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91  <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>  <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>
92  <H3>Documentation: Managing partitions</H3>  <H3>Documentation: Managing partitions</H3>
93    <div style="margin:0; padding: 3px; width: 980; position relative;">    <div style="margin:0; padding: 3px; width: 980; position relative;">
94      <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>25/05/2010 - v 3.1.0</H4></div>      <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>30/06/2011 - v 3.2.0</H4></div>
95      <div style="position: absolute; right: 0px;"><H4>Last update: 18/06/2010</H4></div>      <div style="position: absolute; right: 0px;"><H4>Last update: 04/07/2011</H4></div>
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# Line 117  This page contains some theory about par Line 130  This page contains some theory about par
130  While partitioning, an user error or a bug can damage your partitions.<br><br>Creating a disk image of the disk to be<br>partitioned beforehand is highly recommended.  While partitioning, an user error or a bug can damage your partitions.<br><br>Creating a disk image of the disk to be<br>partitioned beforehand is highly recommended.
131  </td></tr></table></div>  </td></tr></table></div>
132  <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/info.png"></td><td>  <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/info.png"></td><td>
133  The following pressentation has been made using<br><b>SystemRescueCD v 1.4.0</b>  The following pressentation has been made using<br><b>SystemRescueCD v 2.1.1</b>
134  </td></tr></table></div>  </td></tr></table></div>
135    
136  <H2><a name="theory"></a>Some theory <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>  <H2><a name="theory"></a>Some theory <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
# Line 132  The following pressentation has been mad Line 145  The following pressentation has been mad
145    
146  <p>Each operatin system provides some kind of tool to create and manage partitions. Examples of such tools are <b>fdisk</b> in DOS/Windows, <b>fdisk</b>, <b>sfdisk</b> and <b>parted</b> in Linux, etc.</p>  <p>Each operatin system provides some kind of tool to create and manage partitions. Examples of such tools are <b>fdisk</b> in DOS/Windows, <b>fdisk</b>, <b>sfdisk</b> and <b>parted</b> in Linux, etc.</p>
147    
148  <H3><a name="partitions-extended"></a>What is the difference between primary, extended and logical partitions? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>  <H3><a name="partitions-extended"></a>What is the difference between primary, extended and logical partitions? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
149    
150  <p>Information about partitions is saved in so-called partition table in Master Boot Record. MBR itself is only 512 bytes in size, and only 64 bytes are reserved for partition table. That's not enough, and there are many workarounds to bypass limitations caused by the size, for example <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_block_addressing#LBA.2C_ATA_devices_and_Enhanced_BIOS" target="_blank">logical block addressing</a>. Extended partitions are another workaround.</p>  <p>Information about partitions is saved in so-called partition table in Master Boot Record. MBR itself is only 512 bytes in size, and only 64 bytes are reserved for partition table. That's not enough, and there are many workarounds to bypass limitations caused by the size, for example <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_block_addressing#Enhanced_BIOS" target="_blank">logical block addressing</a>. Extended partitions are another workaround.</p>
151    
152  <p>Partition table can only store information about four partitions. If one has, for example, two GNU/Linux distributions on the same disk, both of them having separate root partitions, shared /home and shared swap, the partition number limit has been hit already.</p>  <p>Partition table can only store information about four partitions. If one has, for example, two GNU/Linux distributions on the same disk, both of them having separate root partitions, shared /home and shared swap, the partition number limit has been hit already.</p>
153    
# Line 144  The following pressentation has been mad Line 157  The following pressentation has been mad
157    
158  <p>Extended partition contains only EBRs and logical partitions (and maybe unallocated space). Extended partition doesn't contain any filesystem and files can't be stored in it. Of course, logical partition can contain any filesystem (or be unformatted).</p>  <p>Extended partition contains only EBRs and logical partitions (and maybe unallocated space). Extended partition doesn't contain any filesystem and files can't be stored in it. Of course, logical partition can contain any filesystem (or be unformatted).</p>
159    
