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78 <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>
79 <H3>Documentation: Boot parameters</H3>
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81 <div style="position: absolute; left: 0px;"><H4>25/02/2010 - v 3.1.0</H4></div>
82 <div style="position: absolute; right: 0px;"><H4>Last update: 01/03/2010</H4></div>
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106 <!-- Intro -->
108 <H2 style="margin-top: 0;"><a name="boot-intro"></a>Intro <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#boot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
109 <p>Booting a linux system means loading a kernel, which is actually the operating system. Well, this is not exactly true, and it is not the only thing that happens during boot up phase, but it is not my intension to explain it here.
110 <br><br>
111 The kernel is loaded by Isolinux (the CD boot manager), which is able to pass a number of parameters to it, through its configuration file <b>isolinux.cfg</b>.
112 <br><br>
113 These parameters, called boot parameters, are documented by the kernel itself, and can differentiate its behavior dramatically. In our case, each CD (SystemRescueCD and Clonezilla Live) accept a different set of parameters, because they are based on <a href="http://www.gentoo.org/" target="_blank">gentoo</a> and <a href="http://www.debian.org/" target="_blank">debian</a>, respectively.
114 <br><br>
115 While in the splash screen of <b>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</b>, you can edit the boot parameters by pressing TAB. They will be presented to you, and you can add or remove what you want. You must be careful not to change or remove the parameters that are dedicated to the CD itself, as altering them will certainty make it unbootable. When you are done, just press ENTER to boot.
116 </p>
119 <!-- sysresccd -->
120 <H2><a name="sysresccd"></a>SystemRescueCD boot parameters <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#boot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
121 <!-- note -->
122 <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/info.png"></td><td>
123 The following info applies to <b>SystemRescueCD v. 2.1.1</b>. In case<br>
124 you need to get info for a more recent version of <b>SystemRescueCD</b><br>
125 please see the page "<a href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Booting_the_CD-ROM" target="_blank">Sysresccd-manual-en Booting the CD-ROM</a>"
126 </td></tr></table></div>
127 <p>A typical sysresccd isolinux entry is:</p>
129 <p class="newcode">kernel rescuecd<br>
130 append initrd=initram.igz video=ofonly</p>
131 <!--empty-line-->
132 <p>The kernel used is <b>rescuecd</b>, and anything after the word <b>append</b> is a boot parameter.<br><br>
133 <!--empty-line-->
134 Available kernels (boot images):</p>
136 <ul class="otherpage" style="padding: 0px 10px 20px 40px">
137 <!-- Please do not delete these comented lines-->
138 <!-- SysRescCD documentation section. Please use "update-boot-params" script to update -->
139 <!--kernels-Documentation-->
140 <li><b>rescuecd</b> Default for 32bit systems, with Framebuffer disabled, best choice.
141 </li><li><b>rescue64</b> Default 64 bit kernel. Use it if you want to chroot to a 64bit linux system installed on your hard disk, or if you have to run 64 bit programs. This kernel is able to boot with 32bit programs, and it requires a processor with 64bit instructions (amd64 / em64t).
142 </li><li><b>altker32</b> an alternative kernel for 32bit systems. Boot with this kernel if you have problems with <b>rescuecd</b>
143 </li><li><b>altker64</b> an alternative kernel for 64bit systems. Boot with this kernel in case you have problems with <b>rescue64</b>.
144 </li>
145 </ul>
147 <p><br>The boot parameters you can use are:</p>
148 <div class="otherpage">
149 <!-- Please do not delete these comented lines-->
150 <!-- SysRescCD documentation section. Please use "update-boot-params" script to update -->
151 <!--SysRescCD-Documentation-->
152 <a name="General_boot_options" id="General_boot_options"></a><p><b> General boot options</b></p>
153 <p>Press &lt;TAB&gt; to add additional options (in SystemRescueCd-1.5 and more recent)
154 </p>
155 <ul><li><b>docache</b>: causes the CD-ROM to be fully loaded into memory. A slower start but once complete, programs start faster and the CD drive will be released allowing normal access to other CDs. This requires 400MB of memory to cache everything (including the <code>bootdisks</code> and <code>isolinux</code> directories). Add <code>lowmem</code> if you have less that 400MB of memory of to prevent these directories from being copied.
