/[clonezilla-sysresccd]/trunk/www/partitions.html
ViewVC logotype

Annotation of /trunk/www/partitions.html

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 144 - (hide annotations)
Thu Oct 7 02:13:03 2010 UTC (10 years, 8 months ago) by sng
File MIME type: text/html
File size: 51553 byte(s)
- adding BETA WARNINGS to pages under trunk
- updating site


1 sng 28 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
2     <html>
3     <head>
4     <link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="RSS" href="http://clonezilla-sysresccd.hellug.gr/clonezilla-sysresccd.rss">
5     <link rel="shortcut icon" href="favicon.ico">
6     <title>Clonezilla-SysRescCD - Documentation: Managing partitions</title>
7     <style type="text/css">
8 sng 125 body { font-family: Arial, 'sans serif'; color: black; font-size: 12pt; background : fixed no-repeat; background-color: #333333; padding: 0; margin: 0; margin-top: 5px; margin-bottom: 5px; }
9 sng 28
10    
11    
12     #header {position:relative; display: block; width: 980px; height: 121px;margin: auto; padding: auto; background-color: #D37624; background-image: url('images/header.png');clear:both;}
13     #header h2{ color: #FFE6BC; font-weight: bold; font-size: 2.2em; margin:0; padding:0; padding-left: 10px; padding-top: 7px; text-shadow: #333333 2px 2px 4px;}
14     #header h3{ color: #FFE6BC; font-weight: bold; font-size: 1.8em; margin:0; padding: 0; padding-left: 10px; text-shadow: #333333 2px 2px 4px;}
15     #header h4{ color: #FFE6BC; font-weight: bold; font-size: 1.2em; margin:0; padding: 0; padding-left: 10px; padding-right: 10px; text-shadow: #333333 2px 2px 4px;}
16     #header a {text-decoration:none;}
17    
18     #contarea {display: block; width: 980px; margin: auto; padding: auto; background-color: #FFF2DD; clear:both;}
19    
20     #linkline { width: 980px; height: 29px;margin: auto; padding: auto; background-color: #D37624; background-image: url('images/linkline.png');clear:both; }
21     #linkline a{float: left; color: #FFE6BC; font-weight: bold; font-size: 0.8em; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: #333333 2px 2px 4px; padding-left: 10px; padding-right: 10px; padding-top: 5px;}
22     #linkline a:visited{color: #FFE6BC;}
23     #linkline a:hover{color: #333333;}
24     #linkline a.here {color: #333333; text-decoration: none;}
25    
26     #lastupdate {float: right; display: block; text-align: right; margin: 0; margin-top: -1.2em; padding: 0; padding-right: 15px;}
27    
28     #rss { float: right; text-align: right; padding-top: 3px;}
29    
30     #docline-top { float: right; padding-right: 40px; text-align: right; }
31     #docline-bottom { float: right; padding-right: 40px; text-align: right; font-size: 0.8em; padding-top: 15px; }
32     #docline-bottom a{ padding-left: 10px; padding-right: 10px; }
33    
34     #menu { float: right; display: block; width: 170px; margin: auto; padding: 15px; font-size: 0.8em; font-weight: bold; background-color: #FFE6BC;}
35     #menu h1 {color: #990000; font-size: 1.8em;text-shadow: gray 2px 2px 4px;}
36     #menu a,a:visited{ color: black; text-decoration: none; font-weight: normal;}
37     #menu a:hover{ text-decoration: underline;}
38     #menu p{ margin-bottom: 10px;}
39    
40     #content { float: left; display: block; width: 950px; margin: auto; padding: 15px;}
41    
42    
43     #footer {display: block; width: 980px; height: 100px;margin: auto; padding: auto; background-color: #D37624; background-image: url('images/footer.png');clear:both;text-shadow: #333333 2px 2px 4px;}
44     #footer p{color: #FFE6BC; font-weight: bold; padding:15px; padding-left: 10px;}
45     #footer a,a:visited{color: #FFE6BC; font-weight: bold; text-decoration:none;}
46     #footer a:hover{ color: #333333; text-decoration: none;}
47    
48    
49     #content H1,H2,H3,H4{color: #990000; text-align: left;}
50     #content H2{margin-top: 2em;}
51     #content H3{margin-top: 1.5em}
52     #content H4{margin-top: 1em}
53     #content li { margin-top: 1em;}
54     #content a,a:active,a:visited{text-decoration: none; color: #4075CA; font-weight: normal;}
55     #content a:hover{text-decoration: underline; font-weight: normal;}
56     #content .hidden{ display:none; }
57     #content p,td,table,tr,li { font-family: Arial, 'sans serif'; }
58     #content .nav{margin-left: 0pt;}
59     #content .newcode{font-family : "Courier New", Courier, monospace; font-weight: bold; background-color: #F2F2F2; border: solid 1px #DEDEDE;padding: 20pt;}
60     #content .note{margin-top: 30pt; margin-bottom: 30pt; text-align: left; background-color: #FFEFEF; border: double 3px; border-color: #FFD5D5;}
61     #content hr{color: Black; background-color: Black; height: 1px; border: none;}
62     #content .header-news{margin-top: 2em; margin-left: 25pt; font-weight: bold; color: #990000;}
63     #content .item-news{margin-left: 45pt; margin-right: 45pt;}
64     #content .otherpage{border: solid 1px darkgoldenrod; padding: 20pt; background-color: lemonchiffon;}
65     #content IMG {display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; }
66     #content .red{color: white; background-color: Red; font-weight: bold;}
67     #lphp{text-align: right; padding-left: 10px; padding-right: 10px; padding-top: 50px; float: right;}
68     #lphp a{padding-left: 5px;}
69 sng 144 #warning { margin: 0; padding: .4em; background-color: Red; color: White; align: center; font-weight: bold; border-width: 2px; border-color: white; border-style: solid; }
70     #warning a { color: white; font-weight: bold; text-decoration: underline; }
71 sng 28 </style>
72 sng 144 <link href="warning.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
73     <!--
74     The file waring.css exists only in the root of the site
75     and it hides the BETA warnings. Its contents are
76     #warning { display: none; }
77     -->
78 sng 28 <META NAME="Keywords" CONTENT="multiboot Multi Boot bootable cd rescue clonezilla sysresccd backup restore samba">
79     <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
80    
81     </head>
82    
83     <body>
84 sng 144 <div id="warning" align="center">
85     WARNING<br>
86     This is the BETA version of Clonezilla-SysRescCD<br>
87     To acces our current stable version, please click <a href="index.html">here</a>
88     </div>
89 sng 28 <div id="header">
90 sng 124 <div id="lphp" style=""><a target="_blank" title="Display all in one long page" href="onepage.html"><img src="images/chain.png" border="0" /></a><a target="_blank" title="Display printable page" href="printable.php"><img src="images/print_it.png" border="0" /></a></div>