160  <p>Extended partition itself must be primary partition: an extended partition can't be within another extended partition. In addition, a disk can contain only one extended partition.</p>  <p>Logical partitions can always be used for storing data: any operating system can see logical partitions. GNU/Linux supports both multiple primary extended partitions and extended partitions within each other, while Windows supports only the latter. GNU/Linux distributions can be installed to logical partitions as well, but Windows requires a lot of tweaking. See <a href="http://www.goodells.net/multiboot/index.htm" target="_blank">this outdated guide</a>.</p>
   
 <p>Logical partitions can always be used for storing data: any operating system can see logical partitions. GNU/Linux distributions can be installed to logical partitions as well, but Windows requires a lot of tweaking. See <a href="http://www.goodells.net/multiboot/index.htm" target="_blank">this outdated guide</a>.</p>  
161    
162  <H3><a name="partitions-lvm"></a>What is LVM? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>  <H3><a name="partitions-lvm"></a>What is LVM? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
163    
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191    
192  <p>Journaling partially fixes that problem by writing most changes to the disk twice: first to a special area called journal and, after that, to the filesystem itself. If power is lost while writing to the journal was in progress, the partial change is just ignored and never committed to the filesystem itself. If power failure or OS freeze happened while writing to filesystem itself, the write operation is finished by using the information in journal.</p>  <p>Journaling partially fixes that problem by writing most changes to the disk twice: first to a special area called journal and, after that, to the filesystem itself. If power is lost while writing to the journal was in progress, the partial change is just ignored and never committed to the filesystem itself. If power failure or OS freeze happened while writing to filesystem itself, the write operation is finished by using the information in journal.</p>
193    
194  <p>Journaling helps most of the time when the computer has been forcefully shut down, but not always. Due to performance reasons, only some write operations are written to the journal, mostly the biggest operations. Of course, journaling doesn't help if that particular operation that was in progress while power was lost didn't go through the journal. Journaling also doesn't protect from everything: for example, using ext4 filesystem in conjuction with programs that write a lot of files in a short time can result in <a href="http://www.h-online.com/open/news/item/Possible-data-loss-in-Ext4-740467.html" target="_blank">massive data loss</a>, regardless if journaling is enabled or not.</p>  <p>Journaling is always a trade-off between reliability and performance. In fact, the ext3 and ext4 filesystems support multiple journaling modes in order to allow the user to choose the optimal compromise. The most popular choices are <b>ordered</b> and <b>writeback</b>.</p>
195    
196  <p>In addition, journaling reduces performance. It causes more writes to the disk. That's not a big problem on mechanical hard drives, but on SSDs (Solid State Drives) and thumb drives write speed is much slower than read speed. They also have a limited number of writing cycles, so journaling reduces their lifetime. I (Jyrki) actually use ext2 and FAT32 filesystems on my external SSD drive because they do NOT support journaling at all.</p>  <p>Both modes only write metadata changes to the journal before committing them: data itself is written directly to the main filesystem. The difference between the modes is that <b>ordered</b> mode guarantees that the data is written before the change is marked as committed. The difference may sound small, but in some cases <b>ordered</b> mode causes horrible performance. In Linux 2.6.30, the default journaling mode was changed to <b>writeback</b> - and it was quickly found out that <b>writeback</b> mode may cause massive data loss. See <a href="http://forums.raiden.net/viewtopic.php?p=155912#155912" target="_blank">this forum post</a> for details. Most GNU/Linux distributions are now using <b>ordered</b> mode as the default again.</p>
197    
198    <p>In addition, on SSDs (Solid State Drives) and thumb drives write speed is much slower than read speed. They also have a limited number of writing cycles, so journaling reduces their lifetime. Thus, I (Jyrki) recommend against using journaling fileystems on such drives.</p>
199    
200  <H3><a name="partitions-filesystems"></a>What are the differences between most popular filesystems? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>  <H3><a name="partitions-filesystems"></a>What are the differences between most popular filesystems? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
201    