156 </li><li><b>setkmap=kk</b>: which defines the keymap to load where <code>kk</code> (example: <code>setkmap=de</code> for German keyboards). This way you won't be prompted for the keyboard configuration during the boot.
157 </li><li><b>root=/dev/xdnp</b>: the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/" rel="nofollow">root=&lt;device&gt; option</a> boots an existing linux system. For example, if you have linux Gentoo installed on <code>/dev/sda6</code>, use <code>rescuecd root=/dev/sda6</code> to start it. Keep in mind that you must use a 64bit kernel if your system is made of 64bit programs. This option works with LVM volumes. Use <code>rescuecd root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00</code>. Support is also provided for <code>root=auto</code>, which scans all the block devices for a linux system. The first linux system found will be started. So <code>root=auto</code> lets you start the system installed from the CD-ROM in case you have problem with your boot loader or kernel. It's also possible to specify a partition using its <code>filesystem label</code> or <code>filesystem uuid</code>. If the label of the partition where linux is installed is <code>mylinux</code>, then boot it using <code>rescuecd root=LABEL=mylinux</code>. Similarly <code>root=UUID=b3d3bec5-997a-413e-8449-0d0ec41ccba7</code>. See <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/05/use-systemrescuecd-to-boot-a-linux-os-from-the-hard-disk/" rel="nofollow">more details</a>.
158 </li><li><b>initscript=service:action</b>: This option allows one to start/stop a service at boot time. For instance if you need the samba service to be started, you can boot with: <code>initscript=samba:start</code>. This does the same thing as <code>/etc/init.d/samba start</code>. Use this option a multiple of times for different services. All the actions that are supported by an initscript can be used.
159 </li><li><b>backstore=xxx</b>: SystemRescueCd comes with support for the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/" rel="nofollow">backing-stores</a>. A backing-store saves all the changes you can make. so that you keep these changes the next time you boot. By default, sysresccd automatically scan removable devices (eg: USB sticks) at boot time and uses the first backing-store it finds. A backing-store is not mandatory and if the scan fails, it will store the files which have changed in memory. To disable the disks scan at boot time specify <code>backstore=off</code> on the boot command line. If you want to save your backing-store file on a harddisk, boot with <code>backstore=alldev</code> to scan all devices (not just removable devices). The default location for a backing-stores file is any file named <code>sysrcd.bs</code> located at the root of a disk which is often a USB stick. Change the path by using <code>backstore=/sysrcd/mybackstore.bs</code>. See <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/29/creating-a-backing-store-to-keep-your-modifications-in-sysresccd/" rel="nofollow">backing-stores</a>.
160 </li><li><b>isoloop=xxx</b>: Grub2 (currently in development: grub-1.98) provides a new feature to boot from an ISO image which is stored on the hard disk. If you put a copy of <code>systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso</code> on a partition that Grub2 can read then you can boot SystemRescueCd directly from the ISO image stored on your hard drive. This is very convenient if you frequently update SystemRescueCd and you want to boot it directly from Grub2. Grub2 knows what an ISO image is and it will load the kernel image (rescuecd/rescue64) and the initramfs (initram.igz) from the ISO into memory. It will then do its normal job and execute the kernel. The SystemRescueCd init script must then be aware that its <code>sysrcd.dat</code> file is in an ISO and not directly on the partition. For that reason, this <code>isoloop=xxx</code> boot option is required so you must use it in your <code>grub.cfg</code>. This option is only supported in SystemRescueCd-1.4.0 and more recent. This option specifies the path of the ISO image in the partition that grub considers as its root partition. It's important to understand that the path of the ISO image may be different from the path on your linux system. If you have a separate boot partition mounted on <code>/boot</code> and if you copy this ISO image to <code>/boot/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso</code> then the option has to be <code>isoloop=/sysrcd/systemrescuecd-x86-x.y.z.iso</code>. This is because the boot partition is what Grub2 will consider as its root partition during the boot process. Please read <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Easy_install_SystemRescueCd_on_harddisk#Boot_the_ISO_image_from_the_disk_using_Grub2" title="Sysresccd-manual-en Easy install SystemRescueCd on harddisk">the section about isoloop</a> for more details.
