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78     <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>
79     <H3>Documentation: Boot parameters</H3>
80     <div style="margin:0; padding: 3px; width: 980; position relative;">
81     <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>25/02/2010 - v 3.1.0</H4></div>
82     <div style="position: absolute; right: 0px;"><H4>Last update: 01/03/2010</H4></div>
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108     <H2 style="margin-top: 0;"><a name="boot-intro"></a>Intro <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#boot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
109     <p>Booting a linux system means loading a kernel, which is actually the operating system. Well, this is not exactly true, and it is not the only thing that happens during boot up phase, but it is not my intension to explain it here.
110     <br><br>
111     The kernel is loaded by Isolinux (the CD boot manager), which is able to pass a number of parameters to it, through its configuration file <b>isolinux.cfg</b>.
112     <br><br>
113     These parameters, called boot parameters, are documented by the kernel itself, and can differentiate its behavior dramatically. In our case, each CD (SystemRescueCD and Clonezilla Live) accept a different set of parameters, because they are based on <a href="http://www.gentoo.org/" target="_blank">gentoo</a> and <a href="http://www.debian.org/" target="_blank">debian</a>, respectively.
114     <br><br>
115     While in the splash screen of <b>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</b>, you can edit the boot parameters by pressing TAB. They will be presented to you, and you can add or remove what you want. You must be careful not to change or remove the parameters that are dedicated to the CD itself, as altering them will certainty make it unbootable. When you are done, just press ENTER to boot.
116     </p>
119     <!-- sysresccd -->
120     <H2><a name="sysresccd"></a>SystemRescueCD boot parameters <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#boot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
121     <!-- note -->
122     <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/info.png"></td><td>
123 sng 168 The following info applies to <b>SystemRescueCD v. 2.1.1</b>. In case<br>
124 sng 28 you need to get info for a more recent version of <b>SystemRescueCD</b><br>
125     please see the page "<a href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Booting_the_CD-ROM" target="_blank">Sysresccd-manual-en Booting the CD-ROM</a>"
126     </td></tr></table></div>
127     <p>A typical sysresccd isolinux entry is:</p>
129     <p class="newcode">kernel rescuecd<br>
130     append initrd=initram.igz video=ofonly</p>
131     <!--empty-line-->
132     <p>The kernel used is <b>rescuecd</b>, and anything after the word <b>append</b> is a boot parameter.<br><br>
133     <!--empty-line-->
134     Available kernels (boot images):</p>
136     <ul class="otherpage" style="padding: 0px 10px 20px 40px">
137 sng 44 <!-- Please do not delete these comented lines-->
138     <!-- SysRescCD documentation section. Please use "update-boot-params" script to update -->
139     <!--kernels-Documentation-->
140     <li><b>rescuecd</b> Default for 32bit systems, with Framebuffer disabled, best choice.
141 sng 142 </li><li><b>rescue64</b> Default 64 bit kernel. Use it if you want to chroot to a 64bit linux system installed on your hard disk, or if you have to run 64 bit programs. This kernel is able to boot with 32bit programs, and it requires a processor with 64bit instructions (amd64 / em64t).
142 sng 44 </li><li><b>altker32</b> an alternative kernel for 32bit systems. Boot with this kernel if you have problems with <b>rescuecd</b>
143     </li><li><b>altker64</b> an alternative kernel for 64bit systems. Boot with this kernel in case you have problems with <b>rescue64</b>.
144     </li>
145 sng 28 </ul>
147     <p><br>The boot parameters you can use are:</p>
148     <div class="otherpage">
149 sng 39 <!-- Please do not delete these comented lines-->
150     <!-- SysRescCD documentation section. Please use "update-boot-params" script to update -->
151     <!--SysRescCD-Documentation-->
152 sng 44 <a name="General_boot_options" id="General_boot_options"></a><p><b> General boot options</b></p>
153 sng 75 <p>Press &lt;TAB&gt; to add additional options (in SystemRescueCd-1.5 and more recent)
154 sng 39 </p>
155 sng 142 <ul><li><b>docache</b>: causes the CD-ROM to be fully loaded into memory. A slower start but once complete, programs start faster and the CD drive will be released allowing normal access to other CDs. This requires 400MB of memory to cache everything (including the <code>bootdisks</code> and <code>isolinux</code> directories). Add <code>lowmem</code> if you have less that 400MB of memory of to prevent these directories from being copied.
156 sng 75 </li><li><b>setkmap=kk</b>: which defines the keymap to load where <code>kk</code> (example: <code>setkmap=de</code> for German keyboards). This way you won't be prompted for the keyboard configuration during the boot.
157 sng 142 </li><li><b>root=/dev/xdnp</b>: the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/" rel="nofollow">root=&lt;device&gt; option</a> boots an existing linux system. For example, if you have linux Gentoo installed on <code>/dev/sda6</code>, use <code>rescuecd root=/dev/sda6</code> to start it. Keep in mind that you must use a 64bit kernel if your system is made of 64bit programs. This option works with LVM volumes. Use <code>rescuecd root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00</code>. Support is also provided for <code>root=auto</code>, which scans all the block devices for a linux system. The first linux system found will be started. So <code>root=auto</code> lets you start the system installed from the CD-ROM in case you have problem with your boot loader or kernel. It's also possible to specify a partition using its <code>filesystem label</code> or <code>filesystem uuid</code>. If the label of the partition where linux is installed is <code>mylinux</code>, then boot it using <code>rescuecd root=LABEL=mylinux</code>. Similarly <code>root=UUID=b3d3bec5-997a-413e-8449-0d0ec41ccba7</code>. See <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/" rel="nofollow">more details</a>.