# Line 238  The following pressentation has been mad Line 251  The following pressentation has been mad
251    </tr>    </tr>
252      <tr>      <tr>
253      <th>ext4</th>      <th>ext4</th>
254      <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No</td>      <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">3rd party driver</td>
255          <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>          <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>
256          <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">16 GB-16 TB*</td>          <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">16 GB-16 TB*</td>
257          <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>          <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
# Line 246  The following pressentation has been mad Line 259  The following pressentation has been mad
259    </tr>    </tr>
260      <tr>      <tr>
261      <th>exFAT</th>      <th>exFAT</th>
262      <td style="background-color: rgb(127,255,0)">Native (Vista/7)**</td>      <td style="background-color: rgb(127,255,0)">Built-in (Vista/7)**</td>
263          <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No</td>          <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">3rd party driver</td>
264          <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">64 ZB</td>          <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">64 ZB</td>
265          <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No</td>          <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No</td>
266          <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>          <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
# Line 266  The following pressentation has been mad Line 279  The following pressentation has been mad
279  <li>"Native" means that the kernel supports the filesystem and the OS can boot from a partition using that FS.</li>  <li>"Native" means that the kernel supports the filesystem and the OS can boot from a partition using that FS.</li>
280  <li>"Built-in" means that the kernel supports the filesystem, but booting from a partition containing such FS is very difficult.</li>  <li>"Built-in" means that the kernel supports the filesystem, but booting from a partition containing such FS is very difficult.</li>
281  <li>"Driver included" means that ntfs-3g (the driver that adds NTFS support to Linux) comes with most GNU/Linux distributions.</li>  <li>"Driver included" means that ntfs-3g (the driver that adds NTFS support to Linux) comes with most GNU/Linux distributions.</li>
282  <li>"3rd party driver" means that drivers to add filesystem support are available, but must be downloaded and installed separately. The drivers are <a href="http://www.fs-driver.org" target="_blank">Ext2 IFS</a> and <a href="http://www.ext2fsd.com" target="_blank">Ext2fsd</a>.</li>  <li>"3rd party driver" means that a driver to add filesystem support is available, but must be downloaded and installed separately. The ext2/3/4 driver is <a href="http://www.ext2fsd.com" target="_blank">Ext2fsd</a> and the exFAT driver is <a href="http://code.google.com/p/exfat/" target="_blank">exfat</a>.</li>
 <li>"No" means that there is no way to use the filesystem within the operating system.</li>  
283  </ul>  </ul>
284    
285  <H2><a name="filesystems"></a>Filesystems <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>  <H2><a name="filesystems"></a>Filesystems <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
# Line 282  The following pressentation has been mad Line 294  The following pressentation has been mad
294    
295  <p>FAT32 was first introduced with Windows 95 OSR2. Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows 2000 and newer support FAT32 too. Linux kernel has supported FAT32 almost as long as Windows, but booting GNU/Linux from FAT32 partition is difficult and actually requires DOS to be installed in the partition as well. (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FAT_filesystem_and_Linux#Installing_Linux_on_and_booting_it_from_FAT_volumes_using_umsdos" target="_blank">more information</a>)</p>  <p>FAT32 was first introduced with Windows 95 OSR2. Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows 2000 and newer support FAT32 too. Linux kernel has supported FAT32 almost as long as Windows, but booting GNU/Linux from FAT32 partition is difficult and actually requires DOS to be installed in the partition as well. (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FAT_filesystem_and_Linux#Installing_Linux_on_and_booting_it_from_FAT_volumes_using_umsdos" target="_blank">more information</a>)</p>
296    
297  <p>FAT32 partition can be up to two terabytes in size. As of now (March 2010), there are hard drives that hit the limit, but don't exceed it. A single file within FAT32 partition can be up to four gigabytes in size.</p>  <p>FAT32 partition can be up to two terabytes in size. There are already hard drives that exceed the limit. A single file within FAT32 partition can be up to four gigabytes in size.</p>
