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revision 145 by sng, Thu Oct 7 09:19:52 2010 UTC revision 159 by sng, Thu Mar 10 18:35:48 2011 UTC
# Line 3  Line 3 
3  <head>  <head>
4  <link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="RSS" href="http://clonezilla-sysresccd.hellug.gr/clonezilla-sysresccd.rss">  <link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="RSS" href="http://clonezilla-sysresccd.hellug.gr/clonezilla-sysresccd.rss">
5  <link rel="shortcut icon" href="favicon.ico">  <link rel="shortcut icon" href="favicon.ico">
6  <title>Clonezilla-SysRescCD - Wellcome</title>  <title>Clonezilla-SysRescCD - Welcome</title>
7    <style type="text/css">    <style type="text/css">
8      body { font-family: Arial, 'sans serif';  color: black;  font-size: 12pt; background : fixed no-repeat; background-color: #333333; padding: 0; margin: 0; margin-top: 5px;  margin-bottom: 5px; }      body { font-family: Arial, 'sans serif';  color: black;  font-size: 12pt; background : fixed no-repeat; background-color: #333333; padding: 0; margin: 0; margin-top: 5px;  margin-bottom: 5px; }
9        
# Line 68  Line 68 
68  <link href="warning.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />  <link href="warning.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
69  <!--  <!--
70  The file waring.css exists only in the root of the site  The file waring.css exists only in the root of the site
71  and it hides the BETA warnings. Its contents are  and it hides the UNSTABLE warnings. Its contents are
72      #warning { display: none; }      #warning { display: none; }
73  -->  -->
74  <META NAME="Keywords" CONTENT="multiboot Multi Boot bootable cd rescue clonezilla sysresccd backup restore samba">  <META NAME="Keywords" CONTENT="multiboot Multi Boot bootable cd rescue clonezilla sysresccd backup restore samba">
# Line 77  and it hides the BETA warnings. Its cont Line 77  and it hides the BETA warnings. Its cont
77  <body>  <body>
78  <div id="warning" align="center">  <div id="warning" align="center">
79  WARNING<br>  WARNING<br>
80  This is the BETA version of Clonezilla-SysRescCD<br>  This is the UNSTABLE version of Clonezilla-SysRescCD<br>
81  To acces our current stable version, please click <a href="../index.html">here</a>  To access our current stable version, please click <a href="../index.html">here</a>
82  </div>  </div>
83  <div id="header">  <div id="header">
84  <div id="lphp" style=""><a target="_blank" title="Display all in one long page" href="onepage.html"><img src="images/chain.png" border="0" /></a><a target="_blank" title="Display printable page" href="printable.php"><img src="images/print_it.png" border="0" /></a></div>  <div id="lphp" style=""><a target="_blank" title="Display all in one long page" href="onepage.html"><img src="images/chain.png" border="0" /></a><a target="_blank" title="Display printable page" href="printable.php"><img src="images/print_it.png" border="0" /></a></div>
85  <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>  <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>
86  <H3>Wellcome</H3>  <H3>Welcome</H3>
87    <div style="margin:0; padding: 3px; width: 980; position relative;">    <div style="margin:0; padding: 3px; width: 980; position relative;">
88      <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>30/09/2010 - v 3.2.0</H4></div>      <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>30/09/2010 - v 3.2.0</H4></div>
89      <div style="position: absolute; right: 0px;"><H4>Last update: 07/10/2010</H4></div>      <div style="position: absolute; right: 0px;"><H4>Last update: 10/03/2011</H4></div>
90    </div>    </div>
91  </div>  </div>
92  <div id="linkline">  <div id="linkline">
# Line 536  You will have to</p> Line 536  You will have to</p>
536  </ul>  </ul>
537  <p>Now all you have to do is make your USB disk bootable. In order to do that you have to open a DOS window (in Windows XP press "<b>Start / Run </b>" and type <b>cmd</b>). Then type at DOS prompt:</p>  <p>Now all you have to do is make your USB disk bootable. In order to do that you have to open a DOS window (in Windows XP press "<b>Start / Run </b>" and type <b>cmd</b>). Then type at DOS prompt:</p>
538  <p class="newcode"><font color="Green">K:</font><br>  <p class="newcode"><font color="Green">K:</font><br>
539  cd bootprog<br>  cd utils/bootprog<br>
540  syslinux -ma <font color="Green">K:</font></p>  syslinux -ma <font color="Green">K:</font></p>
541  <H3><a name="booting"></a>Booting from USB <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#usb-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>  <H3><a name="booting"></a>Booting from USB <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#usb-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
542  <p>Before trying to boot from your USB device, you have to set your boot device at your BIOS. This means you have to reboot having your USB device connected, get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL) and make the appropriate settings in the BOOT section.<br><br>  <p>Before trying to boot from your USB device, you have to set your boot device at your BIOS. This means you have to reboot having your USB device connected, get into your BIOS (usually pressing DEL) and make the appropriate settings in the BOOT section.<br><br>
# Line 1324  ocs-live</p> Line 1324  ocs-live</p>
1324  </ul>  </ul>
1325  <a name="backup-top"></a>  <a name="backup-top"></a>
1326  <H2 style="font-size: 2em;"><a name="backup-intro"></a>Getting backups <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>  <H2 style="font-size: 2em;"><a name="backup-intro"></a>Getting backups <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
1327  <p>In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting a backup of a virtual partition (<b>/dev/<font color="Red">sdb1</font></b>). The image file will be saved in another virtual partition (<b>/dev/<font color="Red">sda1</font></b>).<br></p>  <p>In this page I will demonstrate the creation of an image file by getting a backup of a virtual disk (<b>/dev/<font color="Red">sdb</font></b>). The image file will be saved in a partition in another virtual disk (<b>/dev/<font color="Red">sda1</font></b>).<br></p>
1328  <p>  <p>
1329  The first thing you do when you want to get a backup of a disk/partition, is make sure both the souce (to be backed up) and target (to hold the image file) partitions are in excellent condition (error free). This is the logical thing to do, cause I wouldn't want to backup a corrupt partition, or end up with a corrupt image file.<br>  The first thing you do when you want to get a backup of a disk/partition, is make sure both the souce (to be backed up) and target (to hold the image file) partitions are in excellent condition (error free). This is the logical thing to do, cause I wouldn't want to backup a corrupt partition, or end up with a corrupt image file.<br>
1330  <br>  <br>
# Line 1387  This screen displays the mounting result Line 1387  This screen displays the mounting result
1387  As we can see, <font color="Red"><b>/dev/sda1</b></font> has been successfully mounted under <b>/tmp/local-dev</b>.</p>  As we can see, <font color="Red"><b>/dev/sda1</b></font> has been successfully mounted under <b>/tmp/local-dev</b>.</p>
1388  <H3><a name="bck-7a"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="bck-7a"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
1389  <p><img src="images/backup-09.png">  <p><img src="images/backup-09.png">
1390  <br>I select <font color="Red"><b>Beginer mode</b></font> to accept the default backup options. If you select <font color="Red"><b>Expert mode</b></font>, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be found <a href="clonezilla.html#backup-options" target="_blank">here</a>.</p>  <br>I select <font color="Red"><b>Beginner mode</b></font> to accept the default backup options. If you select <font color="Red"><b>Expert mode</b></font>, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be found <a href="clonezilla.html#backup-options" target="_blank">here</a>.</p>
1391  <H3><a name="bck-8"></a>Screen "Select mode" [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="bck-8"></a>Screen "Select mode" [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
1392  <p>Here I can select the desired operation.<br>  <p>Here I can select the desired operation.<br>
1393  <br>  <br>
# Line 1400  I type "Backup_32-2010_sdb", which in my Line 1400  I type "Backup_32-2010_sdb", which in my
1400  </p>  </p>
1401  <H3><a name="bck-10"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="bck-10"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
1402  <p><img src="images/backup-12.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/backup-12.png"><br>