91 sng 28 <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>
92     <H3>Documentation: Managing partitions</H3>
93     <div style="margin:0; padding: 3px; width: 980; position relative;">
94 sng 141 <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>30/09/2010 - v 3.2.0</H4></div>
95 sng 144 <div style="position: absolute; right: 0px;"><H4>Last update: 07/10/2010</H4></div>
96 sng 28 </div>
97     </div>
98     <div id="linkline">
99     <a href="index.html">Home</a>
100     <a href="news.php">News</a>
101     <!-- <a href="features.html">Features</a>-->
102     <a class="here" href="doc.html">Documentation</a>
103 sng 95 <a href="download.html">Download</a>
104 sng 28 <a href="screenshots.html">Screenshots</a>
105     <a href="index.html#credits">Credits</a>
106     <a href="help.html">Help</a>
107    
108     <div id="rss">
109     <a href="clonezilla-sysresccd.rss"><img src="images/rss-orange-11.png" width="30" height="14" border="0"/></a>
110     </div>
111     <!-- docline-top-->
112     <div id="docline-top"> <a href="sysresccd.html">&lt; PREV</a> <a href="doc.html">UP</a> <a href="recover.html">NEXT &gt;</a> </div>
113     </div>
114     <div id="contarea">
115     <div id="content">
116     <a name="partitions-top"></a>
117    
118    
119     <!-- Intro -->
120    
121     <H2 style="margin-top: 0;"><a name="partitions-intro"></a>Intro <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
122    
123     <p>One of the most important maintenance tasks that can only be done by using a live CD is partitioning. No operating system allows partitioning the same disk where the OS itself resides. Trying to do so is like attempting to repair a car while its engine is turned on.<br><br>
124     <!--empty line-->
125     Of course, <b>SystemRescueCD</b> contains multiple programs that are related to partitioning. Most important are <b>GParted</b> (graphical partitioning program), <b>GNU Parted</b> (text-based partitioning program), <b>fdisk</b> and <b>sfdisk</b> (partition table editors) and various filesystem tools (like <b>ntfsprogs</b> and <b>e2fsprogs</b>).<br><br>
126     <!--empty line-->
127     This page contains some theory about partitions and filesystems, advice for choosing the right filesystem and a partitioning example by using <b>GParted</b>.</p>
128    
129     <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/important.png"></td><td>
130     While partitioning, an user error or a bug can damage your partitions.<br><br>Creating a disk image of the disk to be<br>partitioned beforehand is highly recommended.
131     </td></tr></table></div>
132     <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/info.png"></td><td>
133 sng 110 The following pressentation has been made using<br><b>SystemRescueCD v 1.5.8</b>
134 sng 28 </td></tr></table></div>
135    
136     <H2><a name="theory"></a>Some theory <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
137    
138     <H3><a name="partitions-partition"></a>What is a partition? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
139    
140     <p>A partition is a logical division of a hard disk created so that you can have different operating systems on the same hard disk or to create the appearance of having separate hard drives for file management, multiple users, or other purposes.</p>
141    
142     <p>In Windows, a one-partition hard disk is labelled the "C:" drive ("A:" and "B:" are typically reserved for diskette drives). A two-partition hard drive would typically contain "C:" and "D:" drives. (CD-ROM drives typically are assigned the last letter in whatever sequence of letters have been used as a result of hard disk formatting, or typically with a two-partition, the "E:" drive.).</p>
143    
144     <p>In UNIX-based systems, a partition is used to host the / (root) file system, and optionally the /opt, /usr and /home file systems. There may also be a swap partition, which doesn't host any file system.</p>
145    
146     <p>Each operatin system provides some kind of tool to create and manage partitions. Examples of such tools are <b>fdisk</b> in DOS/Windows, <b>fdisk</b>, <b>sfdisk</b> and <b>parted</b> in Linux, etc.</p>
147    
148 sng 85 <H3><a name="partitions-extended"></a>What is the difference between primary, extended and logical partitions? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
149 sng 28
150     <p>Information about partitions is saved in so-called partition table in Master Boot Record. MBR itself is only 512 bytes in size, and only 64 bytes are reserved for partition table. That's not enough, and there are many workarounds to bypass limitations caused by the size, for example <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_block_addressing#LBA.2C_ATA_devices_and_Enhanced_BIOS" target="_blank">logical block addressing</a>. Extended partitions are another workaround.</p>
151    
152     <p>Partition table can only store information about four partitions. If one has, for example, two GNU/Linux distributions on the same disk, both of them having separate root partitions, shared /home and shared swap, the partition number limit has been hit already.</p>
153    
154     <p>A partition that is mentioned in the partition table is called primary partition. Because of the limit, one disk can only contain 1-4 primary partitions.</p>
155    
156     <p>An extended partition fixes the problem simply by containing more boot records, called Extended Boot Records (EBR). Each EBR contains information about one logical partition and, if the extended partition contains multiple logical partitions, link to the next EBR. Thus, an extended partition can contain unlimited amount of logical partitions.</p>
157    
158     <p>Extended partition contains only EBRs and logical partitions (and maybe unallocated space). Extended partition doesn't contain any filesystem and files can't be stored in it. Of course, logical partition can contain any filesystem (or be unformatted).</p>
159    
160 sng 85 <p>Logical partitions can always be used for storing data: any operating system can see logical partitions. GNU/Linux supports both multiple primary extended partitions and extended partitions within each other, while Windows supports only the latter. GNU/Linux distributions can be installed to logical partitions as well, but Windows requires a lot of tweaking. See <a href="http://www.goodells.net/multiboot/index.htm" target="_blank">this outdated guide</a>.</p>
161 sng 28
162     <H3><a name="partitions-lvm"></a>What is LVM? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
163    