298    
299  <p>Because FAT32 is, in the end, based on FAT12, it has very few features. It doesn't support file permissions, hard/symbolic links, encryption, compression, alternative data streams, journaling... It lacks support for nearly anything that defines a modern filesystem. However, due to very few features, FAT32 is very fast filesystem if it's not fragmented or on a Flash-based drive. Mind you, FAT32 fragments very fast.</p>  <p>Because FAT32 is, in the end, based on FAT12, it has very few features. It doesn't support file permissions, hard/symbolic links, encryption, compression, alternative data streams, journaling... It lacks support for nearly anything that defines a modern filesystem. However, due to very few features, FAT32 is very fast filesystem if it's not fragmented or on a Flash-based drive. Mind you, FAT32 fragments very fast.</p>
300    
# Line 294  The following pressentation has been mad Line 306  The following pressentation has been mad
306    
307  <p>Ext2 was developed in January 1993, earlier than any other filesystem mentioned in this page.</p>  <p>Ext2 was developed in January 1993, earlier than any other filesystem mentioned in this page.</p>
308    
309  <p>Because ext2 is designed for GNU/Linux, support in Linux kernel was implemented immediately. The first Windows driver supporting ext2, <a href="http://www.ext2fsd.com" target="_blank">Ext2fsd</a> 0.01, was released on 25 January 2002. Both Windows drivers for ext2 work only on Windows NT operating systems (NT 4.0 up to Vista, 7 isn't supported yet).</p>  <p>Because ext2 is designed for GNU/Linux, support in Linux kernel was implemented immediately. The first Windows driver supporting ext2, <a href="http://www.ext2fsd.com" target="_blank">Ext2fsd</a> 0.01, was released on 25 January 2002. Ext2fsd works only on Windows NT operating systems starting from Windows 2000.</p>
310    
311  <p>The best property of ext2 is extensibility. The superblock contains information about which version the filesystem is (ext2, ext3 or ext4) and which extensions and features are in use. By using these pieces of information, the operating system or driver can decide whether or not mounting the partition is safe. That's the most important reason why most GNU/Linux distributions still use successors of ext2 as default filesystems.</p>  <p>The best property of ext2 is extensibility. The superblock contains information about which version the filesystem is (ext2, ext3 or ext4) and which extensions and features are in use. By using these pieces of information, the operating system or driver can decide whether or not mounting the partition is safe. That's the most important reason why most GNU/Linux distributions still use successors of ext2 as default filesystems.</p>
312    
# Line 302  The following pressentation has been mad Line 314  The following pressentation has been mad
314    
315  <p>Ext2 supports file permissions, both hard and symbolic links and extended file attributes. Encryption, compression and journaling are unsupported.</p>  <p>Ext2 supports file permissions, both hard and symbolic links and extended file attributes. Encryption, compression and journaling are unsupported.</p>
316    
317  <p>Due to lack of journaling support and existence of Windows drivers, I recommend using ext2 if you're going to install GNU/Linux on a SSD drive and want to be able to access files within Windows too. In fact, that's exactly the setup I have.</p>  <p>Lack of journaling support is the worst limitation of ext2. What was done in order to get rid of the limitation?</p>
   
 <p>However, lack of journaling support is the worst limitation of ext2. And what was done in order to get rid of the limitation?</p>  
318    
319  <H3><a name="partitions-ext3"></a>ext3 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>  <H3><a name="partitions-ext3"></a>ext3 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
320    
321  <p>Ext3, the successor of ext2, was introduced in Linux kernel on November 2001. It supports journaling, can be grown online and indexes large directories.</p>  <p>Ext3, the successor of ext2, was introduced in Linux kernel on November 2001. It supports journaling, can be grown online and optionally indexes large directories.</p>
322    
323  <p>Ext2 IFS and Ext2fsd can mount ext3 partition as ext2 if the journal is empty. (If it's not, something is wrong - journal is always emptied when the partition is unmounted or the computer is shut down.) Thus, ext3 support under Windows is just as good/bad as ext2 support.</p>  <p>Ext2fsd can mount ext3 partition as ext2. Thus, ext3 support under Windows is just as good/bad as ext2 support.</p>
324    
325  <p>Partition and file size limits are the same as in ext2: partition size limit is 2-32 TB and file size limit 16 GB-2 TB, depending on cluster size.</p>  <p>Partition and file size limits are the same as in ext2: partition size limit is 2-32 TB and file size limit 16 GB-2 TB, depending on cluster size.</p>