158     </li><li><b>initscript=service:action</b>: This option allows one to start/stop a service at boot time. For instance if you need the samba service to be started, you can boot with: <code>initscript=samba:start</code>. This does the same thing as <code>/etc/init.d/samba start</code>. Use this option a multiple of times for different services. All the actions that are supported by an initscript can be used.
159     </li><li><b>backstore=xxx</b>: SystemRescueCd comes with support for the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/" rel="nofollow">backing-stores</a>. A backing-store saves all the changes you can make. so that you keep these changes the next time you boot. By default, sysresccd automatically scan removable devices (eg: USB sticks) at boot time and uses the first backing-store it finds. A backing-store is not mandatory and if the scan fails, it will store the files which have changed in memory. To disable the disks scan at boot time specify <code>backstore=off</code> on the boot command line. If you want to save your backing-store file on a harddisk, boot with <code>backstore=alldev</code> to scan all devices (not just removable devices). The default location for a backing-stores file is any file named <code>sysrcd.bs</code> located at the root of a disk which is often a USB stick. Change the path by using <code>backstore=/sysrcd/mybackstore.bs</code>. See <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/" rel="nofollow">backing-stores</a>.
160     </li><li><b>isoloop=xxx</b>: Grub2 (currently in development: grub-1.98) provides a new feature to boot from an ISO image which is stored on the hard disk. If you put a copy of <code>systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso</code> on a partition that Grub2 can read then you can boot SystemRescueCd directly from the ISO image stored on your hard drive. This is very convenient if you frequently update SystemRescueCd and you want to boot it directly from Grub2. Grub2 knows what an ISO image is and it will load the kernel image (rescuecd/rescue64) and the initramfs (initram.igz) from the ISO into memory. It will then do its normal job and execute the kernel. The SystemRescueCd init script must then be aware that its <code>sysrcd.dat</code> file is in an ISO and not directly on the partition. For that reason, this <code>isoloop=xxx</code> boot option is required so you must use it in your <code>grub.cfg</code>. This option is only supported in SystemRescueCd-1.4.0 and more recent. This option specifies the path of the ISO image in the partition that grub considers as its root partition. It's important to understand that the path of the ISO image may be different from the path on your linux system. If you have a separate boot partition mounted on <code>/boot</code> and if you copy this ISO image to <code>/boot/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso</code> then the option has to be <code>isoloop=/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso</code>. This is because the boot partition is what Grub2 will consider as its root partition during the boot process. Please read <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Easy_install_SystemRescueCd_on_harddisk#Boot_the_ISO_image_from_the_disk_using_Grub2" title="Sysresccd-manual-en Easy install SystemRescueCd on harddisk">the section about isoloop</a> for more details.
161 sng 28 </li></ul>
162 sng 44 <a name="Hardware.2C_drivers_and_troubleshooting_options" id="Hardware.2C_drivers_and_troubleshooting_options"></a><p><b><br> Hardware, drivers and troubleshooting options</b></p>
163 sng 39 <ul><li><b>dodebug</b>: Enables verbose messages in linuxrc
164     </li></ul>
165 sng 75 <ul><li><b>doload=xxx</b>: loads needed kernel modules, multiple comma separated occurrences are permitted (example: <code>doload=3c59x,e1000</code>)
166     </li><li><b>noload=xxx</b>: prevents loading kernel modules, multiple comma separated occurrences are permitted (example: <code>noload=3c59x,e1000</code>). Use this option if you have a problem when the system loads a particular module.
167 sng 39 </li><li><b>nonet</b>: this will disable the network auto detection at startup
168     </li></ul>
169 sng 142 <ul><li><b>scandelay=x</b>: pauses x seconds during the startup to allow slow devices to initialize. This is required when you boot a USB device. A delay of only few seconds should be enough.
170 sng 39 </li></ul>
171     <ul><li><b>doxdetect</b>: Since version 0.3.5 the auto-configuration is done in X.Org itself, mkxf86config is disabled by default. This option forces the system to run the mkxf86config startup script and to run the hardware auto-detection from this script. Use this option if you have problems with the graphical environment configuration. This option replaces the option <code>noxdetect</code> that was useful in previous versions.
172     </li><li><b>nodetect</b>: prevents generic hardware auto-detection. Use this option if you have problems with the hardware auto-detection.
173     </li></ul>
174 sng 163 <ul><li><b>nomodeset</b>: Do not load the Kernel-Mode-Setting video driver. You can use that option if you are experiencing problems with your screen during the boot process (just after modules are being loaded).
175     </li><li><b>dostartx</b>: load the X.Org graphical environment.
176 sng 39 </li><li><b>forcevesa</b>: Forces X.Org to use the safe VESA driver instead of the best video driver detected for your video card. Use this option if you cannot get the graphical environment working with the default options.
177     </li><li><b>forcevesa=xxx</b>: The <code>startx</code> command will load the <code>Xvesa</code> server instead of <code>Xorg</code>, and use the screen resolution given as parameter (eg: <code>1024x768</code>, <code>1280x1024x32</code>).
178     </li></ul>
179     <ul><li><b>all-generic-ide</b>: In case of problems related to your hard disk, try to enable this option (eg <code>rescuecd all-generic-ide</code>)
180     </li><li><b>nodmraid</b>: Disable dmraid, for some motherboards with built-in RAID controller.
181     </li><li><b>nomdadm</b>: Disable mdadm, for software RAID.
182     </li></ul>
183     <ul><li><b>acpi-off</b> / <b>noapic</b> / <b>irqpool</b>: use these options if you have problem when the kernel boots: if it hangs on a driver or if it crashes, ...
184     </li></ul>
185     <ul><li><b>lowmem</b>: For systems with smaller memory, some daemons are not started including sshd and nfsd.
