
333     </pre>
334     </ul>
336     <li>To put your customized script with a PXE version of Clonezilla live (You have to use Clonezilla live version 1.2.2-2 or later):<br>
337     In this example, we assume (1) The IP address of your PXE server is, (2) the customized script (custom-ocs-2) is put on your PXE server's tftpd root dir (E.g. On DRBL server, the path is /tftpboot/nbi_img/. It might be different in your case if you are not use DRBL server as a PXE server).<br>
338     Therefor your pxelinux.cfg/default file is like:
339     <p>------------------------<br>
340     label Clonezilla Live<br>
341     MENU DEFAULT<br>
342     # MENU HIDE<br>
343     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live<br>
344     # MENU PASSWD<br>
345     kernel vmlinuz1<br>
346     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788 ip=frommedia fetch=tftp:// ocs_prerun="busybox tftp -g -b 10240 -r custom-ocs-2 -l /tmp/custom-ocs-2" ocs_live_run="bash /tmp/custom-ocs-2" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" nolocales<br>
347     TEXT HELP<br>
348     Boot Clonezilla live via network<br>
349     ENDTEXT<br>
350     <p>------------------------<br>
351     The content of custom-ocs-2 can be like:
352     <pre>
353     ------------------------
354     #!/bin/bash
355     . /opt/drbl/sbin/drbl-conf-functions
356     . /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-functions
357     . /etc/ocs/ocs-live.conf
359     # Load language file
360     ask_and_load_lang_set en_US.UTF-8
362     # 1. Mount the clonezilla image home.
363     # Types: local_dev, ssh_server, samba_server, nfs_server
364     prep-ocsroot -t nfs_server
366     # 2. Restore the image
367     if mountpoint /home/partimag/ &>/dev/null; then
368     ocs-sr -l en_US.UTF-8 -c -p choose restoredisk ask_user ask_user
369     else
370     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] && $SETCOLOR_FAILURE
371     echo "Fail to find the Clonezilla image home /home/partimag!"
372     echo "Program terminated!"
373     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] && $SETCOLOR_NORMAL
374     fi
375     ------------------------
376     </pre>
377     </li>
378     </ol>
379     </div>
380     <!-- End of copy/paste 3 -->
382     <H3><a name="live-initramfs"></a>live-initramfs manual <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#boot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
384     <p>This is the manual of <a href="http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/live-initramfs-param.php" target=_blank>live-initramfs</a>
385     <BR>
386     </p>
388 sng 57 <!-- Please do not delete these comented lines-->
389     <!-- SysRescCD documentation section. Please use "update-boot-params" script to update -->
390     <!--initramfs-Documentation-->
391     <a name="live-initramfs"></a><div class="otherpage" style="overflow: auto;"><pre>
392 sng 49 live-initramfs(7)
393     =================
394 sng 149 :man source: 1.157.3
395     :man manual: Debian Live
396 sng 49
397     Name
398     ----
399     live-initramfs - Debian Live initramfs hook
401     Synopsis
402     --------
403     BOOT=live
405     as kernel parameter at boot prompt.
407     Description
408     -----------
410     live-initramfs is a hook for the initramfs-tools, used to generate a initramfs
411     capable to boot live systems, such as those created by *live-helper*(7).
412     This includes the Debian Live isos, netboot tarballs, and usb stick images.
414     At boot time it will look for a (read-only) media containing a "/live"
415     directory where a root filesystems (often a compressed filesystem image like
416     squashfs) is stored. If found, it will create a writable environment, using
417     aufs, for Debian like systems to boot from.
419     You probably do not want to install this package onto a non-live system,
420     although it will do no harm.
422 sng 57 live-initramfs is a fork of <a href="http://packages.ubuntu.com/casper/" target="_blank">casper</a>.
423     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen &amp;lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
424     and Matt Zimmerman &amp;lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
425 sng 49
426     Boot options
427     ------------
429     Here is the complete list of recognized boot parameters by live-initramfs.
431 sng 57 access=*ACCESS*::
432 sng 49
433     Set the accessibility level for physically or visually impared users. ACCESS
434     must be one of v1, v2, v3, m1, or m2. v1=lesser visual impairment, v2=moderate
435     visual impairment, v3=blindness, m1=minor motor difficulties, m2=moderate motor
436     difficulties.