161 </li></ul>
162 <a name="Hardware.2C_drivers_and_troubleshooting_options" id="Hardware.2C_drivers_and_troubleshooting_options"></a><p><b><br> Hardware, drivers and troubleshooting options</b></p>
163 <ul><li><b>dodebug</b>: Enables verbose messages in linuxrc
164 </li></ul>
165 <ul><li><b>doload=xxx</b>: loads needed kernel modules, multiple comma separated occurrences are permitted (example: <code>doload=3c59x,e1000</code>)
166 </li><li><b>noload=xxx</b>: prevents loading kernel modules, multiple comma separated occurrences are permitted (example: <code>noload=3c59x,e1000</code>). Use this option if you have a problem when the system loads a particular module.
167 </li><li><b>nonet</b>: this will disable the network auto detection at startup
168 </li></ul>
169 <ul><li><b>scandelay=x</b>: pauses x seconds during the startup to allow slow devices to initialize. This is required when you boot a USB device. A delay of only few seconds should be enough.
170 </li></ul>
171 <ul><li><b>doxdetect</b>: Since version 0.3.5 the auto-configuration is done in X.Org itself, mkxf86config is disabled by default. This option forces the system to run the mkxf86config startup script and to run the hardware auto-detection from this script. Use this option if you have problems with the graphical environment configuration. This option replaces the option <code>noxdetect</code> that was useful in previous versions.
172 </li><li><b>nodetect</b>: prevents generic hardware auto-detection. Use this option if you have problems with the hardware auto-detection.
173 </li></ul>
174 <ul><li><b>nomodeset</b>: Do not load the Kernel-Mode-Setting video driver. You can use that option if you are experiencing problems with your screen during the boot process (just after modules are being loaded).
175 </li><li><b>dostartx</b>: load the X.Org graphical environment.
176 </li><li><b>forcevesa</b>: Forces X.Org to use the safe VESA driver instead of the best video driver detected for your video card. Use this option if you cannot get the graphical environment working with the default options.
177 </li><li><b>forcevesa=xxx</b>: The <code>startx</code> command will load the <code>Xvesa</code> server instead of <code>Xorg</code>, and use the screen resolution given as parameter (eg: <code>1024x768</code>, <code>1280x1024x32</code>).
178 </li></ul>
179 <ul><li><b>all-generic-ide</b>: In case of problems related to your hard disk, try to enable this option (eg <code>rescuecd all-generic-ide</code>)
180 </li><li><b>nodmraid</b>: Disable dmraid, for some motherboards with built-in RAID controller.
181 </li><li><b>nomdadm</b>: Disable mdadm, for software RAID.
182 </li></ul>
183 <ul><li><b>acpi-off</b> / <b>noapic</b> / <b>irqpool</b>: use these options if you have problem when the kernel boots: if it hangs on a driver or if it crashes, ...
184 </li></ul>
185 <ul><li><b>lowmem</b>: For systems with smaller memory, some daemons are not started including sshd and nfsd.
186 </li></ul>
187 <ul><li><b>skipmount=/dev/xxx</b>: The system mounts all the storage devices at boot time to find the sysrcd.dat file. If your hard disk is broken it should not be mounted. Boot with <code>skipmount=/dev/sda1 skipmount=/dev/sda2</code> to ignore these two partitions.
188 </li></ul>
189 <a name="Network_configuration_and_remote_access" id="Network_configuration_and_remote_access"></a><p><b><br> Network configuration and remote access</b></p>
190 <ul><li><b>nonm</b>: to disable the Network-Manager service that conflicts with the standard network command line tools such as <code>ifconfig</code> and <code>ip</code>. You can use this option if you want to configure the network using these commands. This option is not necessary when SystemRescueCd is booting from the network since the service is automatically stopped in that case. This option requires SystemRescueCd-1.5.5 or more recent.