164     <p>LVM means "Logical Volume Manager". It allows creating volume groups on top of hard drives and logical volumes within volume groups. Logical volumes are NOT the same thing as logical partitions!</p>
165    
166     <p>Volume groups can be created very flexibly: a volume group can allocate, for example, the first half of the first hard drive and the second half of the third drive. One can even create a massive volume group containing all storage he/she has.</p>
167    
168     <p>The computer sees a logical volume as a partition: logical volume can be left unformatted or contain any filesystem.</p>
169    
170     <p>LVM has many benefits: for example, if one has three hard drives 60 gigabytes each, he/she can create a 160-gigabyte partition for storing massive files and/or saving some disk space. In addition, logical volumes can be resized even when they're in use, so when creating logical volumes one doesn't need to worry if they're too small or big - if they are, he/she can resize them at any time.</p>
171    
172     <p>However, resizing a logical volume doesn't resize the filesystem in it, so using a filesystem that can be resized in use (online resizing) is recommended. Very few filesystems can be shrinked online, but most GNU/Linux filesystems (including ext3/4, ReiserFS, XFS and btrfs) can be grown online. It's generally a good idea to leave unallocated space within volume group, so logical volumes can later be grown without shrinking any other logical volume.</p>
173    
174     <p>Here come bad news for people who dualboot: Windows doesn't support LVM, it sees volume groups as unformatted partitions. If you try to access volume group within Windows, you're just prompted to format the partition. That prompt is annoying at best and dangerous at worst.</p>
175    
176     <p>More information about LVM can be found <a href="http://sunoano.name/ws/public_xhtml/lvm.html" target="_blank">here</a> (almost everything about LVM in a single page) and <a href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-Guide-EN-LVM2" target="_blank">here</a> (official SystemRescueCD documentation about LVM).</p>
177    
178     <H3><a name="partitions-filesystem"></a>What is a file system? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
179    
180     <p>A file system is the way in which files are named and where they are placed logically for storage and retrieval. The DOS, Windows, OS/2, Macintosh, and UNIX-based operating systems all have file systems in which files are placed somewhere in a hierarchical (tree) structure. A file is placed in a directory (folder in Windows) or subdirectory at the desired place in the tree structure.</p>
181    
182     <p>The most important difference between filesystems is operating system support. Some filesystems are supported by all modern operating systems, but especially the newest filesystems are very rarely supported. Other important limits are maximum file size, journaling support and file permission metadata support.</p>
183    
184     <p>The reason that file size limits exist is that all filesystems reserve a fixed number of bits for storing the file size. If the size of the file, in bytes, is bigger than the biggest number that can be stored in file size bits, the operating system must refuse to store the file at all in order to prevent data corruption.</p>
185    
186     <p>File permission metadata means that the filesystem stores in the metadata of the file, among other things, information about who owns the file and what different users are allowed to do with the file. That metadata is especially useful in multi-user environment because it mostly prevents users from reading each other's files. Permissions can be bypassed, however.</p>
187    
188     <H3><a name="partitions-journaling"></a>What is journaling? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
189    
190     <p>Ideally, data in a partition never corrupts. But, in the real world, there are power failures and operating system freezes. And if a computer is forcefully shut down while something is written to the drive, the write operation can't be finished. That can damage the filesystem and destroy any files in the partition.</p>
191    
192     <p>Journaling partially fixes that problem by writing most changes to the disk twice: first to a special area called journal and, after that, to the filesystem itself. If power is lost while writing to the journal was in progress, the partial change is just ignored and never committed to the filesystem itself. If power failure or OS freeze happened while writing to filesystem itself, the write operation is finished by using the information in journal.</p>
193    
194 sng 85 <p>Journaling is always a trade-off between reliability and performance. In fact, the ext3 and ext4 filesystems support multiple journaling modes in order to allow the user to choose the optimal compromise. The most popular choices are <b>ordered</b> and <b>writeback</b>.</p>
195 sng 28
196 sng 85 <p>Both modes only write metadata changes to the journal before committing them: data itself is written directly to the main filesystem. The difference between the modes is that <b>ordered</b> mode guarantees that the data is written before the change is marked as committed. The difference may sound small, but in some cases <b>ordered</b> mode causes horrible performance. In Linux 2.6.30, the default journaling mode was changed to <b>writeback</b> - and it was quickly found out that <b>writeback</b> mode may cause massive data loss. See <a href="http://forums.raiden.net/viewtopic.php?p=155912#155912" target="_blank">this forum post</a> for details. Most GNU/Linux distributions are now using <b>ordered</b> mode as the default again.</p>
197 sng 28
198 sng 85 <p>In addition, on SSDs (Solid State Drives) and thumb drives write speed is much slower than read speed. They also have a limited number of writing cycles, so journaling reduces their lifetime. Thus, I (Jyrki) recommend against using journaling fileystems on such drives.</p>
199    
200 sng 28 <H3><a name="partitions-filesystems"></a>What are the differences between most popular filesystems? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
201    
202     <p>The following table quickly describes the most important differences between them.</p>
203     <!--not-on-txt-->
204     <table border="1">
205     <tr>
206     <th></th>
207     <th colspan="2">Operating system support</th>
208     <th></th>
209     <th></th>
210     <th></th>
211     </tr>
212     <tr>
213     <th></th>
214     <th>Under Windows</th>
215     <th>Under GNU/Linux</th>