186     </li></ul>
187 sng 142 <ul><li><b>skipmount=/dev/xxx</b>: The system mounts all the storage devices at boot time to find the sysrcd.dat file. If your hard disk is broken it should not be mounted. Boot with <code>skipmount=/dev/sda1 skipmount=/dev/sda2</code> to ignore these two partitions.
188 sng 39 </li></ul>
189 sng 44 <a name="Network_configuration_and_remote_access" id="Network_configuration_and_remote_access"></a><p><b><br> Network configuration and remote access</b></p>
190 sng 75 <ul><li><b>nonm</b>: to disable the Network-Manager service that conflicts with the standard network command line tools such as <code>ifconfig</code> and <code>ip</code>. You can use this option if you want to configure the network using these commands. This option is not necessary when SystemRescueCd is booting from the network since the service is automatically stopped in that case. This option requires SystemRescueCd-1.5.5 or more recent.
191 sng 163 </li><li><b>dodhcp</b>: to request a DHCP server provide network attributes including an IP address, gateway... If there are multiple interfaces on the computer it will run the dhcp client on all of them by default, when no argument is specified with this option. Thanks to <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=5&amp;t=3454" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=5&amp;t=3454" rel="nofollow">emiliano</a> SystemRescueCd-1.7.0-beta009 and more recent allows you to optionally specify which interfaces should be configured with dhcp. This way you can combine static and dynamic addresses in the automatic Ethernet configuration. For example you can now use options like that: <pre>dodhcp=eth0,eth2 eth1=</pre> to use dhcp for eth0 and eth2 and a static address on eth1.
192 sng 142 </li><li><b>nodhcp</b>: never run the dhcp client in the initramfs boot script. May be useful if you use PXE boot on a computer with several ethernet interfaces. Support for this option is available in SystemRescueCd-1.5.5 and more recent
193 sng 39 </li><li><b>ethx=ipaddr/cidr</b>: Sets the static IP address of all the ethernet interfaces on the system. The <code>/cidr</code> extension is optional. For instance, if you use option <code>ethx=</code> on a machine with two ethernet adapters, both <code>eth0</code> and <code>eth1</code> will be configured with <code></code>. You can use the format <code>ethx=</code> (using the cidr notation) if you don't use the default netmask.
194 sng 142 </li><li><b>eth0=ipaddr/cidr</b>: This option is similar to <code>ethx=ipaddr/cidr</code> but it configures only one interface at a time. To configure the network on a server that has two interfaces, use, for example: <code>eth0= eth1=</code>.
195 sng 28 </li><li><b>dns=ipaddr</b>: Sets the static IP address of the DNS nameserver you want to use to resolve the names. For instance <code>dns=</code> means that you want to use <code></code> as the DNS server.
196     </li><li><b>gateway=ipaddr</b>: Sets the static IP address of the default route on your network. For instance <code>gateway=</code> means that the computer can connect to a computer outside of the local network via <code></code>.
197     </li><li><b>dhcphostname=myhost</b>: Sets the hostname that the DHCP client will send to the DHCP server. This may be required if the default hostname cannot be used with your DHCP configuration. This option has been introduced in SystemRescueCd-1.3.5.
198 sng 142 </li><li><b>rootpass=123456</b>: Sets the root password of the system running on the livecd to <code>123456</code>. That way you can connect from the network and ssh on the livecd and give <code>123456</code> password as the root password.
199     </li><li><b>vncserver=x:123456</b>: The <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/04/12/use-systemrescuecd-remotely-with-vnc-server/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/04/12/use-systemrescuecd-remotely-with-vnc-server/" rel="nofollow">vncserver boot option</a> has been introduced in SystemRescueCd-1.0.2. This options forces the system to configure the VNC-server and to start it automatically at boot time. You have to replace <code>x</code> with the number of displays you want, and <code>123456</code> with your password. The password must be between 6 and 8 characters, else the boot option will be ignored. In other words the <code>vncserver=2:MyPaSsWd</code> option will give you access to two displays (display=1 on tcp/5901 and display=2 on tcp/5902). Display 0 is reserved for X.Org since SystemRescueCd-1.1.0. SystemRescueCd-1.5.7 and more recent accept a password longer than 8 chars (between 5 and 12 chars)
200     </li><li><b>nameif=xxx</b>: You can <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/28/option-to-define-the-name-of-a-network-interface-using-the-mac-address/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/28/option-to-define-the-name-of-a-network-interface-using-the-mac-address/" rel="nofollow">specify what interface name to give</a> to a particular interface using the mac address. You need SystemRescueCd-1.1.0 or newer to do that. Here is how you can specify which interface is using which mac address on a machine with two network interfaces: <code>nameif=eth0!00:0C:29:57:D0:6E,eth1!00:0C:29:57:D0:64</code>. Be careful, you have to respect the separator (comma between the interfaces and exclamation marks between the name and the mac address). You can also use the magic keyword <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=7&amp;t=2538&amp;start=0" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=7&amp;t=2538&amp;start=0" rel="nofollow">BOOTIF</a> with SystemRescueCd-1.5.4 and more recent when you boot from pxelinux. The pxeboot loader will set BOOTIF to the name of the interface used to boot. You can then use something like <code>nameif=eth0!BOOTIF</code> if you want the boot interface to be called <code>eth0</code> on a computer with several Ethernet interfaces.
201 sng 28 </li></ul>
202 sng 44 <a name="Network_boot_using_PXE" id="Network_boot_using_PXE"></a><p><b><br> Network boot using PXE</b></p>
203 sng 39 <p>SystemRescueCd provides several options for booting from the network using PXE.