1403  Finally I am asked to select the partition to save.<br>  Finally I am asked to select the disk to save.<br>
1404  I just press ENTER again.  I just press ENTER again.
1405  </p>  </p>
1406  <H3><a name="bck-11"></a>Starting the backup [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="bck-11"></a>Starting the backup [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
# Line 1480  I will be able to continue only after en Line 1480  I will be able to continue only after en
1480  <img src="images/backup-smb-11.png"></p>  <img src="images/backup-smb-11.png"></p>
1481  <H3><a name="bck-smb-7a"></a>Screen "Clonezilla - Opensource Clone System (OCS)" [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="bck-smb-7a"></a>Screen "Clonezilla - Opensource Clone System (OCS)" [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
1482  <p><img src="images/backup-09.png">  <p><img src="images/backup-09.png">
1483  <br>I select <font color="Red"><b>Beginer mode</b></font> to accept the default backup options. If you select <font color="Red"><b>Expert mode</b></font>, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be found <a href="clonezilla.html#backup-options" target="_blank">here</a>.</p>  <br>I select <font color="Red"><b>Beginner mode</b></font> to accept the default backup options. If you select <font color="Red"><b>Expert mode</b></font>, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be found <a href="clonezilla.html#backup-options" target="_blank">here</a>.</p>
1484  <H3><a name="bck-smb-8"></a>Screen "Select mode" [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="bck-smb-8"></a>Screen "Select mode" [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
1485  <p>Here I can select the desired operation.<br>  <p>Here I can select the desired operation.<br>
1486  <br>  <br>
# Line 1493  I type "Backup_32-2010_sdb", which in my Line 1493  I type "Backup_32-2010_sdb", which in my
1493  </p>  </p>
1494  <H3><a name="bck-smb-10"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="bck-smb-10"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
1495  <p><img src="images/backup-12.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/backup-12.png"><br>
1496  Finally I am asked to select the partition to save.<br>  Finally I am asked to select the disk to save.<br>
1497  I just press ENTER again.  I just press ENTER again.
1498  </p>  </p>
1499  <H3><a name="bck-smb-11"></a>Starting the backup [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="bck-smb-11"></a>Starting the backup [<a href="#backup-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
# Line 1574  This screen displays the mounting result Line 1574  This screen displays the mounting result
1574  As we can see, <font color="Red"><b>/dev/sda1</b></font> has been successfully mounted under <b>/tmp/local-dev</b>.</p>  As we can see, <font color="Red"><b>/dev/sda1</b></font> has been successfully mounted under <b>/tmp/local-dev</b>.</p>
1575  <H3><a name="res-7a"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="res-7a"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
1576  <p><img src="images/backup-09.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/backup-09.png"><br>
1577  I select <font color="Red"><b>Beginer mode</b></font> to accept the default restore options. If you select <font color="Red"><b>Expert mode</b></font>, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be found <a href="clonezilla.html#restore-options" target="_blank">here</a>.</p>  I select <font color="Red"><b>Beginner mode</b></font> to accept the default restore options. If you select <font color="Red"><b>Expert mode</b></font>, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be found <a href="clonezilla.html#restore-options" target="_blank">here</a>.</p>
1578  <H3><a name="res-8"></a>Screen "Select mode" [<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="res-8"></a>Screen "Select mode" [<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
1579  <p>Here I can select the desired operation.<br>  <p>Here I can select the desired operation.<br>
1580  <br>  <br>
# Line 1585  I select "<font color="Red"><b>restoredi Line 1585  I select "<font color="Red"><b>restoredi
1585  In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only one image.</p>  In this screen I select the image folder. This partition contains only one image.</p>
1586  <H3><a name="res-10"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="res-10"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
1587  <p><img src="images/restoration-12.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/restoration-12.png"><br>
1588  Finally I am asked to select which partition the image will be restored to. After double-checking the disk doesn't contain anything important, I press ENTER.</p>  Finally I am asked to select which disk the image will be restored to. After double-checking the disk doesn't contain anything important, I press ENTER.</p>
1589  <H3><a name="res-11"></a>Starting the restoration [<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="res-11"></a>Starting the restoration [<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
1590  <p><img src="images/restoration-13.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/restoration-13.png"><br>
1591  Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will ask me to press ENTER. <br>  Then the program will display the command that will be executed and will ask me to press ENTER. <br>
# Line 1608  reboot<br><br></p> Line 1608  reboot<br><br></p>
1608  <p>to reboot the system.</p>  <p>to reboot the system.</p>
1609  <a name="restore-top"></a>  <a name="restore-top"></a>
1610  <H2 style="font-size: 2em;"><a name="restore-intro"></a>Creating a Restore DVD - Part 1 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>  <H2 style="font-size: 2em;"><a name="restore-intro"></a>Creating a Restore DVD - Part 1 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
1611  <p>Assuming you have used <b>Clonezilla Live</b> to make a backup of your Windows XP system (partition <b>/dev/<font color="Red">sda1</font></b>), you will probably be wondering what to do with it now. Well, one option would be to keep it to the disk you used to save it in, store the disk, and use it whenever you need it. Another option would be to create a DVD you can use to restore this image.<br><br>  <p>Assuming you have used <b>Clonezilla Live</b> to make a backup of your system (disk <b>/dev/<font color="Red">sdb</font></b>), you will probably be wondering what to do with it now. Well, one option would be to keep it to the disk you used to save it in, store the disk, and use it whenever you need it. Another option would be to create a DVD you can use to restore this image.<br><br>
1612  Before, up to <b>Clonezilla-SysRescCD 2.6.0</b>, the process to create an automated restore DVD required entering command line prompt and writing some commands, that can be uncomfortable or even difficult for many people.<br><br>  Before, up to <b>Clonezilla-SysRescCD 2.6.0</b>, the process to create an automated restore DVD required entering command line prompt and writing some commands, which can be uncomfortable or even difficult for many people.<br><br>