216     <th>Maximum file size</th>
217     <th>Journaling</th>
218     <th>Permissions</th>
219     </tr>
220     <tr>
221     <th>FAT32</th>
222     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>
223     <td style="background-color: rgb(127,255,0)">Built-in</td>
224     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">4 GB</td>
225     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No</td>
226     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No</td>
227     </tr>
228     <tr>
229     <th>NTFS</th>
230     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>
231     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,255,0)">Driver included</td>
232     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,255,0)">16 EB</td>
233     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
234     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
235     </tr>
236     <tr>
237     <th>ext2</th>
238     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">3rd party driver</td>
239     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>
240     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">16 GB-2 TB*</td>
241     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No</td>
242     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
243     </tr>
244     <tr>
245     <th>ext3</th>
246     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">3rd party driver</td>
247     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>
248     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">16 GB-2 TB*</td>
249     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
250     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
251     </tr>
252     <tr>
253     <th>ext4</th>
254 sng 85 <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No***</td>
255 sng 28 <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>
256     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">16 GB-16 TB*</td>
257     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
258     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
259     </tr>
260     <tr>
261     <th>exFAT</th>
262 sng 85 <td style="background-color: rgb(127,255,0)">Built-in (Vista/7)**</td>
263     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">3rd party driver</td>
264 sng 28 <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">64 ZB</td>
265     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No</td>
266     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
267     </tr>
268     </table>
269     <!--end-not-on-txt-->
270    
271    
272    
273     <p>* Depends on cluster size<br>
274 sng 85 ** <a href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/955704" target="_blank">This update</a> adds exFAT support to Windows XP<br>
275     *** <a href="http://ext2read.blogspot.com/" target="_blank">Ext2read</a> makes accessing ext4 partitions possible, but it's not a driver and the access is read-only</p>
276 sng 28
277     <p>Operating system support:</p>
278    
279     <ul>
280     <li>"Native" means that the kernel supports the filesystem and the OS can boot from a partition using that FS.</li>
281     <li>"Built-in" means that the kernel supports the filesystem, but booting from a partition containing such FS is very difficult.</li>
282     <li>"Driver included" means that ntfs-3g (the driver that adds NTFS support to Linux) comes with most GNU/Linux distributions.</li>
283 sng 85 <li>"3rd party driver" means that drivers to add filesystem support are available, but must be downloaded and installed separately. The ext2/3 drivers are <a href="http://www.fs-driver.org" target="_blank">Ext2 IFS</a> and <a href="http://www.ext2fsd.com" target="_blank">Ext2fsd</a> and the exFAT driver is <a href="http://code.google.com/p/exfat/" target="_blank">exfat</a>.</li>
284     <li>"No" means that there is no way to get read-write filesystem support.</li>
285 sng 28 </ul>
286    
287     <H2><a name="filesystems"></a>Filesystems <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
288    
289     <p>This section contains more information about most popular filesystems.</p>
290    
291     <H3><a name="partitions-fat32"></a>FAT32 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
292    
293     <p>The initial version of FAT (File Allocation Table), now referred as FAT12, was designed for floppy disks. A FAT12 partition can only be up to 32 megabytes in size. After that, PCs equipped with hard drives were introcuded by IBM and the sizes of hard drives began growing. Microsoft answered the need by developing first initial FAT16 and then final FAT16.</p>
294    
295     <p>FAT16 partition can be up to two gigabytes in size. In the middle of 1990s, that limit was becoming a problem. Microsoft pushed the limit up by updating FAT again.</p>
296    
297     <p>FAT32 was first introduced with Windows 95 OSR2. Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows 2000 and newer support FAT32 too. Linux kernel has supported FAT32 almost as long as Windows, but booting GNU/Linux from FAT32 partition is difficult and actually requires DOS to be installed in the partition as well. (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FAT_filesystem_and_Linux#Installing_Linux_on_and_booting_it_from_FAT_volumes_using_umsdos" target="_blank">more information</a>)</p>
298    
299 sng 85 <p>FAT32 partition can be up to two terabytes in size. As of now (July 2010), there are hard drives that hit the limit, but don't exceed it. A single file within FAT32 partition can be up to four gigabytes in size.</p>
300 sng 28
301     <p>Because FAT32 is, in the end, based on FAT12, it has very few features. It doesn't support file permissions, hard/symbolic links, encryption, compression, alternative data streams, journaling... It lacks support for nearly anything that defines a modern filesystem. However, due to very few features, FAT32 is very fast filesystem if it's not fragmented or on a Flash-based drive. Mind you, FAT32 fragments very fast.</p>
302    
303     <p>Due to excellent operating system support, I recommend FAT32 for storing files which should be accessible in both Windows and GNU/Linux. FAT32 is also a good filesystem on Solid State Drives and thumb drives due to its performance.</p>
304    
305     <H3><a name="partitions-ext2"></a>ext2 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
306    
307     <p>Ext2 or ext2fs is the successor of extfs (extended file system). Extfs didn't support separated timestamps for access, data modification and inode modification. In order to add support for them, and make the filesystem extendable, a new filesystem had to be created.</p>