204 sng 44 These options can be combined with other network boot options such as <code>ethx</code> (cf previous section). See <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_PXE_network_booting" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_PXE_network_booting" rel="nofollow">PXE network booting</a> to get a global overview of SystemRescueCd and PXE and <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Manage_remote_windows_linux_servers_using_SystemRescueCd" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Manage_remote_windows_linux_servers_using_SystemRescueCd" rel="nofollow">Manage remote servers using PXE</a>.
205 sng 39 </p><p>The second stage downloads the kernel + initramfs using DHCP/TFTP.
206     </p><p>The third stage of the PXE boot process acquires the root files system.
207     </p><p>Several protocols are available.
208     </p>
209     <ul><li><b>netboot=</b>tftp<b>://ip/path/sysrcd.dat</b>: from a TFTP server. The filesystem is loaded into memory. As a consequence computers with less than 400MB of memory won't be able to boot this way. The system will continue to work if the network is disconnected after the boot process.
210     </li><li><b>netboot=</b>http<b>://ip:port/path/sysrcd.dat</b>: from a Web server. The file system is loaded into memory. Computers with smaller memory won't be able to boot this way. The the system continues to work if the network is disconnected after the boot process.
211 sng 142 </li><li><b>netboot=</b>nfs<b>://ip:/path</b>: mount an NFSv3 directory. The NFS url must be the path of the directory that contains <code>sysrcd.dat</code>. Only NFSv3 can be used, NFSv4 is not supported. NFS allows computers with smaller memory to boot SystemRescueCd from the network. After the boot process, continued network connection is required or you will loose access to the root file system.
212     </li><li><b>netboot=</b>nbd<b>://ip:port</b>: connect to an NBD server configured with <code>sysrcd.dat</code> on ip:port. NBD is easier to configure than NFS (only one TCP port involved) and it allows computers with smaller memory to boot SystemRescueCd from the network. After the boot process, the network connection continues to be required to access the root file system.
213 sng 39 </li></ul>
214 sng 44 <p>For information on activating <b>speakup</b>, see the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Speakup-info" title="Speakup-info">speakup info page</a>.
215 sng 39 </p>
216 sng 44 <a name="Options_provided_for_autorun" id="Options_provided_for_autorun"></a><p><b><br> Options provided for autorun</b></p>
217     <ul><li><b>ar_source=xxx</b>: place where the autorun are stored. It may be the root directory of a partition (<code>/dev/sda1</code>), an nfs share (<code>nfs://</code>), a samba share (<code>smb://</code>), or an http directory (<code><a target="_blank" href="" class="external free" title="" rel="nofollow"></a></code>).
218 sng 39 </li><li><b>autoruns=[0-9]</b>: comma separated list of the autorun scrip to be run. For example <code>autoruns=0,2,7</code> the autorun sc <code>autorun0</code>, <code>autorun2</code>, <code>autorun7</code> are run. Use <code>autoruns=no</code> to disable all the autorun scripts with a number.
219 sng 28 </li><li><b>ar_ignorefail</b>: continue to execute the scripts chain even if a script failed (returned a non-zero status)
220     </li><li><b>ar_nodel</b>: do not delete the temporary copy of the autorun scripts located in <code>/var/autorun/tmp</code> after execution
221     </li><li><b>ar_disable</b>: completely disable autorun, the simple <code>autorun</code> script will not be executed
222     </li><li><b>ar_nowait</b>: do not wait for a keypress after the autorun script have been executed.
223     </li></ul>
224 sng 39 </p>
225 sng 28 </div>
228     <!-- Clonezilla -->
229     <H2><a name="clonezilla"></a>Clonezilla Live boot parameters <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#boot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
230     <!-- note -->
231     <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr valign="top"><td><img src="images/info.png"></td><td>
232 sng 172 The following info applies to <b>Clonezilla Live v. 1.2.8-46</b><br>
233 sng 28 In case you need to get info for a more recent version of <b>Clonezilla Live</b><br>
234 jyrki 169 please see the page "<a href="http://clonezilla.org/fine-print-live-doc.php?path=clonezilla-live/doc/99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc" target="_blank">The boot parameters for Clonezilla live</a>"
235 sng 28 </td></tr></table></div>
237     <p>A typical Clonezilla Live isolinux entry is:</p>
239     <p class="newcode"> kernel /live/vmlinuz1<br>
240     append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"<br>
241     ocs_live_extra_param="" ocs_live_keymap="" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang="" vga=791 nolocales</p>
242     <!--empty-line-->
243     <p>The kernel used is <b>vmlinuz</b>, and anything after the word <b>append</b> is a boot parameter.</p>
244     <!--empty-line-->
247     <p>The following info comes from the page titled <a href="http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/fine-print.php?path=./99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc" target="_blank">The boot parameters for Clonezilla live</a>.</p>
249 sng 39 <!-- Please do not delete these comented lines-->
250     <!-- Clonezilla documentation section. Please use "update-boot-params" script to update -->
251     <!--Clonezilla-Documentation-->
252 sng 44 <div class="otherpage">Clonezilla live is based on <a target="_blank" href="http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/" >Debian live</a> with clonezilla installed. Therefore there are 2 kinds of boot parameters:
253 sng 28 <ol>
254 sng 41 <li>Boot parameters from live-initramfs. You can refer to this <a href="#live-initramfs">manual of live-initramfs</a>.
255 sng 39 <li>Boot parameters specially for Clonezilla. All of them are named as "ocs_*", e.g. ocs_live_run, ocs_live_extra_param, ocs_live_batch, ocs_lang.