1613  Later, a TUI option to create an automated recovery disc was added to <b>Clonezilla Live</b>, and <b>ocs-iso</b> script included in <b>Clonezilla-SysRescCD 3.1.0</b> and newer has a TUI too. Old command-line options are no longer supported. This page walks you through the creation of an automated restore DVD via TUI.<br><br>  Later, a TUI option to create an automated recovery disc was added to <b>Clonezilla Live</b>, and <b>ocs-iso</b> script included in <b>Clonezilla-SysRescCD 3.1.0</b> and newer has a TUI too. Old command-line options are no longer supported. This page walks you through the creation of an automated restore DVD via TUI.<br><br>
1614  You have to boot <b>Clonezilla Live</b>, using <b>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</b>.</p>  You have to boot <b>Clonezilla Live</b>, using <b>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</b>.</p>
1615  <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/info.png"></td><td>  <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/info.png"></td><td>
# Line 1666  This screen displays the mounting result Line 1666  This screen displays the mounting result
1666  As we can see, <font color="Red"><b>/dev/sda1</b></font> has been successfully mounted under <b>/tmp/local-dev</b>.</p>  As we can see, <font color="Red"><b>/dev/sda1</b></font> has been successfully mounted under <b>/tmp/local-dev</b>.</p>
1667  <H3><a name="rui-7a"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="rui-7a"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
1668  <p><img src="images/backup-09.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/backup-09.png"><br>
1669  I select <font color="Red"><b>Beginer mode</b></font> to accept the default restore options, which are used if the recovery disk is ever used. If you select <font color="Red"><b>Expert mode</b></font>, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be found <a href="clonezilla.html#restore-options" target="_blank">here</a>.</p>  I select <font color="Red"><b>Beginner mode</b></font> to accept the default restore options, which are used if the recovery disk is ever used. If you select <font color="Red"><b>Expert mode</b></font>, you can choose the options yourself. More details can be found <a href="clonezilla.html#restore-options" target="_blank">here</a>.</p>
1670  <H3><a name="rui-8"></a>Screen "Clonezilla: Select mode" [<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="rui-8"></a>Screen "Clonezilla: Select mode" [<a href="#restore-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
1671  <p>Here I can select the desired operation.<br>  <p>Here I can select the desired operation.<br>
1672  <br>  <br>
# Line 1743  That's it. You own now an automated reco Line 1743  That's it. You own now an automated reco
1743  <img src="images/k3b-00.png"><br>  <img src="images/k3b-00.png"><br>
1744  I launch <b>K3b</b> and navigate to the folder where the disk image resides.<br><br>  I launch <b>K3b</b> and navigate to the folder where the disk image resides.<br><br>
1745  <img src="images/k3b-01.png"><br>  <img src="images/k3b-01.png"><br>
1746  I double-click the file <b>clonezilla-live-<font color="Green">Backup_5-2010_hda</font>.iso</b>.<br><br>  I double-click the file <b>clonezilla-live-<font color="Green">Backup_42-2010_sda</font>.iso</b>.<br><br>
1747  <img src="images/k3b-02.png"><br>  <img src="images/k3b-02.png"><br>
1748  This window allows me to choose burning settings. I don't touch <b>Image Type</b> or <b>Burn Medium</b>, because they're auto-detected anyway. The maximum burning speed allowed by the disc is 16x, so I choose speed 12x. According to <a href="http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/" target="_blank">this forum thread</a> low burning speed can decrease burning quality, so I always use speed near the maximum speed of the disc.<br><br>  This window allows me to choose burning settings. I don't touch <b>Image Type</b> or <b>Burn Medium</b>, because they're auto-detected anyway. The maximum burning speed allowed by the disc is 16x, so I choose speed 12x. According to <a href="http://club.myce.com/f33/high-speed-vs-low-speed-burning-69698/" target="_blank">this forum thread</a> low burning speed can decrease burning quality, so I always use speed near the maximum speed of the disc.<br><br>
1749  I keep <b>Writing Mode</b> as Auto and number of copies as 1. I also keep the <b>Simulate</b> option disabled and enable the <b>Verify written data</b> option. The latter allows me to notice immediately if the burning attempt failed, so I can try burning the disc again, rather than owning a so-called coaster and relying on it if something happens to my data...<br><br>  I keep <b>Writing Mode</b> as Auto and number of copies as 1. I also keep the <b>Simulate</b> option disabled and enable the <b>Verify written data</b> option. The latter allows me to notice immediately if the burning attempt failed, so I can try burning the disc again, rather than owning a so-called coaster and relying on it if something happens to my data...<br><br>
# Line 1773  The command below erases all the data on Line 1773  The command below erases all the data on
1773  <p><b>Note:</b> In the command replace <b>/dev/<font color="Green">sdc1</font></b> with the partition you wish to format.</p>  <p><b>Note:</b> In the command replace <b>/dev/<font color="Green">sdc1</font></b> with the partition you wish to format.</p>
1774  <p>After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32, extract the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Also these commands need root rights.</p>  <p>After formatting the partition or noticing that it was already FAT32, extract the ZIP archive to the root of the partition. Also these commands need root rights.</p>
1775  <p class="newcode">mount /dev/<font color="Green">sdc1</font> /media/usb<br>  <p class="newcode">mount /dev/<font color="Green">sdc1</font> /media/usb<br>
1776  unzip clonezilla-live-<font color="Green">Backup_5-2010_hdb</font>.zip -d /media/usb/</p>  unzip clonezilla-live-<font color="Green">Backup_42-2010_sdb</font>.zip -d /media/usb/</p>
1777  <p><b>Note:</b> In the last command I have assumed your image file is <b>clonezilla-live-<font color="Green">Backup_5-2010_hdb</font>.zip</b>. You will have to replace this with the actual name of the file.</p>  <p><b>Note:</b> In the last command I have assumed your image file is <b>clonezilla-live-<font color="Green">Backup_42-2010_sdb</font>.zip</b>. You will have to replace this with the actual name of the file.</p>
1778  <p>ZIP package contains a script to make the USB drive bootable. Let's run it. The latter of these commands needs root access.</p>  <p>ZIP package contains a script to make the USB drive bootable. Let's run it. The latter of these commands needs root access.</p>
1779  <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/important.png"></td><td>  <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/important.png"></td><td>
1780  The latter of the commands below replaces the<br>existing bootloader of the target disk, if there is one.<br><br>Make sure you don't select a wrong disk by accident.  The latter of the commands below replaces the<br>existing bootloader of the target disk, if there is one.<br><br>Make sure you don't select a wrong disk by accident.
