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91 <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>
92 <H3>Documentation: Identifying devices in Linux</H3>
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94 <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>30/06/2011 - v 3.2.0</H4></div>
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116 <a name="annex-a-top"></a>
117
118
119 <!-- Intro -->
120
121 <H2 style="margin-top: 0;"><a name="annex-a-intro"></a>Intro <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
122 <p>This page is intended to help new Linux users and Windows users identify their hard disks / CD ROMs in a Linux box.<br><br>
123 <!--empty-line-->
124 Linux disks and partition names may be different from other operating systems. You need to know the names that Linux uses when you format, mount or select partitions or disks.<br><br>
125 <!--empty-line-->
126 Linux uses the so called <b>device name</b> to access disks and partitions. You can think of it as a link to the actual driver of the disk. All available devices have a corresponding file in <b>/dev</b> (e.g. /dev/hda1).<br><br>
127 <!--empty-line-->
128 In general, each disk / CD-ROM has a three letter name, for example <b>hda</b>. Each partition in such a disk has a number associated with it, starting from 1. So the first partition of disk <b>hda</b> would be <b>hda<font color="Red">1</font></b>, the second <b>hda<font color="Red">2</font></b> and so on.<br><br>
129 <!--empty-line-->
130 Depending on the device type, Linux gives the following names to devices:</p>
131
132 <ul>
133 <li><b>IDE (ATA) floppies</b><br>
134 The first floppy drive is named <b>/dev/fd0</b>.<br>
135 The second floppy drive is named <b>/dev/fd1</b>.</li>
136 <!--empty-line-->
137 <li><b>IDE (ATA) disks /CD-ROMs</b><br>
138 The master disk on IDE primary controller is named <b>/dev/hda</b>.<br>
139 The slave disk on IDE primary controller is named <b>/dev/hdb</b>.<br>
140 The master and slave disks of the secondary controller can be called <b>/dev/hdc</b> and <b>/dev/hdd</b>, respectively.<br><br>
141 <!--empty-line-->
142 Linux represents the primary partitions as the drive name, plus the numbers 1 through 4. For example, the first primary partition on the first IDE drive is <b>/dev/hda1</b>. The logical partitions are numbered starting at 5, so the first logical partition on that same drive is <b>/dev/hda5</b>. Remember that the extended partition, that is, the primary partition holding the logical partitions, is not usable by itself. This applies to SCSI disks as well as IDE disks.</li>
143 <!--empty-line-->
144 <li><b>SCSI disks</b><br>
145 The first SCSI disk (SCSI ID address-wise) is named <b>/dev/sda</b>.<br>
146 The second SCSI disk (address-wise) is named <b>/dev/sdb</b>, and so on.</li>
147 <!--empty-line-->
148 <li><b>SCSI CD-ROMs</b><br>
149 The first SCSI CD-ROM is named <b>/dev/scd0</b>, also known as <b>/dev/sr0</b>.<br>
150 The second SCSI CD-ROM is named <b>/dev/scd1</b>, also known as <b>/dev/sr1</b>, and so on.</li>
151 <!--empty-line-->
152 <li><b>USB disks</b><br>
153 They are named just like SCSI disks. The only difference is that the partition number has to do with the file system on the disk. If it's <b>/dev/sdx<font color="Red">4</font></b>, then it's a VFAT file system and if it's <b>/dev/sdx<font color="Red">1</font></b> it's probably a linux (ext2, ext3) file system.</li>
154 </ul>
155
156
157
158 <!-- Examples -->
159 <H2><a name="annex-a-examples"></a>Examples <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
160 <p>In order to identify the disks of a system you have to work with, a basic knowledge of its configuration (how many disks it has, whether it's a dual-boot system etc.) is welcomed but not required. A more experienced user will not have to worry about it, though.<br><br>
161 <!--empty-line-->
162 Linux systems based on a 2.6.x kernel (like <b>Clonezilla Live</b> and <b>SystemRescueCD</b>) provide all the necessary support to identify a system's disk configuration, with just a couple of commands.</p>
163 <!--empty-line-->
164
165
166
167 <!-- Example 1 -->
168 <H3><a name="annex-a-ex1"></a>Example 1 [<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
169 <p>The first system I have to work with is a dual-boot system (Windows - Linux), with two disks and two DVD-ROMs.<br><br>
170 <!--empty-line-->
171 The first command will tell me what disks and partitions exist in the system. So here it is:</p>
172 <!--empty-line-->
173 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
174 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
175 <br>
176 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;<font color="Red">hda</font><br>
177 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;hda1<br>
178 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;hda2<br>
179 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;hda3<br>
180 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;hda4<br>
181 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdb</font><br>
182 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;hdb1<br>
183 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;hdb2<br>
184 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;hdb3<br>
185 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;hdb4<br>
186 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;hdb5</p>
187 <!--empty-line-->
188 <p>The output of this command tells me that the system has two disks (<b><font color="Red">hda</font></b> and <b><font color="Red">hdb</font></b>) which are the primary master and slave devices.<br><br>
189 <!--empty-line-->
190 The first disk contains four primary partitions (hda1-hda4) and the second one four primary partitions (hdb1-hdb4) and a logical one (hdb5). Wait a minute!!! this can't be right... In order to have a logical partition, I must have a primary that contains it, which means that in this case I can't have four primary partitions. So what is really happening here is that I have two primary and two logical, plus an extended primary which contains them.<br><br>
191 <!--empty-line-->
192 What remains to be found is what type of partitions they are. I will find that out by executing the following commands:<p>