308    
309     <p>Ext2 was developed in January 1993, earlier than any other filesystem mentioned in this page.</p>
310    
311     <p>Because ext2 is designed for GNU/Linux, support in Linux kernel was implemented immediately. The first Windows driver supporting ext2, <a href="http://www.ext2fsd.com" target="_blank">Ext2fsd</a> 0.01, was released on 25 January 2002. Both Windows drivers for ext2 work only on Windows NT operating systems (NT 4.0 up to Vista, 7 isn't supported yet).</p>
312    
313     <p>The best property of ext2 is extensibility. The superblock contains information about which version the filesystem is (ext2, ext3 or ext4) and which extensions and features are in use. By using these pieces of information, the operating system or driver can decide whether or not mounting the partition is safe. That's the most important reason why most GNU/Linux distributions still use successors of ext2 as default filesystems.</p>
314    
315     <p>Depending on cluster size, ext2 partition can be up to 2-32 terabytes in size. File size limit is 16 GB-2 TB.</p>
316    
317     <p>Ext2 supports file permissions, both hard and symbolic links and extended file attributes. Encryption, compression and journaling are unsupported.</p>
318    
319 sng 85 <p>Due to lack of journaling support and existence of Windows drivers, I recommend using ext2 if you're going to install GNU/Linux on a SSD drive and want to be able to access files within Windows too.</p>
320 sng 28
321     <p>However, lack of journaling support is the worst limitation of ext2. And what was done in order to get rid of the limitation?</p>
322    
323     <H3><a name="partitions-ext3"></a>ext3 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
324    
325 sng 85 <p>Ext3, the successor of ext2, was introduced in Linux kernel on November 2001. It supports journaling, can be grown online and optionally indexes large directories.</p>
326 sng 28
327     <p>Ext2 IFS and Ext2fsd can mount ext3 partition as ext2 if the journal is empty. (If it's not, something is wrong - journal is always emptied when the partition is unmounted or the computer is shut down.) Thus, ext3 support under Windows is just as good/bad as ext2 support.</p>
328    
329     <p>Partition and file size limits are the same as in ext2: partition size limit is 2-32 TB and file size limit 16 GB-2 TB, depending on cluster size.</p>
330    
331     <p>Due to journaling support and existence of Windows drivers, ext3 is a good choice if you're going to install GNU/Linux on a mechanical hard drive and want to be able to access files within Windows.</p>
332    
333     <H3><a name="partitions-ext4"></a>ext4 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
334    
335     <p>Linux kernel support for ext4, the successor of ext3, was marked stable code on October 2008. Ext4 contains multiple performance and stability improvements over ext3.</p>
336    
337     <p>The most important new feature is extents. An extent is a contiguous area of storage that has been reserved for a file. When a process starts to write to a file, the whole extent is allocated even before the write operation begins. The idea is that even if the file is larger than expected, it doesn't fragment if it doesn't exceed the size of the extent.</p>
338    
339     <p>Another important improvement is larger partition size limit: an ext4 partition can be even one exabyte in size. (An exabyte is a million terabytes.) In addition, a directory within an ext4 partition can contain up to 64 000 subdirectories (instead of 32 000, as in ext2/3) and timestamps are much more accurate. The file size limit is 16 GB-16 TB, depending on cluster size.</p>
340    
341 sng 85 <p>Unfortunately, Ext2 IFS and Ext2Fsd don't support ext4 and are unable to mount ext4 partition if extents are enabled. They can be disabled, but other improvements of ext4 aren't that important for most people - using ext2 or ext3 is just easier. It is also possible to keep extents enabled and browse the partition using <a href="http://ext2read.blogspot.com/" target="_blank">Ext2read</a>, but Ext2read doesn't allow the user to write to the partition.</p>
342 sng 28
343     <p>Due to its features, ext4 is a good filesystem on computers that only have GNU/Linux installed. Because journaling can be disabled, it is suitable for Solid State Drives and thumb drives too.</p>
344    
345     <H3><a name="partitions-ntfs"></a>NTFS <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
346    
347     <p>At the end of 1980s, IBM and Microsoft were developing OS/2 operating system. Both companies expected OS/2 1.1, released on 1988, to be the first popular operating system having a GUI, Presentation Manager. Even though it didn't become too popular during its first years, Microsoft didn't complain: Windows 2 didn't sell any better.</p>
348    
349     <p>But on May 1990, Microsoft released Windows 3.0. Millions of copies of it were sold during its first year, and Microsoft began to believe that OS/2 had failed due to decisions of IBM. At autumn 1990, Microsoft stopped cooperating with IBM, recasted OS/2 3.0 as Windows NT and continued developing it alone, leaving IBM alone with OS/2.</p>
350    
351     <p>Windows NT was targeted for network file servers, and there were already competition, most importantly Novell NetWare and OS/2. Among other things, the filesystem of Windows NT had to be fast, space efficient and reliable.</p>
352    
353     <p>NTFS (New Technology File System) was introcuded with Windows NT 3.1. Newer versions of NTFS have been introduced with newer versions of Windows NT, and the filesystem is most likely still under development. All versions of Windows NT support NTFS, but support in Linux kernel was implemented as late as on December 2003.</p>
354    
355     <p>NTFS is still, in my opinion, the most feature-filled filesystem around. It supports file permissions, both hard and symbolic links, encryption, compression, alternative data streams, journaling... There are very few features NTFS doesn't support.</p>
356    
357     <p>Depending on cluster size, a NTFS partition can be up to 8 ZB-1 YB in size. (A zettabyte (ZB) is a milliard terabytes and a yottabyte (YB) a billion terabytes.) File size limit is 16 EB.</p>
358    
359     <p>Windows 7 can only be installed on a NTFS partition, and Vista requires a <a href="http://www.computersplace.com/install-windows-vista-on-a-fat32-partition/windows-vista" target="_blank">work-around</a> if one wants to install it on a FAT32 partition. Of course NTFS partitions can be used for data storage as well: due to features of NTFS, I recommend doing so on mechanical hard drives on Windows-only computers.</p>