# Line 2108  dd if=/mnt/usb/<font color="Green">Backu Line 2108  dd if=/mnt/usb/<font color="Green">Backu
2108    
2109  <p>It tells how many hard drives you have, how many partitions they contain and what filesystems the partitions use. If you know, for example, that the disk where you've saved the disk image contains only one partition, look for such disks.</p>  <p>It tells how many hard drives you have, how many partitions they contain and what filesystems the partitions use. If you know, for example, that the disk where you've saved the disk image contains only one partition, look for such disks.</p>
2110    
2111  <H3><a name="ntldr-vista"></a>Using Bootrec.exe (Windows Vista/7 only) <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>  <H3><a name="ntldr-7"></a>Using Bootrec.exe (Windows Vista/7 only) <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
2112    
2113  <p>You need Windows Vista/7 install disc for this. If you don't have one (for example, if you bought a laptop that was bundled with preinstalled Windows and manufacturer's recovery disc), download a recovery disc from <a href="http://neosmart.net/blog/2008/windows-vista-recovery-disc-download/" target="_blank">here</a>.<br>  <p>You need Windows Vista/7 install disc for this. If you don't have one (for example, if you bought a laptop that was bundled with preinstalled Windows and manufacturer's recovery disc), download a recovery disc from <a href="http://neosmart.net/blog/2008/windows-vista-recovery-disc-download/" target="_blank">here</a>.<br>
2114  <br>  <br>
2115  Then boot from the disc. After selecting language, time, currency and keyboard, click <b>Repair your computer</b>. You'll get a list of operating systems you're able to repair. Choose any of them; that choice doesn't matter.<br>  Then boot from the disc.</p>
2116  <br>  
2117  After that, you'll see a dialog box named <b>System Recovery Options</b>. Click <b>Command Prompt</b>. Then you only need to execute one command:</p>  <p><img src="images/windows7-00.png"><br>
2118    After selecting language, time, currency and keyboard, click <b>Next</b>.</p>
2119    
2120    <p><img src="images/windows7-01.png"><br>
2121    Click <b>Repair your computer</b>.</p>
2122    
2123    <p><img src="images/windows7-02.png"><br>
2124    Choose the option <b>Use recovery tools that can help fix problems starting Windows</b> and click <b>Next</b>.</p>
2125    
2126    <p><img src="images/windows7-03.png"><br>
2127    You'll see a dialog box named <b>System Recovery Options</b>. Click <b>Command Prompt</b>.</p>
2128    
2129    <p><img src="images/windows7-04.png"><br>
2130    Then you only need to execute one command:</p>
2131    
2132  <p class="newcode">Bootrec /FixMbr</p>  <p class="newcode">Bootrec /FixMbr</p>
2133    
2134  <p><b>Note:</b> The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example, "<b>bootrec /fixmbr</b>".</p>  <p><b>Note:</b> The command is case-insensitive. You can type, for example, "<b>bootrec /fixmbr</b>".</p>
2135    
2136    <p><img src="images/windows7-05.png"><br>
2137    </p>
2138    
2139  <H3><a name="ntldr-xp"></a>Using FIXMBR (Windows XP only) <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>  <H3><a name="ntldr-xp"></a>Using FIXMBR (Windows XP only) <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
2140    
2141  <p>You need Windows XP install disc. Boot from it, and when you see the screen "Windows XP Home Edition Setup" or "Windows XP Professional Setup", press <font color="Red"><b>R</b></font> to enter the Recovery Console. Then choose the Windows installation you want to log onto. If you have only one copy of Windows installed, press <font color="Red"><b>1</b></font> and ENTER. After that, enter the administator password and press ENTER.<br>  <p>You need Windows XP install disc. Boot from it, and when you see the screen "Windows XP Home Edition Setup" or "Windows XP Professional Setup", press <font color="Red"><b>R</b></font> to enter the Recovery Console. Then choose the Windows installation you want to log onto. If you have only one copy of Windows installed, press <font color="Red"><b>1</b></font> and ENTER. After that, enter the administator password and press ENTER.<br>
# Line 2136  There is only one command to run:</p> Line 2152  There is only one command to run:</p>
2152  <br>  <br>
2153  Don't worry, <b>Super Grub Disk</b> makes it possible. Boot into it.</p>  Don't worry, <b>Super Grub Disk</b> makes it possible. Boot into it.</p>
2154    
2155  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-01.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-01.png"><br>
2156  Just choose the option "<font color="Red"><b>!WIN!&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;:(((</b></font>" and press ENTER.<br>  Just choose the option "<font color="Red"><b>!WIN!&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;:(((</b></font>" and press ENTER.<br>
2157  <br>  <br>
2158  When you have Windows up and running, download the boot disk image appropriate to your version of Windows from <a href="http://www.bootdisk.com/bootdisk.htm" target="_blank">Bootdisk.Com</a>. Then put a floppy to your floppy drive.<br>  When you have Windows up and running, download the boot disk image appropriate to your version of Windows from <a href="http://www.bootdisk.com/bootdisk.htm" target="_blank">Bootdisk.Com</a>. Then put a floppy to your floppy drive.<br>
# Line 2162  Maybe the easiest way to do so is instal Line 2178  Maybe the easiest way to do so is instal
2178  <br>  <br>
2179  Boot into <b>Super Grub Disk</b>.</p>  Boot into <b>Super Grub Disk</b>.</p>
2180    
2181  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-01a.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-01a.png"><br>
2182  Choose the option "<font color="Red"><b>WIN => MBR & !WIN!&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;:(((((((((((((((((((((</b></font>" and press ENTER. Windows will be booted automatically right after installing syslinux.</p>  Choose the option "<font color="Red"><b>WIN => MBR & !WIN!&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;:(((((((((((((((((((((</b></font>" and press ENTER. Windows will be booted automatically right after installing syslinux.</p>
2183    
2184    
# Line 2173  Choose the option "<font color="Red"><b> Line 2189  Choose the option "<font color="Red"><b>
2189    
2190  <p>Contrary to various ways to restore NTLDR, there is only one way to install GRUB I recommend. That's <b>Super Grub Disk</b>, because it contains GRUB no matter what has happened to the hard drive(s). First, I boot into it.</p>  <p>Contrary to various ways to restore NTLDR, there is only one way to install GRUB I recommend. That's <b>Super Grub Disk</b>, because it contains GRUB no matter what has happened to the hard drive(s). First, I boot into it.</p>
2191    
2192  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-01b.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-01b.png"><br>
2193  I select "<font color="Red"><b>Choose Language & HELP&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;:-)))</b></font>" and press ENTER.</p>  I select "<font color="Red"><b>Choose Language & HELP&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;:-)))</b></font>" and press ENTER.</p>
2194    
2195  <H3><a name="grub-1"></a>Screen "S.G.D. Language Selection." [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="grub-1"></a>Screen "S.G.D. Language Selection." [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
2196    
2197  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-02.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-02.png"><br>
2198  I select "<font color="Red"><b>English Super Grub Disk</b></font>" and press ENTER.</p>  I select "<font color="Red"><b>English Super Grub Disk</b></font>" and press ENTER.</p>
2199    
2200  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-03.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-03.png"><br>
2201  I press ENTER...</p>  I press ENTER...</p>
2202    
2203  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-04.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-04.png"><br>
2204  ...and then ENTER again...</p>  ...and then ENTER again...</p>
2205    
2206  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-05.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-05.png"><br>
2207  ...and then ENTER once again...</p>  ...and then ENTER once again...</p>
2208    