193 <!--empty-line-->
194 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/hda</font><br>
195 <br>
196 Disk /dev/hda: 320.0 GB, 320072933376 bytes<br>
197 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 38913 cylinders<br>
198 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
199 <br>
200 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
201 /dev/hda1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2919&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
202 /dev/hda2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2920&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8018&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
203 /dev/hda3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8019&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38549&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
204 /dev/hda4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38550&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38913&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris<br>
205 <br>
206 <br>
207 # <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/hdb</font><br>
208 <br>
209 Disk /dev/hdb: 250.0 GB, 250059350016 bytes<br>
210 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 30401 cylinders<br>
211 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
212 <br>
213 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
214 /dev/hdb1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5222&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
215 /dev/hdb2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5223&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5484&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris<br>
216 /dev/hdb3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5485&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14726&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236365&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;f&nbsp;&nbsp;W95&nbsp;Ext'd&nbsp;(LBA)<br>
217 /dev/hdb4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14727&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;30401&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
218 /dev/hdb5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5485&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14726&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</p>
219 <!--empty-line-->
220 <p>Ok, this clears things up. The first disk contains three Windows XP partitions (NTFS) and a Linux Swap partition. In fact, <b>/dev/hda1</b> is the system "disk" for Windows, since Windows will always be installed in the first partition of the primary master disk.<br><br>
221 <!--empty-line-->
222 The second disk, on the other hand, contains a Linux partition (<b>/dev/hdb1</b>), a Linux Swap partition <b>/dev/hdb2</b>, and an extended partition <b>/dev/hdb3</b> which contains two more Linux partitions (<b>/dev/hdb4</b> and <b>/dev/hdb5</b>).<br><br>
223 <!--empty-line-->
224 The final thing we need to know about this system is what CD/DVD-ROMs it has. So I execute the command:</p>
225 <!--empty-line-->
226 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
227 CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
228 <br>
229 drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdd</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdc</font><br>
230 drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;126<br>
231 drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
232 Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
233 Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
234 Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
235 Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
236 Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
237 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
238 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
239 Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
240 Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
241 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
242 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
243 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
244 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
245 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
246 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
247 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
248 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1</p>
249 <!--empty-line-->
250 <p>The system has two DVD-ROMs, <b><font color="Red">hdc</font></b> which is the secondary master and is a DVD writer, and <b><font color="Red">hdd</font></b> which is the secondary slave and is a DVD reader.<br><br>
251 <!--empty-line-->
252 At this point I will connect my USB stick, wait for a while and execute the command:</p>
253 <!--empty-line-->
254 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
255 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
256 <br>
257 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;hda<br>
258 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;hda1<br>
259 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;hda2<br>
260 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;hda3<br>
261 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;hda4<br>
262 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;hdb<br>
263 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;hdb1<br>
264 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;hdb2<br>
265 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;hdb3<br>
266 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;hdb4<br>
267 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;hdb5<br>
268 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1007615&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
269 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1006576&nbsp;sda4</p>
270 <!--empty-line-->
271 <p>As you can see, we have two more lines here, that reflect the changes to our system (the connection of the USB device). So my USB stick is recognized by the system as <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b>, and the disk itself contains a VFAT file system.</p>
