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91 sng 28 <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>
92     <H3>Documentation: Identifying devices in Linux</H3>
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94 sng 172 <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>30/06/2011 - v 3.2.0</H4></div>
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116     <a name="annex-a-top"></a>
117    
118    
119     <!-- Intro -->
120    
121     <H2 style="margin-top: 0;"><a name="annex-a-intro"></a>Intro <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
122     <p>This page is intended to help new Linux users and Windows users identify their hard disks / CD ROMs in a Linux box.<br><br>
123     <!--empty-line-->
124     Linux disks and partition names may be different from other operating systems. You need to know the names that Linux uses when you format, mount or select partitions or disks.<br><br>
125     <!--empty-line-->
126     Linux uses the so called <b>device name</b> to access disks and partitions. You can think of it as a link to the actual driver of the disk. All available devices have a corresponding file in <b>/dev</b> (e.g. /dev/hda1).<br><br>
127     <!--empty-line-->
128     In general, each disk / CD-ROM has a three letter name, for example <b>hda</b>. Each partition in such a disk has a number associated with it, starting from 1. So the first partition of disk <b>hda</b> would be <b>hda<font color="Red">1</font></b>, the second <b>hda<font color="Red">2</font></b> and so on.<br><br>
129     <!--empty-line-->
130     Depending on the device type, Linux gives the following names to devices:</p>
131    
132     <ul>
133     <li><b>IDE (ATA) floppies</b><br>
134     The first floppy drive is named <b>/dev/fd0</b>.<br>
135     The second floppy drive is named <b>/dev/fd1</b>.</li>
136     <!--empty-line-->
137     <li><b>IDE (ATA) disks /CD-ROMs</b><br>
138     The master disk on IDE primary controller is named <b>/dev/hda</b>.<br>
139     The slave disk on IDE primary controller is named <b>/dev/hdb</b>.<br>
140     The master and slave disks of the secondary controller can be called <b>/dev/hdc</b> and <b>/dev/hdd</b>, respectively.<br><br>
141     <!--empty-line-->
142     Linux represents the primary partitions as the drive name, plus the numbers 1 through 4. For example, the first primary partition on the first IDE drive is <b>/dev/hda1</b>. The logical partitions are numbered starting at 5, so the first logical partition on that same drive is <b>/dev/hda5</b>. Remember that the extended partition, that is, the primary partition holding the logical partitions, is not usable by itself. This applies to SCSI disks as well as IDE disks.</li>
143     <!--empty-line-->
144     <li><b>SCSI disks</b><br>
145     The first SCSI disk (SCSI ID address-wise) is named <b>/dev/sda</b>.<br>
146     The second SCSI disk (address-wise) is named <b>/dev/sdb</b>, and so on.</li>
147     <!--empty-line-->
148     <li><b>SCSI CD-ROMs</b><br>
149     The first SCSI CD-ROM is named <b>/dev/scd0</b>, also known as <b>/dev/sr0</b>.<br>
150     The second SCSI CD-ROM is named <b>/dev/scd1</b>, also known as <b>/dev/sr1</b>, and so on.</li>
151     <!--empty-line-->
152     <li><b>USB disks</b><br>
153     They are named just like SCSI disks. The only difference is that the partition number has to do with the file system on the disk. If it's <b>/dev/sdx<font color="Red">4</font></b>, then it's a VFAT file system and if it's <b>/dev/sdx<font color="Red">1</font></b> it's probably a linux (ext2, ext3) file system.</li>
154     </ul>
155    
156    
157    
158     <!-- Examples -->
159     <H2><a name="annex-a-examples"></a>Examples <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
160     <p>In order to identify the disks of a system you have to work with, a basic knowledge of its configuration (how many disks it has, whether it's a dual-boot system etc.) is welcomed but not required. A more experienced user will not have to worry about it, though.<br><br>
161     <!--empty-line-->
162     Linux systems based on a 2.6.x kernel (like <b>Clonezilla Live</b> and <b>SystemRescueCD</b>) provide all the necessary support to identify a system's disk configuration, with just a couple of commands.</p>
163     <!--empty-line-->
164    
165    
166    
167     <!-- Example 1 -->
168     <H3><a name="annex-a-ex1"></a>Example 1 [<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
169     <p>The first system I have to work with is a dual-boot system (Windows - Linux), with two disks and two DVD-ROMs.<br><br>
170     <!--empty-line-->
171     The first command will tell me what disks and partitions exist in the system. So here it is:</p>
172     <!--empty-line-->
173     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
174     major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
175     <br>
176     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;<font color="Red">hda</font><br>
177     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;hda1<br>
178     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;hda2<br>
179     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;hda3<br>
180     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;hda4<br>
181     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdb</font><br>
182     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;hdb1<br>
183     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;hdb2<br>
184     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;hdb3<br>
185     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;hdb4<br>
186     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;hdb5</p>
187     <!--empty-line-->
188     <p>The output of this command tells me that the system has two disks (<b><font color="Red">hda</font></b> and <b><font color="Red">hdb</font></b>) which are the primary master and slave devices.<br><br>
189     <!--empty-line-->
190     The first disk contains four primary partitions (hda1-hda4) and the second one four primary partitions (hdb1-hdb4) and a logical one (hdb5). Wait a minute!!! this can't be right... In order to have a logical partition, I must have a primary that contains it, which means that in this case I can't have four primary partitions. So what is really happening here is that I have two primary and two logical, plus an extended primary which contains them.<br><br>
191     <!--empty-line-->
192     What remains to be found is what type of partitions they are. I will find that out by executing the following commands:<p>
193     <!--empty-line-->
194     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/hda</font><br>
195     <br>
196     Disk /dev/hda: 320.0 GB, 320072933376 bytes<br>
197     255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 38913 cylinders<br>
198     Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