2209  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-06.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-06.png"><br>
2210  ...and finally ENTER one more time.</p>  ...and finally ENTER one more time.</p>
2211    
2212  <H3><a name="grub-2"></a>Screen "English Super Grub Disk (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="grub-2"></a>Screen "English Super Grub Disk (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
2213    
2214  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-07.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-07.png"><br>
2215  I select "<font color="Red"><b>Advanced</b></font>".</p>  I select "<font color="Red"><b>Advanced</b></font>".</p>
2216    
2217  <H3><a name="grub-3"></a>Screen "Advanced (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="grub-3"></a>Screen "Advanced (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
2218    
2219  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-08.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-08.png"><br>
2220  I select "<font color="Red"><b>GRUB</b></font>" and press ENTER.</p>  I select "<font color="Red"><b>GRUB</b></font>" and press ENTER.</p>
2221    
2222  <H3><a name="grub-4"></a>Screen "GRUB (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="grub-4"></a>Screen "GRUB (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
2223    
2224  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-09.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-09.png"><br>
2225  I select "<font color="Red"><b>Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)</b></font>" and press ENTER...</p>  I select "<font color="Red"><b>Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)</b></font>" and press ENTER...</p>
2226    
2227  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-10.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-10.png"><br>
2228  ...and ENTER.</p>  ...and ENTER.</p>
2229    
2230  <H3><a name="grub-5"></a>Screen "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="grub-5"></a>Screen "Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
2231    
2232  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-11.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-11.png"><br>
2233  I select "<font color="Red"><b>Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)</b></font>" and press ENTER. If you want to install GRUB to the Master Boot Record of the first hard drive, "<font color="Red"><b>Automatically Install</b></font>" is a better choice. If you don't know if you want GRUB to the first or some other disk, you most likely want it to the first disk.</p>  I select "<font color="Red"><b>Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)</b></font>" and press ENTER. If you want to install GRUB to the Master Boot Record of the first hard drive, "<font color="Red"><b>Automatically Install</b></font>" is a better choice. If you don't know if you want GRUB to the first or some other disk, you most likely want it to the first disk.</p>
2234    
2235  <H3><a name="grub-6"></a>Screen "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="grub-6"></a>Screen "Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR) (Help)" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
2236    
2237  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-12.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-12.png"><br>
2238  I confirm my decision by selecting "<font color="Red"><b>Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)</b></font>" again and pressing ENTER.</p>  I confirm my decision by selecting "<font color="Red"><b>Manual Restore GRUB in Hard Disk (MBR)</b></font>" again and pressing ENTER.</p>
2239    
2240  <H3><a name="grub-7"></a>Screen "Partition of GRUB" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="grub-7"></a>Screen "Partition of GRUB" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
2241    
2242  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-13.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-13.png"><br>
2243  In this screen I can select the disk that contains the partition that contains the files needed by GRUB. In this case, that disk is the external hard drive. As you can see, the disk is only three megabytes in size - because the computer used for screenshots is still virtual. Actually, the "disk" where I'm installing GRUB is just a file.</p>  In this screen I can select the disk that contains the partition that contains the files needed by GRUB. In this case, that disk is the external hard drive. As you can see, the disk is only three megabytes in size - because the computer used for screenshots is still virtual. Actually, the "disk" where I'm installing GRUB is just a file.</p>
2244    
2245  <H3><a name="grub-8"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="grub-8"></a>Next Screen [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
2246    
2247  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-14.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-14.png"><br>
2248  This is where I choose the partition where GRUB files reside. This disk contains only one partition.</p>  This is where I choose the partition where GRUB files reside. This disk contains only one partition.</p>
2249    
2250  <H3><a name="grub-9"></a>Screen "Restore to MBR of Hard Disk" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>  <H3><a name="grub-9"></a>Screen "Restore to MBR of Hard Disk" [<a href="#sgd-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</H3>
2251    
2252  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-15.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-15.png"><br>
2253  I select the external hard drive to install GRUB to its Master Boot Record.</p>  I select the external hard drive to install GRUB to its Master Boot Record.</p>
2254    
2255  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-12.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/supergrubdisk-12.png"><br>
2256  Some text scrolled in the screen (too fast to read or take a screenshot) and I was back at this screen. I rebooted the computer. (In this situation, you can safely do a "hard reboot" by pressing reset button once or power button twice.)</p>  Some text scrolled in the screen (too fast to read or take a screenshot) and I was back at this screen. I rebooted the computer. (In this situation, you can safely do a "hard reboot" by pressing reset button once or power button twice.)</p>
2257    
2258  <p><img src="images/grub-loading.png"><br>  <p><img src="images/grub-loading.png"><br>
2259  GRUB booted successfully.</p>  GRUB booted successfully.</p>
2260    
2261    
2262    </div>
2263    
2264  <a name="oldboot-top"></a>  <a name="oldboot-top"></a>
2265  <H2 style="font-size: 2em;"><a name="oldboot-intro"></a>Booting an old PC <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#oldboot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>  <H2 style="font-size: 2em;"><a name="oldboot-intro"></a>Booting an old PC <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#oldboot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
2266  <p>Have you ever tried to boot an old PC off a CD-ROM, and found out it wouldn't, because its BIOS does not support it, or it's faulty or for any other reason? Well, I have. So this page is an effort to solve this problem.</p>  <p>Have you ever tried to boot an old PC off a CD-ROM, and found out it wouldn't, because its BIOS does not support it, or it's faulty or for any other reason? Well, I have. So this page is an effort to solve this problem.</p>
# Line 2435  The following pressentation has been mad Line 2453  The following pressentation has been mad
2453  <p>In UNIX-based systems, a partition is used to host the / (root) file system, and optionally the /opt, /usr and /home file systems. There may also be a swap partition, which doesn't host any file system.</p>  <p>In UNIX-based systems, a partition is used to host the / (root) file system, and optionally the /opt, /usr and /home file systems. There may also be a swap partition, which doesn't host any file system.</p>
2454  <p>Each operatin system provides some kind of tool to create and manage partitions. Examples of such tools are <b>fdisk</b> in DOS/Windows, <b>fdisk</b>, <b>sfdisk</b> and <b>parted</b> in Linux, etc.</p>  <p>Each operatin system provides some kind of tool to create and manage partitions. Examples of such tools are <b>fdisk</b> in DOS/Windows, <b>fdisk</b>, <b>sfdisk</b> and <b>parted</b> in Linux, etc.</p>