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280 <!-- Example 2 -->
281 <H3><a name="annex-a-ex2"></a>Example 2 [<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
282 <p>The second system is a Linux box with one SCSI disk and a CD-ROM. Again I issue the command:</p>
283 <!--empty-line-->
284 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
285 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
286 <br>
287 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;156290904&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
288 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228&nbsp;sda1<br>
289 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda2<br>
290 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda3<br>
291 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;sda4</p>
292 <!--empty-line-->
293 <p>From its output I see I only have one disk <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b>, which contains four partitions.<br><br>
294 <!--empty-line-->
295 Then I execute <b>fdisk</b>, which shows me that the disk contains one DOS and three Linux partitions.</p>
296 <!--empty-line-->
297 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/sda</font><br>
298 Disk /dev/sda: 160.0 GB, 160041885696 bytes<br>
299 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19457 cylinders<br>
300 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
301 <br>
302 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
303 /dev/sda1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT16<br>
304 /dev/sda2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1967&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
305 /dev/sda3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1968&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3926&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
306 /dev/sda4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3927&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;19456&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</p>
307 <!--empty-line-->
308 <p>Finally I query its CD-ROMs, by executing the command:</p>
309 <!--empty-line-->
310 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
311 CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
312 <br>
313 drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hda</font><br>
314 drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
315 drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
316 Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
317 Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
318 Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
319 Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
320 Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
321 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
322 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
323 Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
324 Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
325 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
326 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
327 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
328 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
329 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
330 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
331 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
332 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0</p>
333 <!--empty-line-->
334 <p>Which tells me that I only have an IDE CD-ROM, (<b><font color="Red">hda</font></b>), which is actually a CD writer.<br><br>
335 <!--empty-line-->
336 Then I connect my USB stick, and I get:</p>
337 <!--empty-line-->
338 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
339 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
340 <br>
341 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;156290904&nbsp;sda<br>
342 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228&nbsp;sda1<br>
343 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda2<br>
344 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda3<br>
345 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;sda4<br>
346 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1007615&nbsp;<font color="Red">sdb</font><br>
347 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;20&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1006576&nbsp;sdb4</p>
348 <!--empty-line-->
349 <p>Although it's the same stick I used with the previous system, which was recognized as <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b> there, now its name is <b><font color="Red">sdb</font></b>. So, its name depends on the system it is connected to, and will not always be the same.</p>
350
351
352
353
354 <!-- SCSI - ATA -->
355 <H2><a name="annex-a-scsi-ata"></a>SCSI disks when there are none!!! <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
356 <p>I am confused!!! I am on a disk with two ATA (PATA) disks, but when I query the partition list, this is what I get:</p>
357 <!--empty-line-->
358 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
359 major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
360 <br>
361 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
362 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;sda1<br>
363 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;sda2<br>
364 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;sda3<br>
365 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;sda4<br>
366 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;<font color="Red">sdb</font><br>
367 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;sdb1<br>
368 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;sdb2<br>
369 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;sdb3<br>
370 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;sdb4<br>
371 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;sdb5</p>
372 <!--empty-line-->
373 <p>According to what's discussed up to now, the system seems to have two SCSI disks, but I know it actually has two ATA (PATA) disks. What's going on?.<br><br>
374 <!--empty-line-->