199     <br>
200     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
201     /dev/hda1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2919&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
202     /dev/hda2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2920&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8018&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
203     /dev/hda3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8019&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38549&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS<br>
204     /dev/hda4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38550&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;38913&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris<br>
205     <br>
206     <br>
207     # <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/hdb</font><br>
208     <br>
209     Disk /dev/hdb: 250.0 GB, 250059350016 bytes<br>
210     255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 30401 cylinders<br>
211     Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
212     <br>
213     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
214     /dev/hdb1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5222&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
215     /dev/hdb2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5223&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5484&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris<br>
216     /dev/hdb3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5485&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14726&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236365&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;f&nbsp;&nbsp;W95&nbsp;Ext'd&nbsp;(LBA)<br>
217     /dev/hdb4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14727&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;30401&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
218     /dev/hdb5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;5485&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;14726&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</p>
219     <!--empty-line-->
220     <p>Ok, this clears things up. The first disk contains three Windows XP partitions (NTFS) and a Linux Swap partition. In fact, <b>/dev/hda1</b> is the system "disk" for Windows, since Windows will always be installed in the first partition of the primary master disk.<br><br>
221     <!--empty-line-->
222     The second disk, on the other hand, contains a Linux partition (<b>/dev/hdb1</b>), a Linux Swap partition <b>/dev/hdb2</b>, and an extended partition <b>/dev/hdb3</b> which contains two more Linux partitions (<b>/dev/hdb4</b> and <b>/dev/hdb5</b>).<br><br>
223     <!--empty-line-->
224     The final thing we need to know about this system is what CD/DVD-ROMs it has. So I execute the command:</p>
225     <!--empty-line-->
226     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
227     CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
228     <br>
229     drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdd</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hdc</font><br>
230     drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;126<br>
231     drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
232     Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
233     Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
234     Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
235     Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
236     Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
237     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
238     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
239     Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
240     Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
241     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
242     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
243     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
244     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
245     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
246     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
247     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
248     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1</p>
249     <!--empty-line-->
250     <p>The system has two DVD-ROMs, <b><font color="Red">hdc</font></b> which is the secondary master and is a DVD writer, and <b><font color="Red">hdd</font></b> which is the secondary slave and is a DVD reader.<br><br>
251     <!--empty-line-->
252     At this point I will connect my USB stick, wait for a while and execute the command:</p>
253     <!--empty-line-->
254     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
255     major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
256     <br>
257     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;hda<br>
258     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;hda1<br>
259     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;hda2<br>
260     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;hda3<br>
261     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;hda4<br>
262     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;hdb<br>
263     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;hdb1<br>
264     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;hdb2<br>
265     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;hdb3<br>
266     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;hdb4<br>
267     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;hdb5<br>
268     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1007615&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
269     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1006576&nbsp;sda4</p>
270     <!--empty-line-->
271     <p>As you can see, we have two more lines here, that reflect the changes to our system (the connection of the USB device). So my USB stick is recognized by the system as <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b>, and the disk itself contains a VFAT file system.</p>
272    
273    
274    
275    
276    
277    
278    
279    
280     <!-- Example 2 -->
281     <H3><a name="annex-a-ex2"></a>Example 2 [<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
282     <p>The second system is a Linux box with one SCSI disk and a CD-ROM. Again I issue the command:</p>
283     <!--empty-line-->
284     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
285     major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
286     <br>
287     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;156290904&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