256 sng 28 <ul>
257     <li>ocs_live_run is the main program to run in Clonezilla live to save or restore. or other command. Available program: ocs-live-general, ocs-live-restore or any command you write. Use the Absolute path in Clonezilla live.<br>
258 sng 39 e.g. ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"<br>
259     <font color="red">//NOTE// You might have to use "sudo" command inside your own script, or you can assign it like: ocs_live_run="sudo bash /my-clonezilla"</font><br>
260 sng 28 <li>ocs_live_extra_param will be used only when ocs_live_run=ocs-live-restore (not for ocs-live-general or any other), then it will be passed to ocs-sr. Therefore these parameters are actually those of ocs-sr.<br>
261 sng 142 e.g. ocs_live_extra_param="--batch -c restoredisk sarge-r5 hda"
262 sng 28 <li>ocs_live_keymap is for keymap used in Clonezilla live. Man install-keymap for more details.<br>
263     e.g. ocs_live_keymap="NONE" (won't change the default layout)<br>
264     ocs_live_keymap="/usr/share/keymaps/i386/azerty/fr-latin9.kmap.gz" (French keyboard)
265     <li>batch mode or not (yes/no), if no, will run interactively.<br>
266     e.g. ocs_live_batch="no"
267     <li>ocs_lang is the language used in Clonezilla live. Available value: en_US.UTF-8, zh_TW.UTF-8... (see $DRBL_SCRIPT_PATH/lang/bash/)
268     e.g. ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8"
269     <li>ocs_debug (or ocs-debug) is for you to enter command line prompt before any clonezilla-related action is run. This is easier for you to debug.
270     <li>ocs_daemonon, ocs_daemonoff, ocs_numlk, ocs_capslk.<br>
271     Ex. for the first 2 parameters, ocs_daemonon="ssh", then ssh service will be turned on when booting. For the last 2 parameters, use "on" or "off", e.g. ocs_numlk=on to turn on numberlock when booting.
272 sng 163 <li>ocs_prerun, ocs_prerun1, ocs_prerun2... is for you to run a command before Clonezilla is started. E.g. ocs_prerun="/live/image/myscript.sh". If you have more commands to run, you can assign them in the order: ocs_prerun=..., ocs_prerun1=..., ocs_prerun2=.... If more than 10 parameters, remember to use ocs_prerun01, ocs_prerun02..., ocs_prerun11 to make it in order.
273     <li>ocs_live_run_tty. This option allows you to specify the tty where $ocs_live_run is run. By default $ocs_live_run is run on /dev/tty1 only. If you want to use ttyS0, for example, add live-getty and console=ttyS0,38400n81 in the boot parameter.<br>
274 sng 39 <font color=red>//NOTE//</font><br>
275     <ul>
276 sng 142 <li>If "live-getty console=ttyS0,38400n81" are assigned in the boot parameters, ocs_live_run_tty will honor ttyS0, even other value is assigned to ocs_live_run_tty in boot parameter.
277 sng 39 <li>It's recommended to assign ocs_lang and ocs_live_keymap in the boot parameters too.
278     </ul>
279     <li>ip, this option allows you to specify the network parameters for network card. In Clonezilla live a patched live-initramfs is used, which is different from the original live-initramfs so that you can assign DNS server, too. Its format is: ip=ethernet port,IP address, netmask, gateway, DNS. E.g. If you want to assing eth0 with IP address, netmask, gateway, DNS server, you can assign the following in the boot parameter:<br>
280 sng 163 ip=eth0:<br>
281     If more than one network card, you can use "," to separate them, e.g.:<br>
282     ip=eth0:,eth1:<br>
283 sng 28 <li>Besides, "live-netdev" (yes, not ocs_live_netdev) can be used when using PXE booting, you can force to assign the network device to get filesystem.squashfs. This is useful when there are two or more NICs are linked. E.g. live-netdev="eth1" allows you to force the live-initramfs to use eth1 to fetch the root file system filesystem.squashfs.
284     </ul>
285     </ol>
286     <hr>
288     With the above options, we have the following examples:
289     <ol>
290     <li>A PXE config example for you to boot Clonezilla live via PXE, and ssh service is on, the password of account "user" is assigned:<br>
291     ----------------------------------------<br>
292     label Clonezilla Live<br>
293     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live<br>
294     MENU DEFAULT<br>
295     kernel vmlinuz1<br>
296     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788 fetch=tftp:// usercrypted=bkuQxLqLRuDW6 ocs_numlk="on" ocs_daemonon="ssh"<br>
297     ----------------------------------------<br>
299     The usercrypted password is created by:<br>
300     echo YOUR_PASSWORD | mkpasswd -s<br>
301     ("mkpasswd" is from package "whois" in Debian or Ubuntu. Check your GNU/Linux to see which package provides this command if you are not using Debian or Ubuntu. Replace YOUR_PASSWORD with your plain text password, and remember do not put any " in the boot parameters of live-initramfs (while it's ok for those ocs_* boot parameters), i.e. do NOT use something like usercrypted="bkuQxLqLRuDW6").<br>
302     //NOTE// If you do not assign salt to mkpasswd, the encrypted password will not be the same every time you create it.<br>
303     For more about usercrypted discussion, please check the <a href="http://lists.debian.org/debian-live/2008/10/msg00020.html" target=_blank>here</a>.