326    
327  <p>Due to journaling support and existence of Windows drivers, ext3 is a good choice if you're going to install GNU/Linux on a mechanical hard drive and want to be able to access files within Windows.</p>  <p>Ext3 is becoming obsolete because there is...</p>
328    
329  <H3><a name="partitions-ext4"></a>ext4 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>  <H3><a name="partitions-ext4"></a>ext4 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
330    
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334    
335  <p>Another important improvement is larger partition size limit: an ext4 partition can be even one exabyte in size. (An exabyte is a million terabytes.) In addition, a directory within an ext4 partition can contain up to 64 000 subdirectories (instead of 32 000, as in ext2/3) and timestamps are much more accurate. The file size limit is 16 GB-16 TB, depending on cluster size.</p>  <p>Another important improvement is larger partition size limit: an ext4 partition can be even one exabyte in size. (An exabyte is a million terabytes.) In addition, a directory within an ext4 partition can contain up to 64 000 subdirectories (instead of 32 000, as in ext2/3) and timestamps are much more accurate. The file size limit is 16 GB-16 TB, depending on cluster size.</p>
336    
337  <p>Unfortunately, Ext2 IFS and Ext2Fsd don't support ext4 and are unable to mount ext4 partition if extents are enabled. They can be disabled, but other improvements of ext4 aren't that important for most people - using ext2 or ext3 is just easier.</p>  <p>Ext2fsd 0.50, released on 5 February 2011, supports ext4 and is able to mount ext4 partition even if extents are enabled. Thus, ext4 support under Windows is just as good/bad as ext2 support.</p>
338    
339  <p>Due to its features, ext4 is a good filesystem on computers that only have GNU/Linux installed. Because journaling can be disabled, it is suitable for Solid State Drives and thumb drives too.</p>  <p>Due to availability of Ext2fsd 0.50 and additional features, ext4 has become the de-facto GNU/Linux filesystem. Because journaling can be disabled, it is suitable for Solid State Drives and thumb drives too.</p>
340    
341  <H3><a name="partitions-ntfs"></a>NTFS <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>  <H3><a name="partitions-ntfs"></a>NTFS <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
342    
# Line 350  The following pressentation has been mad Line 360  The following pressentation has been mad
360    
361  <p>However, FAT32 only allows files up to four gigabytes in size. The limit is already becoming too small, for example a DVD disc image can exceed that limit. In addition, FAT32 lacks file permission support. In order to get rid of these limitations, Microsoft took FAT from its grave and updated it one more time.</p>  <p>However, FAT32 only allows files up to four gigabytes in size. The limit is already becoming too small, for example a DVD disc image can exceed that limit. In addition, FAT32 lacks file permission support. In order to get rid of these limitations, Microsoft took FAT from its grave and updated it one more time.</p>
362    
363  <p>ExFAT (extended FAT), also known as FAT64, was introduced with Windows CE 6.0, on November 2006. Windows Vista SP1, Windows 7 and newer support exFAT too, and by installing <a href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/955704" target="_blank">this update</a> Windows XP can be extended to support exFAT as well. Unfortunately, the only read-write exFAT driver for GNU/Linux (<a href="http://www.tuxera.com/products/exfat-for-embedded-systems/" target="_blank">Tuxera exFAT for Embedded Systems</a>) is payware.</p>  <p>ExFAT (extended FAT), also known as FAT64, was introduced with Windows CE 6.0, on November 2006. Windows Vista SP1, Windows 7 and newer support exFAT too, and by installing <a href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/955704" target="_blank">this update</a> Windows XP can be extended to support exFAT as well. GNU/Linux drivers are available too, but currently none of them are both stable and free. The best option seems to be <a href="http://code.google.com/p/exfat/" target="_blank">exfat</a>, an open-source driver in beta stage.</p>
364    
365  <p>The partition and file size limits of exFAT are the same: 64 zettabytes. Another important improvement is file permission support that, oddly, is lacking in Windows Vista. In addition, a directory within an exFAT partition can contain up to 2 796 202 files (instead of 65 536, as in FAT32) and timestamps have become more accurate.</p>  <p>The partition and file size limits of exFAT are the same: 64 zettabytes. Another important improvement is file permission support that, oddly, is lacking in Windows Vista. In addition, a directory within an exFAT partition can contain up to 2 796 202 files (instead of 65 536, as in FAT32) and timestamps have become more accurate.</p>