375 What is really happening here is that you have one of the newest Linux kernels (using the libata disk driver), which shows <b>ALL</b> disks as SCSI. That does not mean that the system thinks it has SCSI disks, it just names them as such.<br><br>
376 <!--empty-line-->
377 To make is clear, execute the commands:</p>
378 <!--empty-line-->
379 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sda</font><br>
380 <br>
381 /dev/sda:<br>
382 <br>
383 &nbsp;Model=WDC&nbsp;WD3200AAJB-00TYA0,&nbsp;FwRev=00.02C01,&nbsp;SerialNo=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;WD-WCAPZ0648927<br>
384 &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;HardSect&nbsp;NotMFM&nbsp;HdSw>15uSec&nbsp;SpinMotCtl&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;DTR>5Mbs&nbsp;FmtGapReq&nbsp;}<br>
385 &nbsp;RawCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;TrkSize=0,&nbsp;SectSize=0,&nbsp;ECCbytes=50<br>
386 &nbsp;BuffType=unknown,&nbsp;BuffSize=8192kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=16,&nbsp;MultSect=?16?<br>
387 &nbsp;CurCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;CurSects=16514064,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=268435455<br>
388 &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
389 &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
390 &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
391 &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4&nbsp;*udma5<br>
392 &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no&nbsp;WriteCache=enabled<br>
393 &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;Unspecified:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-1,2,3,4,5,6,7</font><br>
394 <br>
395 &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode<br>
396 <br>
397 <br>
398 # <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sdb</font><br>
399 <br>
400 /dev/sdb:<br>
401 <br>
402 &nbsp;Model=WDC&nbsp;WD2500JB-00GVC0,&nbsp;FwRev=08.02D08,&nbsp;SerialNo=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;WD-WCAL76141931<br>
403 &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;HardSect&nbsp;NotMFM&nbsp;HdSw>15uSec&nbsp;SpinMotCtl&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;DTR>5Mbs&nbsp;FmtGapReq&nbsp;}<br>
404 &nbsp;RawCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;TrkSize=57600,&nbsp;SectSize=600,&nbsp;ECCbytes=74<br>
405 &nbsp;BuffType=DualPortCache,&nbsp;BuffSize=8192kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=16,&nbsp;MultSect=?16?<br>
406 &nbsp;CurCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;CurSects=16514064,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=268435455<br>
407 &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
408 &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio1&nbsp;pio2&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
409 &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
410 &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4&nbsp;*udma5<br>
411 &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no&nbsp;WriteCache=enabled<br>
412 &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;Unspecified:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-1,2,3,4,5,6</font><br>
413 <br>
414 &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode</p>
415 <!--empty-line-->
416 <p>This is also valid for the CDs/DVDs of the system:</p>
417 <!--empty-line-->
418 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
419 CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
420 <br>
421 drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">sr1</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">sr0</font><br>
422 drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;126<br>
423 drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
424 Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
425 Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
426 Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
427 Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
428 Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
429 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
430 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
431 Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
432 Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
433 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
434 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
435 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
436 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
437 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
438 Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
439 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
440 Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1</p>
441 <!--empty-line-->
442 <p>While the <b><font color="Green">hdparm</font></b> shows they are ATA devices:</p>
443 <!--empty-line-->
444 <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sr0</font><br>
445 <br>
446 /dev/sr0:<br>
447 <br>
448 &nbsp;Model=HL-DT-ST&nbsp;DVDRAM&nbsp;GSA-H42L,&nbsp;FwRev=SL01&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;,&nbsp;SerialNo=K286CQF2231&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<br>
449 &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;Removeable&nbsp;DTR<=5Mbs&nbsp;DTR>10Mbs&nbsp;nonMagnetic&nbsp;}<br>
450 &nbsp;RawCHS=0/0/0,&nbsp;TrkSize=0,&nbsp;SectSize=0,&nbsp;ECCbytes=0<br>
451 &nbsp;BuffType=unknown,&nbsp;BuffSize=0kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=0<br>
452 &nbsp;(maybe):&nbsp;CurCHS=0/0/0,&nbsp;CurSects=0,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=0<br>
453 &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
454 &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
455 &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
456 &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;*udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4<br>
457 &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no<br>
458 &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;unknown:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-4,5,6,7</font><br>
459 <br>
460 &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode<br>
461 <br></p>
462
463
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