2455  <H3><a name="partitions-extended"></a>What is the difference between primary, extended and logical partitions? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>  <H3><a name="partitions-extended"></a>What is the difference between primary, extended and logical partitions? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
2456  <p>Information about partitions is saved in so-called partition table in Master Boot Record. MBR itself is only 512 bytes in size, and only 64 bytes are reserved for partition table. That's not enough, and there are many workarounds to bypass limitations caused by the size, for example <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_block_addressing#LBA.2C_ATA_devices_and_Enhanced_BIOS" target="_blank">logical block addressing</a>. Extended partitions are another workaround.</p>  <p>Information about partitions is saved in so-called partition table in Master Boot Record. MBR itself is only 512 bytes in size, and only 64 bytes are reserved for partition table. That's not enough, and there are many workarounds to bypass limitations caused by the size, for example <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_block_addressing#Enhanced_BIOS" target="_blank">logical block addressing</a>. Extended partitions are another workaround.</p>
2457  <p>Partition table can only store information about four partitions. If one has, for example, two GNU/Linux distributions on the same disk, both of them having separate root partitions, shared /home and shared swap, the partition number limit has been hit already.</p>  <p>Partition table can only store information about four partitions. If one has, for example, two GNU/Linux distributions on the same disk, both of them having separate root partitions, shared /home and shared swap, the partition number limit has been hit already.</p>
2458  <p>A partition that is mentioned in the partition table is called primary partition. Because of the limit, one disk can only contain 1-4 primary partitions.</p>  <p>A partition that is mentioned in the partition table is called primary partition. Because of the limit, one disk can only contain 1-4 primary partitions.</p>
2459  <p>An extended partition fixes the problem simply by containing more boot records, called Extended Boot Records (EBR). Each EBR contains information about one logical partition and, if the extended partition contains multiple logical partitions, link to the next EBR. Thus, an extended partition can contain unlimited amount of logical partitions.</p>  <p>An extended partition fixes the problem simply by containing more boot records, called Extended Boot Records (EBR). Each EBR contains information about one logical partition and, if the extended partition contains multiple logical partitions, link to the next EBR. Thus, an extended partition can contain unlimited amount of logical partitions.</p>
# Line 2512  The following pressentation has been mad Line 2530  The following pressentation has been mad
2530    </tr>    </tr>
2531      <tr>      <tr>
2532      <th>ext4</th>      <th>ext4</th>
2533      <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No***</td>      <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">3rd party driver</td>
2534          <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>          <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>
2535          <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">16 GB-16 TB*</td>          <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">16 GB-16 TB*</td>
2536          <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>          <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
# Line 2528  The following pressentation has been mad Line 2546  The following pressentation has been mad
2546    </tr>    </tr>
2547  </table>  </table>
2548  <p>* Depends on cluster size<br>  <p>* Depends on cluster size<br>
2549  ** <a href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/955704" target="_blank">This update</a> adds exFAT support to Windows XP<br>  ** <a href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/955704" target="_blank">This update</a> adds exFAT support to Windows XP</p>
 *** <a href="http://ext2read.blogspot.com/" target="_blank">Ext2read</a> makes accessing ext4 partitions possible, but it's not a driver and the access is read-only</p>  
2550  <p>Operating system support:</p>  <p>Operating system support:</p>
2551  <ul>  <ul>
2552  <li>"Native" means that the kernel supports the filesystem and the OS can boot from a partition using that FS.</li>  <li>"Native" means that the kernel supports the filesystem and the OS can boot from a partition using that FS.</li>
2553  <li>"Built-in" means that the kernel supports the filesystem, but booting from a partition containing such FS is very difficult.</li>  <li>"Built-in" means that the kernel supports the filesystem, but booting from a partition containing such FS is very difficult.</li>
2554  <li>"Driver included" means that ntfs-3g (the driver that adds NTFS support to Linux) comes with most GNU/Linux distributions.</li>  <li>"Driver included" means that ntfs-3g (the driver that adds NTFS support to Linux) comes with most GNU/Linux distributions.</li>
2555  <li>"3rd party driver" means that drivers to add filesystem support are available, but must be downloaded and installed separately. The ext2/3 drivers are <a href="http://www.fs-driver.org" target="_blank">Ext2 IFS</a> and <a href="http://www.ext2fsd.com" target="_blank">Ext2fsd</a> and the exFAT driver is <a href="http://code.google.com/p/exfat/" target="_blank">exfat</a>.</li>  <li>"3rd party driver" means that a driver to add filesystem support is available, but must be downloaded and installed separately. The ext2/3/4 driver is <a href="http://www.ext2fsd.com" target="_blank">Ext2fsd</a> and the exFAT driver is <a href="http://code.google.com/p/exfat/" target="_blank">exfat</a>.</li>
 <li>"No" means that there is no way to get read-write filesystem support.</li>  
2556  </ul>  </ul>
2557  <H2><a name="filesystems"></a>Filesystems <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>  <H2><a name="filesystems"></a>Filesystems <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
2558  <p>This section contains more information about most popular filesystems.</p>  <p>This section contains more information about most popular filesystems.</p>
# Line 2544  The following pressentation has been mad Line 2560  The following pressentation has been mad
2560  <p>The initial version of FAT (File Allocation Table), now referred as FAT12, was designed for floppy disks. A FAT12 partition can only be up to 32 megabytes in size. After that, PCs equipped with hard drives were introcuded by IBM and the sizes of hard drives began growing. Microsoft answered the need by developing first initial FAT16 and then final FAT16.</p>  <p>The initial version of FAT (File Allocation Table), now referred as FAT12, was designed for floppy disks. A FAT12 partition can only be up to 32 megabytes in size. After that, PCs equipped with hard drives were introcuded by IBM and the sizes of hard drives began growing. Microsoft answered the need by developing first initial FAT16 and then final FAT16.</p>
2561  <p>FAT16 partition can be up to two gigabytes in size. In the middle of 1990s, that limit was becoming a problem. Microsoft pushed the limit up by updating FAT again.</p>  <p>FAT16 partition can be up to two gigabytes in size. In the middle of 1990s, that limit was becoming a problem. Microsoft pushed the limit up by updating FAT again.</p>
2562  <p>FAT32 was first introduced with Windows 95 OSR2. Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows 2000 and newer support FAT32 too. Linux kernel has supported FAT32 almost as long as Windows, but booting GNU/Linux from FAT32 partition is difficult and actually requires DOS to be installed in the partition as well. (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FAT_filesystem_and_Linux#Installing_Linux_on_and_booting_it_from_FAT_volumes_using_umsdos" target="_blank">more information</a>)</p>  <p>FAT32 was first introduced with Windows 95 OSR2. Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows 2000 and newer support FAT32 too. Linux kernel has supported FAT32 almost as long as Windows, but booting GNU/Linux from FAT32 partition is difficult and actually requires DOS to be installed in the partition as well. (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FAT_filesystem_and_Linux#Installing_Linux_on_and_booting_it_from_FAT_volumes_using_umsdos" target="_blank">more information</a>)</p>