288     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228&nbsp;sda1<br>
289     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda2<br>
290     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda3<br>
291     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;sda4</p>
292     <!--empty-line-->
293     <p>From its output I see I only have one disk <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b>, which contains four partitions.<br><br>
294     <!--empty-line-->
295     Then I execute <b>fdisk</b>, which shows me that the disk contains one DOS and three Linux partitions.</p>
296     <!--empty-line-->
297     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">fdisk -l /dev/sda</font><br>
298     Disk /dev/sda: 160.0 GB, 160041885696 bytes<br>
299     255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19457 cylinders<br>
300     Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes<br>
301     <br>
302     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
303     /dev/sda1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT16<br>
304     /dev/sda2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1967&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
305     /dev/sda3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1968&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3926&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
306     /dev/sda4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3927&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;19456&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</p>
307     <!--empty-line-->
308     <p>Finally I query its CD-ROMs, by executing the command:</p>
309     <!--empty-line-->
310     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
311     CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
312     <br>
313     drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">hda</font><br>
314     drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
315     drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
316     Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
317     Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
318     Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
319     Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
320     Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
321     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
322     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
323     Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
324     Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
325     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
326     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
327     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
328     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
329     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
330     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
331     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
332     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0</p>
333     <!--empty-line-->
334     <p>Which tells me that I only have an IDE CD-ROM, (<b><font color="Red">hda</font></b>), which is actually a CD writer.<br><br>
335     <!--empty-line-->
336     Then I connect my USB stick, and I get:</p>
337     <!--empty-line-->
338     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
339     major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
340     <br>
341     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;156290904&nbsp;sda<br>
342     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64228&nbsp;sda1<br>
343     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda2<br>
344     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;15735667&nbsp;sda3<br>
345     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;124744725&nbsp;sda4<br>
346     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1007615&nbsp;<font color="Red">sdb</font><br>
347     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;20&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1006576&nbsp;sdb4</p>
348     <!--empty-line-->
349     <p>Although it's the same stick I used with the previous system, which was recognized as <b><font color="Red">sda</font></b> there, now its name is <b><font color="Red">sdb</font></b>. So, its name depends on the system it is connected to, and will not always be the same.</p>
350    
351    
352    
353    
354     <!-- SCSI - ATA -->
355     <H2><a name="annex-a-scsi-ata"></a>SCSI disks when there are none!!! <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-a-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
356     <p>I am confused!!! I am on a disk with two ATA (PATA) disks, but when I query the partition list, this is what I get:</p>
357     <!--empty-line-->
358     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat&nbsp;/proc/partitions</font><br>
359     major&nbsp;minor&nbsp;&nbsp;#blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;name<br>
360     <br>
361     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;312571224&nbsp;<font color="Red">sda</font><br>
362     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;23446836&nbsp;sda1<br>
363     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;40957717&nbsp;sda2<br>
364     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;245240257&nbsp;sda3<br>
365     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2923830&nbsp;sda4<br>
366     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;&nbsp;244198584&nbsp;<font color="Red">sdb</font><br>
367     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;65&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;41945683&nbsp;sdb1<br>
368     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;66&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2104515&nbsp;sdb2<br>
369     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;sdb3<br>
370     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;68&nbsp;&nbsp;125909437&nbsp;sdb4<br>
371     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;69&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;74236333&nbsp;sdb5</p>
372     <!--empty-line-->
373     <p>According to what's discussed up to now, the system seems to have two SCSI disks, but I know it actually has two ATA (PATA) disks. What's going on?.<br><br>
374     <!--empty-line-->
375     What is really happening here is that you have one of the newest Linux kernels (using the libata disk driver), which shows <b>ALL</b> disks as SCSI. That does not mean that the system thinks it has SCSI disks, it just names them as such.<br><br>
376     <!--empty-line-->
377     To make is clear, execute the commands:</p>
378     <!--empty-line-->
379     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sda</font><br>
380     <br>