360    
361     <H3><a name="partitions-exfat"></a>exFAT <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
362    
363     <p>NTFS is a great filesystem, but due to its complexity and journaling, it's not suitable for Flash-based drives. Even Microsoft itself has recommended using FAT32 on removable Flash media.</p>
364    
365     <p>However, FAT32 only allows files up to four gigabytes in size. The limit is already becoming too small, for example a DVD disc image can exceed that limit. In addition, FAT32 lacks file permission support. In order to get rid of these limitations, Microsoft took FAT from its grave and updated it one more time.</p>
366    
367 sng 85 <p>ExFAT (extended FAT), also known as FAT64, was introduced with Windows CE 6.0, on November 2006. Windows Vista SP1, Windows 7 and newer support exFAT too, and by installing <a href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/955704" target="_blank">this update</a> Windows XP can be extended to support exFAT as well. GNU/Linux drivers are available too, but currently none of them are both stable and free. The best option seems to be <a href="http://code.google.com/p/exfat/" target="_blank">exfat</a>, an open-source driver in beta stage.</p>
368 sng 28
369     <p>The partition and file size limits of exFAT are the same: 64 zettabytes. Another important improvement is file permission support that, oddly, is lacking in Windows Vista. In addition, a directory within an exFAT partition can contain up to 2 796 202 files (instead of 65 536, as in FAT32) and timestamps have become more accurate.</p>
370    
371     <p>No operating system can be installed to an exFAT partition, so such partitions can only be used for data storage. Due to lack of journaling and support for huge files, exFAT is a good filesystem on Solid State Drives and thumb drives that are only used within Windows Vista and/or 7.</p>
372    
373    
374    
375     <H3><a name="annex-b-list"></a>Partition list <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-b-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
376    
377     <p>The following table presents known partition types along with their IDs:</p>
378    
379     <p class="newcode" style="margin-right: 0;">&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;Empty&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;80&nbsp;&nbsp;Old&nbsp;Minix<br>
380     &nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;81&nbsp;&nbsp;Minix&nbsp;/&nbsp;old&nbsp;Linux<br>
381 sng 85 &nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;XENIX&nbsp;root&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Green">82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris</font><br>
382     &nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;XENIX&nbsp;usr&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</font><br>
383 sng 28 &nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;&lt;32M&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;84&nbsp;&nbsp;OS/2&nbsp;hidden&nbsp;C:&nbsp;drive<br>
384 sng 85 &nbsp;<font color="Red">5&nbsp;&nbsp;Extended</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;85&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;extended<br>
385     &nbsp;6&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;86&nbsp;&nbsp;NTFS&nbsp;volume&nbsp;set<br>
386 sng 28 &nbsp;<font color="Green">7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;87&nbsp;&nbsp;NTFS&nbsp;volume&nbsp;set<br>
387     &nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;AIX&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;88&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;plaintext<br>
388     &nbsp;9&nbsp;&nbsp;AIX&nbsp;bootable&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8e&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;LVM<br>
389     &nbsp;a&nbsp;&nbsp;OS/2&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;Manager&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;93&nbsp;&nbsp;Amoeba<br>
390     &nbsp;b&nbsp;&nbsp;W95&nbsp;FAT32&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;94&nbsp;&nbsp;Amoeba&nbsp;BBT<br>
391     &nbsp;<font color="Red">c&nbsp;&nbsp;W95&nbsp;FAT32&nbsp;(LBA)</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9f&nbsp;&nbsp;BSD/OS<br>
392     &nbsp;e&nbsp;&nbsp;W95&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;(LBA)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;a0&nbsp;&nbsp;IBM&nbsp;Thinkpad&nbsp;hibernation<br>
393     &nbsp;<font color="Green">f&nbsp;&nbsp;W95&nbsp;Ext'd&nbsp;(LBA)</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;a5&nbsp;&nbsp;FreeBSD<br>
394     10&nbsp;&nbsp;OPUS&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;a6&nbsp;&nbsp;OpenBSD<br>
395     11&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;FAT12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;a7&nbsp;&nbsp;NeXTSTEP<br>
396     12&nbsp;&nbsp;Compaq&nbsp;diagnostics&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;a8&nbsp;&nbsp;Darwin&nbsp;UFS<br>
397     14&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;&lt;32M&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;a9&nbsp;&nbsp;NetBSD<br>
398     16&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ab&nbsp;&nbsp;Darwin&nbsp;boot<br>
399     17&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;b7&nbsp;&nbsp;BSDI&nbsp;fs<br>
400     18&nbsp;&nbsp;AST&nbsp;SmartSleep&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;b8&nbsp;&nbsp;BSDI&nbsp;swap<br>
401     1b&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;W95&nbsp;FAT32&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bb&nbsp;&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;Wizard&nbsp;hidden<br>
402     1c&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;W95&nbsp;FAT32&nbsp;(LBA)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;be&nbsp;&nbsp;Solaris&nbsp;boot<br>
403     1e&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;W95&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;(LBA)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bf&nbsp;&nbsp;Solaris<br>
404     24&nbsp;&nbsp;NEC&nbsp;DOS&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;c1&nbsp;&nbsp;DRDOS/sec&nbsp;(FAT-12)<br>
405     39&nbsp;&nbsp;Plan&nbsp;9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;c4&nbsp;&nbsp;DRDOS/sec&nbsp;(FAT-16&nbsp;<&nbsp;32M)<br>
406     3c&nbsp;&nbsp;PartitionMagic&nbsp;recovery&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;c6&nbsp;&nbsp;DRDOS/sec&nbsp;(FAT-16)<br>