304     <br><br>
305     <li>How to put your own binary driver in Clonezilla live without modifying /live/filesystem.squashfs:
306     <ul>
307     <li>Boot clonezilla live
308     <li>Become root by running "sudo su -"
309     <li>Copy the dir lsi, which contains a precompiled kernel module matching the running kernel in Clonezilla live and a script to run it, to a working dir, e.g.: <br>
310     cp -r /live/image/lsi /home/partimag
311     <li>cd /home/partimag
312     <li>/opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-live-dev -c -s -i lsi -u lsi -x "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
313     <li>/opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-iso -s -i lsi -u lsi -x "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
314     <li>///NOTE/// In this example, the 2 files in dir lsi are: megasr.ko (the binary driver) and prep-lsi.sh. The contents of prep-lsi.sh:
315     <pre>
316     ------------------------
317     #!/bin/bash
318     cp -f /live/image/lsi/megasr.ko /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/
319     chown root.root /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/megasr.ko
320     depmod -a modprobe megasr
321     sleep 1
322     ------------------------
323     </pre>
324     </ul>
326     <li>To put your customized script with a PXE version of Clonezilla live (You have to use Clonezilla live version 1.2.2-2 or later):<br>
327     In this example, we assume (1) The IP address of your PXE server is, (2) the customized script (custom-ocs-2) is put on your PXE server's tftpd root dir (E.g. On DRBL server, the path is /tftpboot/nbi_img/. It might be different in your case if you are not use DRBL server as a PXE server).<br>
328     Therefor your pxelinux.cfg/default file is like:
329     <p>------------------------<br>
330     label Clonezilla Live<br>
331     MENU DEFAULT<br>
332     # MENU HIDE<br>
333     MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live<br>
334     # MENU PASSWD<br>
335     kernel vmlinuz1<br>
336     append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788 ip=frommedia fetch=tftp:// ocs_prerun="busybox tftp -g -b 10240 -r custom-ocs-2 -l /tmp/custom-ocs-2" ocs_live_run="bash /tmp/custom-ocs-2" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" nolocales<br>
337     TEXT HELP<br>
338     Boot Clonezilla live via network<br>
339     ENDTEXT<br>
340     <p>------------------------<br>
341     The content of custom-ocs-2 can be like:
342     <pre>
343     ------------------------
344     #!/bin/bash
345     . /opt/drbl/sbin/drbl-conf-functions
346     . /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-functions
347     . /etc/ocs/ocs-live.conf
349     # Load language file
350     ask_and_load_lang_set en_US.UTF-8
352     # 1. Mount the clonezilla image home.
353     # Types: local_dev, ssh_server, samba_server, nfs_server
354     prep-ocsroot -t nfs_server
356     # 2. Restore the image
357     if mountpoint /home/partimag/ &>/dev/null; then
358     ocs-sr -l en_US.UTF-8 -c -p choose restoredisk ask_user ask_user
359     else
360     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] && $SETCOLOR_FAILURE
361     echo "Fail to find the Clonezilla image home /home/partimag!"
362     echo "Program terminated!"
363     [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] && $SETCOLOR_NORMAL
364     fi
365     ------------------------
366     </pre>
367     </li>
368     </ol>
369     </div>
370     <!-- End of copy/paste 3 -->
372     <H3><a name="live-initramfs"></a>live-initramfs manual <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#boot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
374     <p>This is the manual of <a href="http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/live-initramfs-param.php" target=_blank>live-initramfs</a>
375     <BR>
376     </p>
378 sng 44 <!-- Please do not delete these comented lines-->
379     <!-- SysRescCD documentation section. Please use "update-boot-params" script to update -->
380     <!--initramfs-Documentation-->
381     <a name="live-initramfs"></a><div class="otherpage" style="overflow: auto;"><pre>
382 sng 28 live-initramfs(7)
383     =================
384 sng 142 :man source: 1.157.3
385     :man manual: Debian Live
386 sng 28
387     Name
388     ----
389     live-initramfs - Debian Live initramfs hook
391     Synopsis
392     --------
393     BOOT=live
395     as kernel parameter at boot prompt.
397     Description
398     -----------
400     live-initramfs is a hook for the initramfs-tools, used to generate a initramfs
401     capable to boot live systems, such as those created by *live-helper*(7).
402     This includes the Debian Live isos, netboot tarballs, and usb stick images.
404     At boot time it will look for a (read-only) media containing a "/live"
405     directory where a root filesystems (often a compressed filesystem image like
406     squashfs) is stored. If found, it will create a writable environment, using
407     aufs, for Debian like systems to boot from.
409     You probably do not want to install this package onto a non-live system,
410     although it will do no harm.
412 sng 44 live-initramfs is a fork of <a href="http://packages.ubuntu.com/casper/" target="_blank">casper</a>.
413     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen &amp;lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
414     and Matt Zimmerman &amp;lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
415 sng 28
416     Boot options
417     ------------
419     Here is the complete list of recognized boot parameters by live-initramfs.
421 sng 44 access=*ACCESS*::
422 sng 28
423     Set the accessibility level for physically or visually impared users. ACCESS
424     must be one of v1, v2, v3, m1, or m2. v1=lesser visual impairment, v2=moderate
425     visual impairment, v3=blindness, m1=minor motor difficulties, m2=moderate motor
426     difficulties.
428 sng 44 console=*TTY,SPEED*::
429 sng 28
430     Set the default console to be used with the "live-getty" option. Example:
431     "console=ttyS0,115200"
433 sng 44 debug::
434 sng 28
435     Makes initramfs boot process more verbose.
437 sng 44 fetch=*URL*::
438 sng 28
439     Another form of netboot by downloading a squashfs image from a given url,
440 sng 142 copying to ram and booting it. Due to current limitations in busyboxs wget
441     and DNS resolution, an URL can not contain a hostname but an IP only.
442 sng 28
443 sng 142 Not working: http://example.com/path/to/your_filesystem.squashfs
444     Working:
446     Also note that therefore it's currently not possible to fetch an image from a
447     namebased virtualhost of an httpd if it is sharing the ip with the main httpd
448     instance.