366    
# Line 364  The following pressentation has been mad Line 374  The following pressentation has been mad
374    
375  <p class="newcode" style="margin-right: 0;">&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;Empty&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;80&nbsp;&nbsp;Old&nbsp;Minix<br>  <p class="newcode" style="margin-right: 0;">&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;Empty&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;80&nbsp;&nbsp;Old&nbsp;Minix<br>
376  &nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;81&nbsp;&nbsp;Minix&nbsp;/&nbsp;old&nbsp;Linux<br>  &nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;81&nbsp;&nbsp;Minix&nbsp;/&nbsp;old&nbsp;Linux<br>
377  &nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;XENIX&nbsp;root&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris</font><br>  &nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;XENIX&nbsp;root&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Green">82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris</font><br>
378  &nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;XENIX&nbsp;usr&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Green">83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</font><br>  &nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;XENIX&nbsp;usr&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</font><br>
379  &nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;&lt;32M&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;84&nbsp;&nbsp;OS/2&nbsp;hidden&nbsp;C:&nbsp;drive<br>  &nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;&lt;32M&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;84&nbsp;&nbsp;OS/2&nbsp;hidden&nbsp;C:&nbsp;drive<br>
380  &nbsp;5&nbsp;&nbsp;Extended&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;85&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;extended<br>  &nbsp;<font color="Red">5&nbsp;&nbsp;Extended</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;85&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;extended<br>
381  &nbsp;<font color="Red">6&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT16</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;86&nbsp;&nbsp;NTFS&nbsp;volume&nbsp;set<br>  &nbsp;6&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;86&nbsp;&nbsp;NTFS&nbsp;volume&nbsp;set<br>
382  &nbsp;<font color="Green">7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;87&nbsp;&nbsp;NTFS&nbsp;volume&nbsp;set<br>  &nbsp;<font color="Green">7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;87&nbsp;&nbsp;NTFS&nbsp;volume&nbsp;set<br>
383  &nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;AIX&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;88&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;plaintext<br>  &nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;AIX&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;88&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;plaintext<br>
384  &nbsp;9&nbsp;&nbsp;AIX&nbsp;bootable&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8e&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;LVM<br>  &nbsp;9&nbsp;&nbsp;AIX&nbsp;bootable&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8e&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;LVM<br>
# Line 414  The following pressentation has been mad Line 424  The following pressentation has been mad
424  <p>The partitions you are most likely to see in use, are:</p>  <p>The partitions you are most likely to see in use, are:</p>
425    
426  <ul>  <ul>
 <li><b><font color="Red">FAT16 (ID = 6)  </font></b><br>  
 This is the old DOS partition type<br>  
 You may still find it in pure DOS installations, like vendor diagnostics tool partitions, and small USB sticks (128 - 250 MB)</li>  
   
427  <li><b><font color="Green">HPFS/NTFS (ID = 7)</font></b><br>  <li><b><font color="Green">HPFS/NTFS (ID = 7)</font></b><br>
428  This is the <b>Windows XP</b> partition, also known as <b>NTFS</b></li>  This is the <b>Windows XP</b> partition, also known as <b>NTFS</b></li>
429    
# Line 426  This is the <b>Windows 95 - 98</b> parti Line 432  This is the <b>Windows 95 - 98</b> parti
432  It is used in any kind of disk and large USB devices (1 GB and more)</li>  It is used in any kind of disk and large USB devices (1 GB and more)</li>
433    
434  <li><b><font color="Green">W95 Ext'd (LBA) (ID = f)</font></b><br>  <li><b><font color="Green">W95 Ext'd (LBA) (ID = f)</font></b><br>
435  Extended partition. It acts as a container for other partitions<br>  Extended partition. It acts as a container for other partitions</li>
 There is one more extended partition type (ID = 5), but it does not seem to be in use as much</li>  
436    
437  <li><b><font color="Red">Linux swap / Solaris (ID = 82)</font></b><br>  <li><b><font color="Red">Extended (ID = 5)</font></b><br>
438    Another extended partition type. It acts as a container for other partitions<br>