438 sng 57 console=*TTY,SPEED*::
439 sng 49
440     Set the default console to be used with the "live-getty" option. Example:
441     "console=ttyS0,115200"
443 sng 57 debug::
444 sng 49
445     Makes initramfs boot process more verbose.
447 sng 57 fetch=*URL*::
448 sng 49
449     Another form of netboot by downloading a squashfs image from a given url,
450 sng 149 copying to ram and booting it. Due to current limitations in busyboxs wget
451     and DNS resolution, an URL can not contain a hostname but an IP only.
452 sng 49
453 sng 149 Not working: http://example.com/path/to/your_filesystem.squashfs
454     Working:
456     Also note that therefore it's currently not possible to fetch an image from a
457     namebased virtualhost of an httpd if it is sharing the ip with the main httpd
458     instance.
460 sng 57 hostname=*HOSTNAME*, username=*USER*, userfullname=*USERFULLNAME*::
461 sng 49
462     Those parameters lets you override values read from the config file.
464 sng 57 ignore_uuid
465 sng 49
466     Do not check that any UUID embedded in the initramfs matches the discovered
467     medium. live-initramfs may be told to generate a UUID by setting
468     LIVE_GENERATE_UUID=1 when building the initramfs.
470 sng 57 integrity-check::
471 sng 49
472     If specified, an MD5 sum is calculated on the live media during boot and
473     compared to the value found in md5sum.txt found in the root directory of the
474     live media.
478     [DEVICE]:[AUTOCONF]]***::
479 sng 49
480     Let you specify the name(s) and the options of the interface(s) that should be
481     configured at boot time. Do not specify this if you want to use dhcp (default).
482     It will be changed in a future release to mimick official kernel boot param
483     specification (e.g. ip=,:::::eth1:dhcp).
485 sng 149 ip=[**frommedia**]::
486 sng 49
487     If this variable is set, dhcp and static configuration are just skipped and the
488     system will use the (must be) media-preconfigured /etc/network/interfaces
489     instead.
491 sng 57 {keyb|kbd-chooser/method}=**KEYBOARD**, {klayout|console-setup/layoutcode}=**LAYOUT**,
492     {kvariant|console-setup/variantcode}=**VARIANT**, {kmodel|console-setup/modelcode}=
493     **CODE**, koptions=**OPTIONS**::
494 sng 49
495     Configure the running keyboard as specified, if this one misses live-initramfs
496     behaves as if "keyb=us" was specified. It will be interfered from "locale=" if
497     locale is only 2 lowecase letters as a special case. You could also specify
498     console layout, variant, code, and options (no defaults).
500 sng 57 live-getty::
501 sng 49
502     This changes the auto-login on virtual terminals to use the (experimental)
503     live-getty code. With this option set the standard kernel argument "console=" is
504     parsed and if a serial console is specified then live-getty is used to autologin
505     on the serial console.
507 sng 57 {live-media|bootfrom}=**DEVICE**::
508 sng 49
509     If you specify one of this two equivalent forms, live-initramfs will first try
510     to find this device for the "/live" directory where the read-only root
511     filesystem should reside. If it did not find something usable, the normal scan
512     for block devices is performed.
514 sng 149 Instead of specifing an actual device name, the keyword 'removable' can be used
515     to limit the search of acceptable live media to removable type only. Note that
516     if you want to further restrict the media to usb mass storage only, you can use
517     the 'removable-usb' keyword.
519 sng 57 {live-media-encryption|encryption}=**TYPE**::
520 sng 49
521     live-initramfs will mount the encrypted rootfs TYPE, asking the passphrase,
522     useful to build paranoid live systems :-). TYPE supported so far are "aes" for
523     loop-aes encryption type.
525 sng 57 live-media-offset=**BYTES**::
526 sng 49
527     This way you could tell live-initramfs that your image starts at offset BYTES in
528     the above specified or autodiscovered device, this could be useful to hide the
529     Debian Live iso or image inside another iso or image, to create "clean" images.
531 sng 57 live-media-path=**PATH**::
532 sng 49
533     Sets the path to the live filesystem on the medium. By default, it is set to
534     '/live' and you should not change that unless you have customized your media
535     accordingly.