407     40&nbsp;&nbsp;Venix&nbsp;80286&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;c7&nbsp;&nbsp;Syrinx<br>
408     41&nbsp;&nbsp;PPC&nbsp;PReP&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;da&nbsp;&nbsp;Non-FS&nbsp;data<br>
409     42&nbsp;&nbsp;SFS&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;db&nbsp;&nbsp;CP/M&nbsp;/&nbsp;CTOS&nbsp;/&nbsp;...<br>
410     4d&nbsp;&nbsp;QNX4.x&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;de&nbsp;&nbsp;Dell&nbsp;Utility<br>
411     4e&nbsp;&nbsp;QNX4.x&nbsp;2nd&nbsp;part&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;df&nbsp;&nbsp;BootIt<br>
412     4f&nbsp;&nbsp;QNX4.x&nbsp;3rd&nbsp;part&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;e1&nbsp;&nbsp;DOS&nbsp;access<br>
413     50&nbsp;&nbsp;OnTrack&nbsp;DM&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;e3&nbsp;&nbsp;DOS&nbsp;R/O<br>
414     51&nbsp;&nbsp;OnTrack&nbsp;DM6&nbsp;Aux1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;e4&nbsp;&nbsp;SpeedStor<br>
415     52&nbsp;&nbsp;CP/M&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;eb&nbsp;&nbsp;BeOS&nbsp;fs<br>
416     53&nbsp;&nbsp;OnTrack&nbsp;DM6&nbsp;Aux3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ee&nbsp;&nbsp;EFI&nbsp;GPT<br>
417     54&nbsp;&nbsp;OnTrackDM6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ef&nbsp;&nbsp;EFI&nbsp;(FAT-12/16/32)<br>
418     55&nbsp;&nbsp;EZ-Drive&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;f0&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux/PA-RISC&nbsp;boot<br>
419     56&nbsp;&nbsp;Golden&nbsp;Bow&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;f1&nbsp;&nbsp;SpeedStor<br>
420     5c&nbsp;&nbsp;Priam&nbsp;Edisk&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;f4&nbsp;&nbsp;SpeedStor<br>
421     61&nbsp;&nbsp;SpeedStor&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;f2&nbsp;&nbsp;DOS&nbsp;secondary<br>
422     63&nbsp;&nbsp;GNU&nbsp;HURD&nbsp;or&nbsp;SysV&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;fd&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;raid&nbsp;autodetect<br>
423     64&nbsp;&nbsp;Novell&nbsp;Netware&nbsp;286&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;fe&nbsp;&nbsp;LANstep<br>
424     65&nbsp;&nbsp;Novell&nbsp;Netware&nbsp;386&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ff&nbsp;&nbsp;BBT<br>
425     70&nbsp;&nbsp;DiskSecure&nbsp;Multi-Boot<br>
426     75&nbsp;&nbsp;PC/IX</p>
427    
428     <p>The partitions you are most likely to see in use, are:</p>
429    
430     <ul>
431     <li><b><font color="Green">HPFS/NTFS (ID = 7)</font></b><br>
432     This is the <b>Windows XP</b> partition, also known as <b>NTFS</b></li>
433    
434     <li><b><font color="Red">W95 FAT32 (LBA) (ID = c)</font></b><br>
435     This is the <b>Windows 95 - 98</b> partition<br>
436     It is used in any kind of disk and large USB devices (1 GB and more)</li>
437    
438     <li><b><font color="Green">W95 Ext'd (LBA) (ID = f)</font></b><br>
439 sng 85 Extended partition. It acts as a container for other partitions</li>
440 sng 28
441 sng 85 <li><b><font color="Red">Extended (ID = 5)</font></b><br>
442     Another extended partition type. It acts as a container for other partitions<br>
443     There is one more extended partition type (ID = 85), but Windows doesn't recognise it</li>
444    
445     <li><b><font color="Green">Linux swap / Solaris (ID = 82)</font></b><br>
446 sng 28 Swap partition, acting as <b>Virtual Memory</b><br>
447     Modern computers with 1 - 2 GB of memory may not use it at all</li>
448    
449 sng 85 <li><b><font color="Red">Linux (ID = 83)</font></b><br>
450 sng 28 Linux partitions, such as <b>ext2</b>, <b>ext3</b> and <b>reiserfs</b></li>
451     </ul>
452    
453    
454    
455    
456    
457    
458    
459     <H2><a name="example"></a>Partitioning example <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
460    
461     <p>This section contains a partitioning example. I simulate the following situation in a virtual machine:</p>
462    
463     <p>I have two partitions in my disk: <b>/dev/sda1</b> that contains a GNU/Linux distribution, and <b>/dev/sda2</b> that is a swap partition. Here we can see the output of <b>fdisk</b>:</p>
464    
465     <p class="newcode">root@sysresccd /root % fdisk -l<br>
466     <br>
467     Disk /dev/sda: 2097 MB, 2097152000 bytes<br>
468     64 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1015 cylinders<br>
469     Units = cylinders of 4032 * 512 = 2064384 bytes<br>
470     Disk identifier: 0x00058a4a<br>
471     <br>
472     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>
473     /dev/sda1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;812&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1636960+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>
474     /dev/sda2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;813&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1015&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;409248&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux swap / Solaris</p>
475    
476     <p>Now I'm going to install another distribution on the same disk. First of all, I need one more partition, because only one distro can be installed on one partition. In addition, I want to separate /home to its own partition in order to be able to share it between distributions.</p>
477    
478     <p>Because the whole disk is already allocated, I must shrink at least one existing partition in order to create new partitions. I'll shrink both of them to half (<b>/dev/sda1</b> from 1,6 gigabytes to 800 megabytes, and <b>/dev/sda2</b> from 400 MB to 200 MB). In addition, I'll move <b>/dev/sda2</b> right next to <b>/dev/sda1</b> to keep the partitions in order.</p>
479    
480     <p>But how many partitions there will be in total? One, two, three... four! Phew, I was near to paint myself into a corner. If I created only primary partitions, I'd be unable to create any more partitions on the disk. Thus, I'll create an extended partition instead and two logical partitions within it. Then I'll be able to create more logical partitions later if required.</p>
481    
482     <p>There is one more challenge: moving /home to a separate partition. It's very easy to move the folder itself, but the distro in <b>/dev/sda1</b> will surely be confused if it doesn't find /home when it boots next time. Thus, I must edit its <b>/etc/fstab</b> and configure it to mount the /home partition automatically - before booting the distro itself.