2563  <p>FAT32 partition can be up to two terabytes in size. As of now (July 2010), there are hard drives that hit the limit, but don't exceed it. A single file within FAT32 partition can be up to four gigabytes in size.</p>  <p>FAT32 partition can be up to two terabytes in size. There are already hard drives that exceed the limit. A single file within FAT32 partition can be up to four gigabytes in size.</p>
2564  <p>Because FAT32 is, in the end, based on FAT12, it has very few features. It doesn't support file permissions, hard/symbolic links, encryption, compression, alternative data streams, journaling... It lacks support for nearly anything that defines a modern filesystem. However, due to very few features, FAT32 is very fast filesystem if it's not fragmented or on a Flash-based drive. Mind you, FAT32 fragments very fast.</p>  <p>Because FAT32 is, in the end, based on FAT12, it has very few features. It doesn't support file permissions, hard/symbolic links, encryption, compression, alternative data streams, journaling... It lacks support for nearly anything that defines a modern filesystem. However, due to very few features, FAT32 is very fast filesystem if it's not fragmented or on a Flash-based drive. Mind you, FAT32 fragments very fast.</p>
2565  <p>Due to excellent operating system support, I recommend FAT32 for storing files which should be accessible in both Windows and GNU/Linux. FAT32 is also a good filesystem on Solid State Drives and thumb drives due to its performance.</p>  <p>Due to excellent operating system support, I recommend FAT32 for storing files which should be accessible in both Windows and GNU/Linux. FAT32 is also a good filesystem on Solid State Drives and thumb drives due to its performance.</p>
2566  <H3><a name="partitions-ext2"></a>ext2 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>  <H3><a name="partitions-ext2"></a>ext2 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
2567  <p>Ext2 or ext2fs is the successor of extfs (extended file system). Extfs didn't support separated timestamps for access, data modification and inode modification. In order to add support for them, and make the filesystem extendable, a new filesystem had to be created.</p>  <p>Ext2 or ext2fs is the successor of extfs (extended file system). Extfs didn't support separated timestamps for access, data modification and inode modification. In order to add support for them, and make the filesystem extendable, a new filesystem had to be created.</p>
2568  <p>Ext2 was developed in January 1993, earlier than any other filesystem mentioned in this page.</p>  <p>Ext2 was developed in January 1993, earlier than any other filesystem mentioned in this page.</p>
2569  <p>Because ext2 is designed for GNU/Linux, support in Linux kernel was implemented immediately. The first Windows driver supporting ext2, <a href="http://www.ext2fsd.com" target="_blank">Ext2fsd</a> 0.01, was released on 25 January 2002. Both Windows drivers for ext2 work only on Windows NT operating systems (NT 4.0 up to Vista, 7 isn't supported yet).</p>  <p>Because ext2 is designed for GNU/Linux, support in Linux kernel was implemented immediately. The first Windows driver supporting ext2, <a href="http://www.ext2fsd.com" target="_blank">Ext2fsd</a> 0.01, was released on 25 January 2002. Ext2fsd works only on Windows NT operating systems starting from Windows 2000.</p>
2570  <p>The best property of ext2 is extensibility. The superblock contains information about which version the filesystem is (ext2, ext3 or ext4) and which extensions and features are in use. By using these pieces of information, the operating system or driver can decide whether or not mounting the partition is safe. That's the most important reason why most GNU/Linux distributions still use successors of ext2 as default filesystems.</p>  <p>The best property of ext2 is extensibility. The superblock contains information about which version the filesystem is (ext2, ext3 or ext4) and which extensions and features are in use. By using these pieces of information, the operating system or driver can decide whether or not mounting the partition is safe. That's the most important reason why most GNU/Linux distributions still use successors of ext2 as default filesystems.</p>
2571  <p>Depending on cluster size, ext2 partition can be up to 2-32 terabytes in size. File size limit is 16 GB-2 TB.</p>  <p>Depending on cluster size, ext2 partition can be up to 2-32 terabytes in size. File size limit is 16 GB-2 TB.</p>
2572  <p>Ext2 supports file permissions, both hard and symbolic links and extended file attributes. Encryption, compression and journaling are unsupported.</p>  <p>Ext2 supports file permissions, both hard and symbolic links and extended file attributes. Encryption, compression and journaling are unsupported.</p>
2573  <p>Due to lack of journaling support and existence of Windows drivers, I recommend using ext2 if you're going to install GNU/Linux on a SSD drive and want to be able to access files within Windows too.</p>  <p>Lack of journaling support is the worst limitation of ext2. What was done in order to get rid of the limitation?</p>
 <p>However, lack of journaling support is the worst limitation of ext2. And what was done in order to get rid of the limitation?</p>  
2574  <H3><a name="partitions-ext3"></a>ext3 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>  <H3><a name="partitions-ext3"></a>ext3 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
2575  <p>Ext3, the successor of ext2, was introduced in Linux kernel on November 2001. It supports journaling, can be grown online and optionally indexes large directories.</p>  <p>Ext3, the successor of ext2, was introduced in Linux kernel on November 2001. It supports journaling, can be grown online and optionally indexes large directories.</p>
2576  <p>Ext2 IFS and Ext2fsd can mount ext3 partition as ext2 if the journal is empty. (If it's not, something is wrong - journal is always emptied when the partition is unmounted or the computer is shut down.) Thus, ext3 support under Windows is just as good/bad as ext2 support.</p>  <p>Ext2fsd can mount ext3 partition as ext2. Thus, ext3 support under Windows is just as good/bad as ext2 support.</p>
2577  <p>Partition and file size limits are the same as in ext2: partition size limit is 2-32 TB and file size limit 16 GB-2 TB, depending on cluster size.</p>  <p>Partition and file size limits are the same as in ext2: partition size limit is 2-32 TB and file size limit 16 GB-2 TB, depending on cluster size.</p>
2578  <p>Due to journaling support and existence of Windows drivers, ext3 is a good choice if you're going to install GNU/Linux on a mechanical hard drive and want to be able to access files within Windows.</p>  <p>Ext3 is becoming obsolete because there is...</p>
2579  <H3><a name="partitions-ext4"></a>ext4 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>  <H3><a name="partitions-ext4"></a>ext4 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
2580  <p>Linux kernel support for ext4, the successor of ext3, was marked stable code on October 2008. Ext4 contains multiple performance and stability improvements over ext3.</p>  <p>Linux kernel support for ext4, the successor of ext3, was marked stable code on October 2008. Ext4 contains multiple performance and stability improvements over ext3.</p>
2581  <p>The most important new feature is extents. An extent is a contiguous area of storage that has been reserved for a file. When a process starts to write to a file, the whole extent is allocated even before the write operation begins. The idea is that even if the file is larger than expected, it doesn't fragment if it doesn't exceed the size of the extent.</p>  <p>The most important new feature is extents. An extent is a contiguous area of storage that has been reserved for a file. When a process starts to write to a file, the whole extent is allocated even before the write operation begins. The idea is that even if the file is larger than expected, it doesn't fragment if it doesn't exceed the size of the extent.</p>