537 sng 57 live-media-timeout=**SECONDS**::
538 sng 49
539     Set the timeout in seconds for the device specified by "live-media=" to become
540     ready before giving up.
542 sng 57 {locale|debian-installer/locale}=**LOCALE**::
543 sng 49
544     Configure the running locale as specified, if not present the live-media rootfs
545     configured locale will be used and if also this one misses live-initramfs behave
546     as "locale=en_US.UTF-8" was specified. If only 2 lowercase letter are specified
547     (like "it"), the "maybe wanted" locale is generated (like en:EN.UTF-8), in this
548     case if also "keyb=" is unspecified is set with those 2 lowercase letters
549     (keyb=us). Beside that facility, only UTF8 locales are supported by
550     live-initramfs.
552 sng 57 module=**NAME**::
553 sng 49
554     Instead of using the default optional file "filesystem.module" (see below)
555     another file could be specified without the extension ".module"; it should be
556     placed on "/live" directory of the live medium.
558 sng 57 netboot[=**nfs**|**cifs**]::
559 sng 49
560     This tells live-initramfs to perform a network mount. The parameter "nfsroot="
561     (with optional "nfsopts="), should specify where is the location of the root
562     filesystem. With no args, will try cifs first, and if it fails nfs.
564 sng 57 nfsopts=::
565 sng 49
566     This lets you specify custom nfs options.
568 sng 57 noautologin::
569 sng 49
570     This parameter disables the automatic terminal login only, not touching gdk/kdm.
572 sng 57 noxautologin::
573 sng 49
574     This parameter disables the automatic login of gdm/kdm only, not touching
575     terminals.
577 sng 57 nofastboot::
578 sng 49
579     This parameter disables the default disabling of filesystem checks in
580     /etc/fstab. If you have static filesystems on your harddisk and you want them to
581     be checked at boot time, use this parameter, otherwise they are skipped.
583 sng 57 nopersistent::
584 sng 49
585     disables the "persistent" feature, useful if the bootloader (like syslinux) has
586     been installed with persistent enabled.
588 sng 57 noprompt
589 sng 49
590 sng 149 Do not prompt to eject the CD or remove the USB flash drive on reboot.
591 sng 49
592 sng 57 nosudo::
593 sng 49
594     This parameter disables the automatic configuration of sudo.
596 sng 57 swapon::
597 sng 49
598     This parameter enables usage of local swap partitions.
600 sng 57 nouser::
601 sng 49
602     This parameter disables the creation of the default user completely.
604 sng 57 noxautoconfig::
605 sng 49
606     This parameter disables Xorg auto-reconfiguration at boot time. This is valuable
607     if you either do the detection on your own, or, if you want to ship a custom,
608     premade xorg.conf in your live system.
610 sng 57 persistent[=nofiles]::
611 sng 49
612     live-initramfs will look for persistent and snapshot partitions or files labeled
613     "live-rw", "home-rw", and files called "live-sn*", "home-sn*" and will try to,
614     in order: mount as /cow the first, mount the second in /home, and just copy the
615     contents of the latter in appropriate locations (snapshots). Snapshots will be
616     tried to be updated on reboot/shutdown. Look at live-snapshot(1) for more
617     informations. If "nofiles" is specified, only filesystems with matching labels
618     will be searched; no filesystems will be traversed looking for archives or image
619     files. This results in shorter boot times.
621 sng 149 persistent-path=PATH
623     live-initramfs will look for persistency files in the root directory of a partition,
624     with this parameter, the path can be configured so that you can have multiple
625     directories on the same partition to store persistency files.
627 sng 57 {preseed/file|file}=**FILE**::
628 sng 49
629     A path to a file present on the rootfs could be used to preseed debconf
630     database.
632 sng 57 package/question=**VALUE**::
633 sng 49
634     All debian installed packages could be preseeded from command-line that way,
635     beware of blanks spaces, they will interfere with parsing, use a preseed file in
636     this case.