439    There is one more extended partition type (ID = 85), but Windows doesn't recognise it</li>
440    
441    <li><b><font color="Green">Linux swap / Solaris (ID = 82)</font></b><br>
442  Swap partition, acting as <b>Virtual Memory</b><br>  Swap partition, acting as <b>Virtual Memory</b><br>
443  Modern computers with 1 - 2 GB of memory may not use it at all</li>  Modern computers with 1 - 2 GB of memory may not use it at all</li>
444    
445  <li><b><font color="Green">Linux (ID = 83)</font></b><br>  <li><b><font color="Red">Linux (ID = 83)</font></b><br>
446  Linux partitions, such as <b>ext2</b>, <b>ext3</b> and <b>reiserfs</b></li>  Linux partitions, such as <b>ext2</b>, <b>ext3</b> and <b>reiserfs</b></li>
447  </ul>  </ul>
448    
# Line 447  Linux partitions, such as <b>ext2</b>, < Line 456  Linux partitions, such as <b>ext2</b>, <
456    
457  <p>This section contains a partitioning example. I simulate the following situation in a virtual machine:</p>  <p>This section contains a partitioning example. I simulate the following situation in a virtual machine:</p>
458    
459  <p>I have two partitions in my disk: <b>/dev/sda1</b> that contains a GNU/Linux distribution, and <b>/dev/sda2</b> that is a swap partition. Here we can see the output of <b>fdisk</b>:</p>  <p>I have two partitions in my disk: <b>/dev/sda1</b> that contains a GNU/Linux distribution, and <b>/dev/sda2</b> that is a swap partition. Here we can see the output of <b>parted</b>:</p>
460    
461  <p class="newcode">root@sysresccd /root % fdisk -l<br>  <p class="newcode">root@sysresccd /root % parted -l<br>
462    Model: ATA VBOX HARDDISK (scsi)<br>
463    Disk /dev/sda: 2097MB<br>
464    Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B<br>
465    Partition Table: msdos<br>
466    <br>
467    Number&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Size&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Type&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;File&nbsp;system&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Flags<br>
468    &nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;32.3kB&nbsp;&nbsp;1679MB&nbsp;&nbsp;1679MB&nbsp;&nbsp;primary&nbsp;&nbsp;ext4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;boot<br>
469    &nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1679MB&nbsp;&nbsp;2097MB&nbsp;&nbsp;418MB&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;primary&nbsp;&nbsp;linux-swap(v1)<br>
470  <br>  <br>
 Disk /dev/sda: 2097 MB, 2097152000 bytes<br>  
 64 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1015 cylinders<br>  
 Units = cylinders of 4032 * 512 = 2064384 bytes<br>  
 Disk identifier: 0x00058a4a<br>  
471  <br>  <br>
472  &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Device&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Blocks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Id&nbsp;&nbsp;System<br>  Warning: Unable to open /dev/sr0 read-write (Read-only file system).&nbsp;&nbsp;/dev/sr0 has been opened read-only.<br>
473  /dev/sda1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;812&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1636960+&nbsp;&nbsp;83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux<br>  Error: /dev/sr0: unrecognised disk label<br>
474  /dev/sda2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;813&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1015&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;409248&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux swap / Solaris</p>  <br>
475    Error: /dev/fd0: unrecognised disk label</p>
476    
477  <p>Now I'm going to install another distribution on the same disk. First of all, I need one more partition, because only one distro can be installed on one partition. In addition, I want to separate /home to its own partition in order to be able to share it between distributions.</p>  <p>Now I'm going to install another distribution on the same disk. First of all, I need one more partition, because only one distro can be installed on one partition. In addition, I want to separate /home to its own partition in order to be able to share it between distributions.</p>
478    
# Line 481  Disk identifier: 0x00058a4a<br> Line 495  Disk identifier: 0x00058a4a<br>
495  <p>I right-click now <b>/dev/sda2</b> and select <b>Resize/Move</b>.</p>  <p>I right-click now <b>/dev/sda2</b> and select <b>Resize/Move</b>.</p>
496  <img src="images/gparted-03.png">  <img src="images/gparted-03.png">
497  <p>I enter 0 MB as preceding free space and 200 MB as partition size, click the <b>Free Space Following (MiB)</b> combo box and press <b>Resize/Move</b>.</p>  <p>I enter 0 MB as preceding free space and 200 MB as partition size, click the <b>Free Space Following (MiB)</b> combo box and press <b>Resize/Move</b>.</p>
498    <img src="images/gparted-03a.png">
499    <p>I read the warning. As the swap partition doesn't contain /boot (or any files, for that matter), I just click <b>OK</b>.</p>