483    
484     <p>Now there are only two decisions left: the numbers and sizes of the new partitions. I decide to install the new distro to <b>/dev/sda5</b> and move /home to <b>/dev/sda6</b>. Let <b>/dev/sda5</b> be 800 megabytes and <b>/dev/sda6</b> 200 MB in size.</p>
485    
486     <p>Now it's time to boot into <b>SystemRescueCD</b>. Graphical mode is required this time.</p>
487     <img src="images/systemrescuecd.png">
488     <p>I close the terminal and open <b>GParted</b> by clicking the third icon in the bottom pane.</p>
489     <img src="images/gparted-00.png">
490     <p>I right-click the partition <b>/dev/sda1</b> and select <b>Resize/Move</b>.</p>
491     <img src="images/gparted-01.png">
492     <p>I enter 799 MB as the new size, click the <b>Free Space Following (MiB)</b> combo box and press <b>Resize/Move</b>.</p>
493     <img src="images/gparted-02.png">
494     <p>I right-click now <b>/dev/sda2</b> and select <b>Resize/Move</b>.</p>
495     <img src="images/gparted-03.png">
496     <p>I enter 0 MB as preceding free space and 200 MB as partition size, click the <b>Free Space Following (MiB)</b> combo box and press <b>Resize/Move</b>.</p>
497     <img src="images/gparted-04.png">
498     <p>I right-click the unallocated area and select <b>New</b>.</p>
499     <img src="images/gparted-05.png">
500 sng 85 <p>I select <b>Extended Partition</b> as the partition type. The size was already 1000 megabytes (the maximum) and as said, an extended partition doesn't contain any filesystem. I click <b>Add</b>.</p>
501 sng 28 <img src="images/gparted-06.png">
502     <p>I right-click the unallocated area within the extended partition and select <b>New</b>.</p>
503     <img src="images/gparted-07.png">
504 sng 85 <p>I choose the ext4 filesystem and enter 799 MB as the partition size. After that, I click first the <b>Free Space Following (MiB)</b> combo box and then <b>Add</b>.</p>
505 sng 28 <img src="images/gparted-08.png">
506     <p>I right-click the remaining unallocated space and select <b>New</b> one more time.</p>
507     <img src="images/gparted-09.png">
508 sng 85 <p>I choose the ext4 filesystem again. The partition size setting was already 200 megabytes (the whole available space), so I just press <b>Add</b>.</p>
509 sng 28 <img src="images/gparted-10.png">
510     <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/important.png"></td><td>
511     The next step is to commit the changes.<br><br>After that some operations, for example<br>partition deletion, can no longer be undone.
512     </td></tr></table></div>
513     <p>Finally I commit the changes by pressing the rightmost icon in the main bar.</p>
514     <img src="images/gparted-11.png">
515     <p>After <i>slowly</i> reading the warning, I confirm my decisions by pressing <b>Apply</b>.</p>
516     <img src="images/gparted-12.png">
517     <p><b>GParted</b> begins to commit the changes...</p>
518     <img src="images/gparted-13.png">
519     <p>...and when everything is done, it shows me this window that I close.</p>
520     <img src="images/gparted-14.png">
521     <p>Then I can see the brand new partitions.</p>
522    
523     <H3><a name="partitions-home"></a>Moving /home <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
524    
525     <p>I close <b>GParted</b> and launch <b>Terminal</b> by pressing the second icon in the bottom pane.</p>
526    
527     <p>I create directories as mount points:</p>
528    
529     <p class="newcode">mkdir /mnt/sda1<br>
530     mkdir /mnt/sda6</p>
531    
532     <p>Then I mount the partitions:</p>
533    
534     <p class="newcode">mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/sda1<br>
535     mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/sda6</p>
536    
537 sng 85 <p>I copy the directory to the new partition:</p>
538 sng 28
539 sng 85 <p class="newcode">cd /mnt/sda1<br>
540     rsync -aAPSX home/ /mnt/sda6</p>
541 sng 28
542 sng 85 <p>I move the original directory out of my way and create a new directory in place of it:</p>
543    
544     <p class="newcode">mv home home-old<br>
545     mkdir home</p>
546    
547 sng 28 <p>After that, I unmount /dev/sda6, because it no longer needs to be mounted:</p>
548    
549 sng 85 <p class="newcode">umount /dev/sda6</p>
550 sng 28 <img src="images/terminal.png">
551     <p>Now I close <b>Terminal</b> and launch <b>Geany</b> by pressing the fourth icon in the bottom pane.</p>
552     <img src="images/geany-00.png">
553     <p>I select <b>File</b> -> <b>Open</b>.</p>
554     <img src="images/geany-01.png">
555     <p>I press <b>File System</b> and navigate to folder <b>/mnt/sda1/etc</b>.</p>
556     <img src="images/geany-02.png">
557     <p>I double-click the file <b>fstab</b>.</p>
558     <img src="images/geany-03.png">
559     <p>I add the following line:</p>
560    
561     <p class="newcode">/dev/sda6&nbsp;/home&nbsp;ext4&nbsp;defaults&nbsp;0&nbsp;2</p>
562    
563     <p>Finally, I select <b>File</b> -> <b>Save</b>.</p>
564     <img src="images/geany-04.png">
565 sng 85 <p>It's a good idea to reboot the computer now and check if the distribution in <b>/dev/sda1</b> still works. If yes, the /home-old directory can be removed and the disk is ready for the new distro.</p>
566 sng 28
567    
568     </div>
569     <!--<a name="template-top"></a>-->
570    
571     <div id="footer">
572     <div id="docline-bottom"> <a href="sysresccd.html">&lt; PREV</a> <a href="doc.html">UP</a> <a href="recover.html">NEXT &gt;</a> </div>
573 sng 141 <p>Copyright: &#169; <a href="mailto:&#115;&#110;&#103;&#064;&#104;&#101;&#108;&#108;&#117;&#103;&#046;&#103;&#114;?subject=About Clonezilla-SysRescCD v 3.2.0">Spiros Georgaras</a>, 2007-2010<br /><br/>
574 sng 129 Hosted by <a href="http://hellug.gr/index.php/OSullogos/Tautothta?from=Main.HELLUG" target="_blank" title="Hellenic Linux User Group">HEL.L.U.G.</a></p>
575 sng 28 </div>
576     </div>
577 sng 144 <div id="warning" align="center">
578     WARNING<br>
579     This is the BETA version of Clonezilla-SysRescCD<br>
580     To acces our current stable version, please click <a href="index.html">here</a>
581     </div>
582 sng 28 </body>
583     </html>

Properties

Name Value
svn:executable *

webmaster@linux.gr
ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.26