638 sng 57 quickreboot::
639 sng 49
640     This option causes live-initramfs to reboot without attempting to eject the
641     media and without asking the user to remove the boot media.
643 sng 57 showmounts::
644 sng 49
645     This parameter will make live-initramfs to show on "/" the ro filesystems
646     (mostly compressed) on "/live". This is not enabled by default because could
647     lead to problems by applications like "mono" which store binary paths on
648     installation.
650 sng 149 silent
652     If you boot with the normal quiet parameter, live-initramfs hides most messages
653     of its own. When adding silent, it hides all.
655 sng 57 textonly
656 sng 49
657     Start up to text-mode shell prompts, disabling the graphical user interface.
659 sng 57 timezone=**TIMEZONE**::
660 sng 49
661     By default, timezone is set to UTC. Using the timezone parameter, you can set it
662     to your local zone, e.g. Europe/Zurich.
664 sng 57 todisk=**DEVICE**::
665 sng 49
666     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the entire read-only
667     media to the specified device before mounting the root filesystem. It probably
668     needs a lot of free space. Subsequent boots should then skip this step and just
669     specify the "live-media=DEVICE" boot parameter with the same DEVICE used this
670     time.
672 sng 57 toram::
673 sng 49
674     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the whole read-only media
675     to the computer's RAM before mounting the root filesystem. This could need a lot
676     of ram, according to the space used by the read-only media.
678 sng 57 union=**aufs**|**unionfs**::
679 sng 49
680     By default, live-initramfs uses aufs. With this parameter, you can switch to
681     unionfs.
683 sng 57 utc=**yes**|**no**::
684 sng 49
685     By default, Debian systems do assume that the hardware clock is set to UTC. You
686     can change or explicitly set it with this parameter.
688 sng 57 xdebconf::
689 sng 49
690     Uses xdebconfigurator, if present on the rootfs, to configure X instead of the
691     standard procedure (experimental).
693 sng 57 xvideomode=**RESOLUTION**::
694 sng 49
695     Doesn't do xorg autodetection, but enforces a given resolution.
697     Files
698     -----
700 sng 57 /etc/live.conf
701 sng 49
702     Some variables can be configured via this config file (inside the live system).
704 sng 57 /live/filesystem.module
705 sng 49
706     This optional file (inside the live media) contains a list of white-space or
707     carriage-return-separated file names corresponding to disk images in the "/live"
708     directory. If this file exists, only images listed here will be merged into the
709     root aufs, and they will be loaded in the order listed here. The first entry
710     in this file will be the "lowest" point in the aufs, and the last file in
711     this list will be on the "top" of the aufs, directly below /cow. Without
712     this file, any images in the "/live" directory are loaded in alphanumeric order.
714 sng 57 /etc/live-persistence.binds
715 sng 49
716     This optional file (which resides in the rootfs system, not in the live media)
717     is used as a list of directories which not need be persistent: ie. their
718     content does not need to survive reboots when using the persistence features.
720     This saves expensive writes and speeds up operations on volatile data such as
721     web caches and temporary files (like e.g. /tmp and .mozilla) which are
722     regenerated each time. This is achieved by bind mounting each listed directory
723     with a tmpfs on the original path.
726     See also
727     --------
729     live-snapshot(1), initramfs-tools(8), live-helper(7), live-initscripts(7),
730     live-webhelper(7)
732     Bugs
733     ----
735     Report bugs against live-initramfs
736 sng 57 <a href="http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs" target="_blank">http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs</a>.
737 sng 49
738     Homepage
739     --------
741     More information about the Debian Live project can be found at
742 sng 57 <a href="http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/" target="_blank">http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/</a> and
743     <a href="http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/" target="_blank">http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/</a>.
744 sng 49
745     Authors
746     -------
748 sng 57 live-initramfs is maintained by Daniel Baumann &amp;lt;daniel@debian.org&amp;gt;
749 sng 49 for the Debian project.
751 sng 57 live-initramfs is a fork of <a href="http://packages.ubuntu.com/casper/" target="_blank">casper</a>.
752     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen &amp;lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
753     and Matt Zimmerman &amp;lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
754     </pre>
755 sng 49 </div>
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