2582  <p>Another important improvement is larger partition size limit: an ext4 partition can be even one exabyte in size. (An exabyte is a million terabytes.) In addition, a directory within an ext4 partition can contain up to 64 000 subdirectories (instead of 32 000, as in ext2/3) and timestamps are much more accurate. The file size limit is 16 GB-16 TB, depending on cluster size.</p>  <p>Another important improvement is larger partition size limit: an ext4 partition can be even one exabyte in size. (An exabyte is a million terabytes.) In addition, a directory within an ext4 partition can contain up to 64 000 subdirectories (instead of 32 000, as in ext2/3) and timestamps are much more accurate. The file size limit is 16 GB-16 TB, depending on cluster size.</p>
2583  <p>Unfortunately, Ext2 IFS and Ext2Fsd don't support ext4 and are unable to mount ext4 partition if extents are enabled. They can be disabled, but other improvements of ext4 aren't that important for most people - using ext2 or ext3 is just easier. It is also possible to keep extents enabled and browse the partition using <a href="http://ext2read.blogspot.com/" target="_blank">Ext2read</a>, but Ext2read doesn't allow the user to write to the partition.</p>  <p>Ext2fsd 0.50, released on 5 February 2011, supports ext4 and is able to mount ext4 partition even if extents are enabled. Thus, ext4 support under Windows is just as good/bad as ext2 support.</p>
2584  <p>Due to its features, ext4 is a good filesystem on computers that only have GNU/Linux installed. Because journaling can be disabled, it is suitable for Solid State Drives and thumb drives too.</p>  <p>Due to availability of Ext2fsd 0.50 and additional features, ext4 has become the de-facto GNU/Linux filesystem. Because journaling can be disabled, it is suitable for Solid State Drives and thumb drives too.</p>
2585  <H3><a name="partitions-ntfs"></a>NTFS <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>  <H3><a name="partitions-ntfs"></a>NTFS <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
2586  <p>At the end of 1980s, IBM and Microsoft were developing OS/2 operating system. Both companies expected OS/2 1.1, released on 1988, to be the first popular operating system having a GUI, Presentation Manager. Even though it didn't become too popular during its first years, Microsoft didn't complain: Windows 2 didn't sell any better.</p>  <p>At the end of 1980s, IBM and Microsoft were developing OS/2 operating system. Both companies expected OS/2 1.1, released on 1988, to be the first popular operating system having a GUI, Presentation Manager. Even though it didn't become too popular during its first years, Microsoft didn't complain: Windows 2 didn't sell any better.</p>
2587  <p>But on May 1990, Microsoft released Windows 3.0. Millions of copies of it were sold during its first year, and Microsoft began to believe that OS/2 had failed due to decisions of IBM. At autumn 1990, Microsoft stopped cooperating with IBM, recasted OS/2 3.0 as Windows NT and continued developing it alone, leaving IBM alone with OS/2.</p>  <p>But on May 1990, Microsoft released Windows 3.0. Millions of copies of it were sold during its first year, and Microsoft began to believe that OS/2 had failed due to decisions of IBM. At autumn 1990, Microsoft stopped cooperating with IBM, recasted OS/2 3.0 as Windows NT and continued developing it alone, leaving IBM alone with OS/2.</p>
# Line 2651  Linux partitions, such as <b>ext2</b>, < Line 2666  Linux partitions, such as <b>ext2</b>, <
2666  </ul>  </ul>
2667  <H2><a name="example"></a>Partitioning example <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>  <H2><a name="example"></a>Partitioning example <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
2668  <p>This section contains a partitioning example. I simulate the following situation in a virtual machine:</p>  <p>This section contains a partitioning example. I simulate the following situation in a virtual machine:</p>
2669  <p>I have two partitions in my disk: <b>/dev/sda1</b> that contains a GNU/Linux distribution, and <b>/dev/sda2</b> that is a swap partition. Here we can see the output of <b>fdisk</b>:</p>  <p>I have two partitions in my disk: <b>/dev/sda1</b> that contains a GNU/Linux distribution, and <b>/dev/sda2</b> that is a swap partition. Here we can see the output of <b>parted</b>:</p>
2670  <p class="newcode">root@sysresccd /root % fdisk -l<br>  <p class="newcode">root@sysresccd /root % parted -l<br>
2671    Model: ATA VBOX HARDDISK (scsi)<br>
2672    Disk /dev/sda: 2097MB<br>
2673    Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B<br>
2674    Partition Table: msdos<br>
2675    <br>
2676    Number&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Size&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Type&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;File&nbsp;system&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Flags<br>
2677    &nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;32.3kB&nbsp;&nbsp;1679MB&nbsp;&nbsp;1679MB&nbsp;&nbsp;primary&nbsp;&nbsp;ext4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;boot<br>
2678    &nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1679MB&nbsp;&nbsp;2097MB&nbsp;&nbsp;418MB&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;primary&nbsp;&nbsp;linux-swap(v1)<br>
2679    <br>
2680    <br>
2681    Warning: Unable to open /dev/sr0 read-write (Read-only file system).&nbsp;&nbsp;/dev/sr0 has been opened read-only.<br>
2682    Error: /dev/sr0: unrecognised disk label<br>
2683  <br>  <br>
2684  Disk /dev/sda: 2097 MB, 2097152000 bytes<br>  Error: /dev/fd0: unrecognised disk label</p>
 64 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1015 cylinders<br>  
 Units = cylinders of 4032 * 512 = 2064384 bytes<br>  
 Disk identifier: 0x00058a4a<br>  
 <br>  
 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>  
 /dev/sda1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;812&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1636960+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>  
 /dev/sda2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;813&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1015&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;409248&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux swap / Solaris</p>  
2685  <p>Now I'm going to install another distribution on the same disk. First of all, I need one more partition, because only one distro can be installed on one partition. In addition, I want to separate /home to its own partition in order to be able to share it between distributions.</p>  <p>Now I'm going to install another distribution on the same disk. First of all, I need one more partition, because only one distro can be installed on one partition. In addition, I want to separate /home to its own partition in order to be able to share it between distributions.</p>
2686  <p>Because the whole disk is already allocated, I must shrink at least one existing partition in order to create new partitions. I'll shrink both of them to half (<b>/dev/sda1</b> from 1,6 gigabytes to 800 megabytes, and <b>/dev/sda2</b> from 400 MB to 200 MB). In addition, I'll move <b>/dev/sda2</b> right next to <b>/dev/sda1</b> to keep the partitions in order.</p>  <p>Because the whole disk is already allocated, I must shrink at least one existing partition in order to create new partitions. I'll shrink both of them to half (<b>/dev/sda1</b> from 1,6 gigabytes to 800 megabytes, and <b>/dev/sda2</b> from 400 MB to 200 MB). In addition, I'll move <b>/dev/sda2</b> right next to <b>/dev/sda1</b> to keep the partitions in order.</p>
2687  <p>But how many partitions there will be in total? One, two, three... four! Phew, I was near to paint myself into a corner. If I created only primary partitions, I'd be unable to create any more partitions on the disk. Thus, I'll create an extended partition instead and two logical partitions within it. Then I'll be able to create more logical partitions later if required.</p>  <p>But how many partitions there will be in total? One, two, three... four! Phew, I was near to paint myself into a corner. If I created only primary partitions, I'd be unable to create any more partitions on the disk. Thus, I'll create an extended partition instead and two logical partitions within it. Then I'll be able to create more logical partitions later if required.</p>
# Line 3268  Smart BootManager - <a href="http://btmg Line 3288  Smart BootManager - <a href="http://btmg
3288  </div>  </div>
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