450 sng 44 hostname=*HOSTNAME*, username=*USER*, userfullname=*USERFULLNAME*::
451 sng 28
452     Those parameters lets you override values read from the config file.
454 sng 44 ignore_uuid
455 sng 28
456     Do not check that any UUID embedded in the initramfs matches the discovered
457     medium. live-initramfs may be told to generate a UUID by setting
458     LIVE_GENERATE_UUID=1 when building the initramfs.
460 sng 44 integrity-check::
461 sng 28
462     If specified, an MD5 sum is calculated on the live media during boot and
463     compared to the value found in md5sum.txt found in the root directory of the
464     live media.
468     [DEVICE]:[AUTOCONF]]***::
469 sng 28
470     Let you specify the name(s) and the options of the interface(s) that should be
471     configured at boot time. Do not specify this if you want to use dhcp (default).
472     It will be changed in a future release to mimick official kernel boot param
473     specification (e.g. ip=,:::::eth1:dhcp).
475 sng 142 ip=[**frommedia**]::
476 sng 28
477     If this variable is set, dhcp and static configuration are just skipped and the
478     system will use the (must be) media-preconfigured /etc/network/interfaces
479     instead.
481 sng 44 {keyb|kbd-chooser/method}=**KEYBOARD**, {klayout|console-setup/layoutcode}=**LAYOUT**,
482     {kvariant|console-setup/variantcode}=**VARIANT**, {kmodel|console-setup/modelcode}=
483     **CODE**, koptions=**OPTIONS**::
484 sng 28
485     Configure the running keyboard as specified, if this one misses live-initramfs
486     behaves as if "keyb=us" was specified. It will be interfered from "locale=" if
487     locale is only 2 lowecase letters as a special case. You could also specify
488     console layout, variant, code, and options (no defaults).
490 sng 44 live-getty::
491 sng 28
492     This changes the auto-login on virtual terminals to use the (experimental)
493     live-getty code. With this option set the standard kernel argument "console=" is
494     parsed and if a serial console is specified then live-getty is used to autologin
495     on the serial console.
497 sng 44 {live-media|bootfrom}=**DEVICE**::
498 sng 28
499     If you specify one of this two equivalent forms, live-initramfs will first try
500     to find this device for the "/live" directory where the read-only root
501     filesystem should reside. If it did not find something usable, the normal scan
502     for block devices is performed.
504 sng 142 Instead of specifing an actual device name, the keyword 'removable' can be used
505     to limit the search of acceptable live media to removable type only. Note that
506     if you want to further restrict the media to usb mass storage only, you can use
507     the 'removable-usb' keyword.
509 sng 44 {live-media-encryption|encryption}=**TYPE**::
510 sng 28
511     live-initramfs will mount the encrypted rootfs TYPE, asking the passphrase,
512     useful to build paranoid live systems :-). TYPE supported so far are "aes" for
513     loop-aes encryption type.
515 sng 44 live-media-offset=**BYTES**::
516 sng 28
517     This way you could tell live-initramfs that your image starts at offset BYTES in
518     the above specified or autodiscovered device, this could be useful to hide the
519     Debian Live iso or image inside another iso or image, to create "clean" images.
521 sng 44 live-media-path=**PATH**::
522 sng 28
523     Sets the path to the live filesystem on the medium. By default, it is set to
524     '/live' and you should not change that unless you have customized your media
525     accordingly.
527 sng 44 live-media-timeout=**SECONDS**::
528 sng 28
529     Set the timeout in seconds for the device specified by "live-media=" to become
530     ready before giving up.
532 sng 44 {locale|debian-installer/locale}=**LOCALE**::
533 sng 28
534     Configure the running locale as specified, if not present the live-media rootfs
535     configured locale will be used and if also this one misses live-initramfs behave
536     as "locale=en_US.UTF-8" was specified. If only 2 lowercase letter are specified
537     (like "it"), the "maybe wanted" locale is generated (like en:EN.UTF-8), in this
538     case if also "keyb=" is unspecified is set with those 2 lowercase letters
539     (keyb=us). Beside that facility, only UTF8 locales are supported by
540     live-initramfs.
542 sng 44 module=**NAME**::
543 sng 28
544     Instead of using the default optional file "filesystem.module" (see below)
545     another file could be specified without the extension ".module"; it should be
546     placed on "/live" directory of the live medium.
548 sng 44 netboot[=**nfs**|**cifs**]::
549 sng 28
550     This tells live-initramfs to perform a network mount. The parameter "nfsroot="
551     (with optional "nfsopts="), should specify where is the location of the root
552     filesystem. With no args, will try cifs first, and if it fails nfs.
554 sng 44 nfsopts=::
555 sng 28
556     This lets you specify custom nfs options.
558 sng 44 noautologin::
559 sng 28
560     This parameter disables the automatic terminal login only, not touching gdk/kdm.
562 sng 44 noxautologin::
563 sng 28
564     This parameter disables the automatic login of gdm/kdm only, not touching
565     terminals.
567 sng 44 nofastboot::
568 sng 28
569     This parameter disables the default disabling of filesystem checks in
570     /etc/fstab. If you have static filesystems on your harddisk and you want them to
571     be checked at boot time, use this parameter, otherwise they are skipped.
573 sng 44 nopersistent::
574 sng 28
575     disables the "persistent" feature, useful if the bootloader (like syslinux) has
576     been installed with persistent enabled.
578 sng 44 noprompt
579 sng 28
580 sng 142 Do not prompt to eject the CD or remove the USB flash drive on reboot.