500  <img src="images/gparted-04.png">  <img src="images/gparted-04.png">
501  <p>I right-click the unallocated area and select <b>New</b>.</p>  <p>I right-click the unallocated area and select <b>New</b>.</p>
502  <img src="images/gparted-05.png">  <img src="images/gparted-05.png">
503  <p>I select <b>Extended Partition</b> as the partition type. The size was already 998 megabytes (the maximum) and as said, an extended partition doesn't contain any filesystem. I click <b>Add</b>.</p>  <p>I select <b>Extended Partition</b> as the partition type. The size was already 1000 megabytes (the maximum) and as said, an extended partition doesn't contain any filesystem. I click <b>Add</b>.</p>
504  <img src="images/gparted-06.png">  <img src="images/gparted-06.png">
505  <p>I right-click the unallocated area within the extended partition and select <b>New</b>.</p>  <p>I right-click the unallocated area within the extended partition and select <b>New</b>.</p>
506  <img src="images/gparted-07.png">  <img src="images/gparted-07.png">
507  <p>I choose the ext4 filesystem and enter 798 MB as the partition size. After that, I click first the <b>Free Space Following (MiB)</b> combo box and then <b>Add</b>.</p>  <p>I choose the ext4 filesystem and enter 799 MB as the partition size. After that, I click first the <b>Free Space Following (MiB)</b> combo box and then <b>Add</b>.</p>
508  <img src="images/gparted-08.png">  <img src="images/gparted-08.png">
509  <p>I right-click the remaining unallocated space and select <b>New</b> one more time.</p>  <p>I right-click the remaining unallocated space and select <b>New</b> one more time.</p>
510  <img src="images/gparted-09.png">  <img src="images/gparted-09.png">
511  <p>I choose the ext4 filesystem again. The partition size setting was already 201 megabytes (the whole available space), so I just press <b>Add</b>.</p>  <p>I choose the ext4 filesystem again. The partition size setting was already 199 megabytes (the whole available space), so I just press <b>Add</b>.</p>
512  <img src="images/gparted-10.png">  <img src="images/gparted-10.png">
513  <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/important.png"></td><td>  <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/important.png"></td><td>
514  The next step is to commit the changes.<br><br>After that some operations, for example<br>partition deletion, can no longer be undone.  The next step is to commit the changes.<br><br>After that some operations, for example<br>partition deletion, can no longer be undone.
# Line 521  mkdir /mnt/sda6</p> Line 537  mkdir /mnt/sda6</p>
537  <p class="newcode">mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/sda1<br>  <p class="newcode">mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/sda1<br>
538  mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/sda6</p>  mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/sda6</p>
539    
540  <p>I move the directory:</p>  <p>I copy the directory to the new partition:</p>
541    
542    <p class="newcode">cd /mnt/sda1<br>
543    rsync -aAPSX home/ /mnt/sda6</p>
544    
545  <p class="newcode">mv /mnt/sda1/home/* /mnt/sda6/</p>  <p>I move the original directory out of my way and create a new directory in place of it:</p>
546    
547    <p class="newcode">mv home home-old<br>
548    mkdir home</p>
549    
550  <p>After that, I unmount /dev/sda6, because it no longer needs to be mounted:</p>  <p>After that, I unmount /dev/sda6, because it no longer needs to be mounted:</p>
551    
552  <p class="newcode">sync<br>  <p class="newcode">umount /dev/sda6</p>
 umount /dev/sda6</p>  
553  <img src="images/terminal.png">  <img src="images/terminal.png">
 <p>As you can see, under Linux it's perfectly normal that the terminal doesn't answer to the commands. Don't worry - they are really executed.</p>  
   
554  <p>Now I close <b>Terminal</b> and launch <b>Geany</b> by pressing the fourth icon in the bottom pane.</p>  <p>Now I close <b>Terminal</b> and launch <b>Geany</b> by pressing the fourth icon in the bottom pane.</p>
555  <img src="images/geany-00.png">  <img src="images/geany-00.png">
556  <p>I select <b>File</b> -> <b>Open</b>.</p>  <p>I select <b>File</b> -> <b>Open</b>.</p>
# Line 546  umount /dev/sda6</p> Line 565  umount /dev/sda6</p>
565    
566  <p>Finally, I select <b>File</b> -> <b>Save</b>.</p>  <p>Finally, I select <b>File</b> -> <b>Save</b>.</p>
567  <img src="images/geany-04.png">  <img src="images/geany-04.png">
568  <p>It's a good idea to reboot the computer now and check if the distribution in <b>/dev/sda1</b> still works. Anyway, the disk should now be ready for the new distro.</p>  <p>It's a good idea to reboot the computer now and check if the distribution in <b>/dev/sda1</b> still works. If yes, the /home-old directory can be removed and the disk is ready for the new distro.</p>
569    
570    
571  </div>  </div>
# Line 554  umount /dev/sda6</p> Line 573  umount /dev/sda6</p>
573    
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