381     /dev/sda:<br>
382     <br>
383     &nbsp;Model=WDC&nbsp;WD3200AAJB-00TYA0,&nbsp;FwRev=00.02C01,&nbsp;SerialNo=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;WD-WCAPZ0648927<br>
384     &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;HardSect&nbsp;NotMFM&nbsp;HdSw>15uSec&nbsp;SpinMotCtl&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;DTR>5Mbs&nbsp;FmtGapReq&nbsp;}<br>
385     &nbsp;RawCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;TrkSize=0,&nbsp;SectSize=0,&nbsp;ECCbytes=50<br>
386     &nbsp;BuffType=unknown,&nbsp;BuffSize=8192kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=16,&nbsp;MultSect=?16?<br>
387     &nbsp;CurCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;CurSects=16514064,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=268435455<br>
388     &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
389     &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
390     &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
391     &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4&nbsp;*udma5<br>
392     &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no&nbsp;WriteCache=enabled<br>
393     &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;Unspecified:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-1,2,3,4,5,6,7</font><br>
394     <br>
395     &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode<br>
396     <br>
397     <br>
398     # <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sdb</font><br>
399     <br>
400     /dev/sdb:<br>
401     <br>
402     &nbsp;Model=WDC&nbsp;WD2500JB-00GVC0,&nbsp;FwRev=08.02D08,&nbsp;SerialNo=&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;WD-WCAL76141931<br>
403     &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;HardSect&nbsp;NotMFM&nbsp;HdSw>15uSec&nbsp;SpinMotCtl&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;DTR>5Mbs&nbsp;FmtGapReq&nbsp;}<br>
404     &nbsp;RawCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;TrkSize=57600,&nbsp;SectSize=600,&nbsp;ECCbytes=74<br>
405     &nbsp;BuffType=DualPortCache,&nbsp;BuffSize=8192kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=16,&nbsp;MultSect=?16?<br>
406     &nbsp;CurCHS=16383/16/63,&nbsp;CurSects=16514064,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=268435455<br>
407     &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
408     &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio1&nbsp;pio2&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
409     &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
410     &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4&nbsp;*udma5<br>
411     &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no&nbsp;WriteCache=enabled<br>
412     &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;Unspecified:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-1,2,3,4,5,6</font><br>
413     <br>
414     &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode</p>
415     <!--empty-line-->
416     <p>This is also valid for the CDs/DVDs of the system:</p>
417     <!--empty-line-->
418     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">cat /proc/sys/dev/cdrom/info</font><br>
419     CD-ROM information, Id: cdrom.c 3.20 2003/12/17<br>
420     <br>
421     drive&nbsp;name:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">sr1</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">sr0</font><br>
422     drive&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;126<br>
423     drive&nbsp;#&nbsp;of&nbsp;slots:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
424     Can&nbsp;close&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
425     Can&nbsp;open&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
426     Can&nbsp;lock&nbsp;tray:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
427     Can&nbsp;change&nbsp;speed:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
428     Can&nbsp;select&nbsp;disk:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
429     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;multisession:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
430     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MCN:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
431     Reports&nbsp;media&nbsp;changed:&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
432     Can&nbsp;play&nbsp;audio:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
433     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
434     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;CD-RW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
435     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;DVD:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
436     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-R:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
437     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;DVD-RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1<br>
438     Can&nbsp;read&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
439     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;MRW:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0<br>
440     Can&nbsp;write&nbsp;RAM:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1</p>
441     <!--empty-line-->
442     <p>While the <b><font color="Green">hdparm</font></b> shows they are ATA devices:</p>
443     <!--empty-line-->
444     <p class="newcode"># <font color="Green">hdparm&nbsp;-i&nbsp;/dev/sr0</font><br>
445     <br>
446     /dev/sr0:<br>
447     <br>
448     &nbsp;Model=HL-DT-ST&nbsp;DVDRAM&nbsp;GSA-H42L,&nbsp;FwRev=SL01&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;,&nbsp;SerialNo=K286CQF2231&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<br>
449     &nbsp;Config={&nbsp;Fixed&nbsp;Removeable&nbsp;DTR<=5Mbs&nbsp;DTR>10Mbs&nbsp;nonMagnetic&nbsp;}<br>
450     &nbsp;RawCHS=0/0/0,&nbsp;TrkSize=0,&nbsp;SectSize=0,&nbsp;ECCbytes=0<br>
451     &nbsp;BuffType=unknown,&nbsp;BuffSize=0kB,&nbsp;MaxMultSect=0<br>
452     &nbsp;(maybe):&nbsp;CurCHS=0/0/0,&nbsp;CurSects=0,&nbsp;LBA=yes,&nbsp;LBAsects=0<br>
453     &nbsp;IORDY=on/off,&nbsp;tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120},&nbsp;tDMA={min:120,rec:120}<br>
454     &nbsp;PIO&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;pio0&nbsp;pio3&nbsp;pio4<br>
455     &nbsp;DMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;&nbsp;mdma0&nbsp;mdma1&nbsp;mdma2<br>
456     &nbsp;UDMA&nbsp;modes:&nbsp;udma0&nbsp;udma1&nbsp;*udma2&nbsp;udma3&nbsp;udma4<br>
457     &nbsp;AdvancedPM=no<br>
458     &nbsp;Drive&nbsp;conforms&nbsp;to:&nbsp;unknown:&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">ATA/ATAPI-4,5,6,7</font><br>
459     <br>
460     &nbsp;*&nbsp;signifies&nbsp;the&nbsp;current&nbsp;active&nbsp;mode<br>
461     <br></p>
462    
463    
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