581 sng 28
582 sng 44 nosudo::
583 sng 28
584     This parameter disables the automatic configuration of sudo.
586 sng 44 swapon::
587 sng 28
588     This parameter enables usage of local swap partitions.
590 sng 44 nouser::
591 sng 28
592     This parameter disables the creation of the default user completely.
594 sng 44 noxautoconfig::
595 sng 28
596     This parameter disables Xorg auto-reconfiguration at boot time. This is valuable
597     if you either do the detection on your own, or, if you want to ship a custom,
598     premade xorg.conf in your live system.
600 sng 44 persistent[=nofiles]::
601 sng 28
602     live-initramfs will look for persistent and snapshot partitions or files labeled
603     "live-rw", "home-rw", and files called "live-sn*", "home-sn*" and will try to,
604     in order: mount as /cow the first, mount the second in /home, and just copy the
605     contents of the latter in appropriate locations (snapshots). Snapshots will be
606     tried to be updated on reboot/shutdown. Look at live-snapshot(1) for more
607     informations. If "nofiles" is specified, only filesystems with matching labels
608     will be searched; no filesystems will be traversed looking for archives or image
609     files. This results in shorter boot times.
611 sng 142 persistent-path=PATH
613     live-initramfs will look for persistency files in the root directory of a partition,
614     with this parameter, the path can be configured so that you can have multiple
615     directories on the same partition to store persistency files.
617 sng 44 {preseed/file|file}=**FILE**::
618 sng 28
619     A path to a file present on the rootfs could be used to preseed debconf
620     database.
622 sng 44 package/question=**VALUE**::
623 sng 28
624     All debian installed packages could be preseeded from command-line that way,
625     beware of blanks spaces, they will interfere with parsing, use a preseed file in
626     this case.
628 sng 44 quickreboot::
629 sng 28
630     This option causes live-initramfs to reboot without attempting to eject the
631     media and without asking the user to remove the boot media.
633 sng 44 showmounts::
634 sng 28
635     This parameter will make live-initramfs to show on "/" the ro filesystems
636     (mostly compressed) on "/live". This is not enabled by default because could
637     lead to problems by applications like "mono" which store binary paths on
638     installation.
640 sng 142 silent
642     If you boot with the normal quiet parameter, live-initramfs hides most messages
643     of its own. When adding silent, it hides all.
645 sng 44 textonly
646 sng 28
647     Start up to text-mode shell prompts, disabling the graphical user interface.
649 sng 44 timezone=**TIMEZONE**::
650 sng 28
651     By default, timezone is set to UTC. Using the timezone parameter, you can set it
652     to your local zone, e.g. Europe/Zurich.
654 sng 44 todisk=**DEVICE**::
655 sng 28
656     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the entire read-only
657     media to the specified device before mounting the root filesystem. It probably
658     needs a lot of free space. Subsequent boots should then skip this step and just
659     specify the "live-media=DEVICE" boot parameter with the same DEVICE used this
660     time.
662 sng 44 toram::
663 sng 28
664     Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the whole read-only media
665     to the computer's RAM before mounting the root filesystem. This could need a lot
666     of ram, according to the space used by the read-only media.
668 sng 44 union=**aufs**|**unionfs**::
669 sng 28
670     By default, live-initramfs uses aufs. With this parameter, you can switch to
671     unionfs.
673 sng 44 utc=**yes**|**no**::
674 sng 28
675     By default, Debian systems do assume that the hardware clock is set to UTC. You
676     can change or explicitly set it with this parameter.
678 sng 44 xdebconf::
679 sng 28
680     Uses xdebconfigurator, if present on the rootfs, to configure X instead of the
681     standard procedure (experimental).
683 sng 44 xvideomode=**RESOLUTION**::
684 sng 28
685     Doesn't do xorg autodetection, but enforces a given resolution.
687     Files
688     -----
690 sng 44 /etc/live.conf
691 sng 28
692     Some variables can be configured via this config file (inside the live system).
694 sng 44 /live/filesystem.module
695 sng 28
696     This optional file (inside the live media) contains a list of white-space or
697     carriage-return-separated file names corresponding to disk images in the "/live"
698     directory. If this file exists, only images listed here will be merged into the
699     root aufs, and they will be loaded in the order listed here. The first entry
700     in this file will be the "lowest" point in the aufs, and the last file in
701     this list will be on the "top" of the aufs, directly below /cow. Without
702     this file, any images in the "/live" directory are loaded in alphanumeric order.
704 sng 44 /etc/live-persistence.binds
705 sng 28
706     This optional file (which resides in the rootfs system, not in the live media)
707     is used as a list of directories which not need be persistent: ie. their
708     content does not need to survive reboots when using the persistence features.
710     This saves expensive writes and speeds up operations on volatile data such as
711     web caches and temporary files (like e.g. /tmp and .mozilla) which are
712     regenerated each time. This is achieved by bind mounting each listed directory
713     with a tmpfs on the original path.
716     See also
717     --------
719     live-snapshot(1), initramfs-tools(8), live-helper(7), live-initscripts(7),
720     live-webhelper(7)
722     Bugs
723     ----
725     Report bugs against live-initramfs
726 sng 44 <a href="http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs" target="_blank">http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs</a>.
727 sng 28
728     Homepage
729     --------
731     More information about the Debian Live project can be found at
732 sng 44 <a href="http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/" target="_blank">http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/</a> and
733     <a href="http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/" target="_blank">http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/</a>.
734 sng 28
735     Authors
736     -------
738 sng 44 live-initramfs is maintained by Daniel Baumann &amp;lt;daniel@debian.org&amp;gt;
739 sng 28 for the Debian project.
741 sng 44 live-initramfs is a fork of <a href="http://packages.ubuntu.com/casper/" target="_blank">casper</a>.
742     casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen &amp;lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
743     and Matt Zimmerman &amp;lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
744     </pre>
745 sng 28 </div>
748     </div>
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