191 </li><li><b>dodhcp</b>: to request a DHCP server provide network attributes including an IP address, gateway... If there are multiple interfaces on the computer it will run the dhcp client on all of them by default, when no argument is specified with this option. Thanks to <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=5&amp;t=3454" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=5&amp;t=3454" rel="nofollow">emiliano</a> SystemRescueCd-1.7.0-beta009 and more recent allows you to optionally specify which interfaces should be configured with dhcp. This way you can combine static and dynamic addresses in the automatic Ethernet configuration. For example you can now use options like that: <pre>dodhcp=eth0,eth2 eth1=</pre> to use dhcp for eth0 and eth2 and a static address on eth1.
192 </li><li><b>nodhcp</b>: never run the dhcp client in the initramfs boot script. May be useful if you use PXE boot on a computer with several ethernet interfaces. Support for this option is available in SystemRescueCd-1.5.5 and more recent
193 </li><li><b>ethx=ipaddr/cidr</b>: Sets the static IP address of all the ethernet interfaces on the system. The <code>/cidr</code> extension is optional. For instance, if you use option <code>ethx=</code> on a machine with two ethernet adapters, both <code>eth0</code> and <code>eth1</code> will be configured with <code></code>. You can use the format <code>ethx=</code> (using the cidr notation) if you don't use the default netmask.
194 </li><li><b>eth0=ipaddr/cidr</b>: This option is similar to <code>ethx=ipaddr/cidr</code> but it configures only one interface at a time. To configure the network on a server that has two interfaces, use, for example: <code>eth0= eth1=</code>.
195 </li><li><b>dns=ipaddr</b>: Sets the static IP address of the DNS nameserver you want to use to resolve the names. For instance <code>dns=</code> means that you want to use <code></code> as the DNS server.
196 </li><li><b>gateway=ipaddr</b>: Sets the static IP address of the default route on your network. For instance <code>gateway=</code> means that the computer can connect to a computer outside of the local network via <code></code>.
197 </li><li><b>dhcphostname=myhost</b>: Sets the hostname that the DHCP client will send to the DHCP server. This may be required if the default hostname cannot be used with your DHCP configuration. This option has been introduced in SystemRescueCd-1.3.5.
198 </li><li><b>rootpass=123456</b>: Sets the root password of the system running on the livecd to <code>123456</code>. That way you can connect from the network and ssh on the livecd and give <code>123456</code> password as the root password.
199 </li><li><b>vncserver=x:123456</b>: The <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/04/12/use-systemrescuecd-remotely-with-vnc-server/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/04/12/use-systemrescuecd-remotely-with-vnc-server/" rel="nofollow">vncserver boot option</a> has been introduced in SystemRescueCd-1.0.2. This options forces the system to configure the VNC-server and to start it automatically at boot time. You have to replace <code>x</code> with the number of displays you want, and <code>123456</code> with your password. The password must be between 6 and 8 characters, else the boot option will be ignored. In other words the <code>vncserver=2:MyPaSsWd</code> option will give you access to two displays (display=1 on tcp/5901 and display=2 on tcp/5902). Display 0 is reserved for X.Org since SystemRescueCd-1.1.0. SystemRescueCd-1.5.7 and more recent accept a password longer than 8 chars (between 5 and 12 chars)
200 </li><li><b>nameif=xxx</b>: You can <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/28/option-to-define-the-name-of-a-network-interface-using-the-mac-address/" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/news/2008/06/28/option-to-define-the-name-of-a-network-interface-using-the-mac-address/" rel="nofollow">specify what interface name to give</a> to a particular interface using the mac address. You need SystemRescueCd-1.1.0 or newer to do that. Here is how you can specify which interface is using which mac address on a machine with two network interfaces: <code>nameif=eth0!00:0C:29:57:D0:6E,eth1!00:0C:29:57:D0:64</code>. Be careful, you have to respect the separator (comma between the interfaces and exclamation marks between the name and the mac address). You can also use the magic keyword <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=7&amp;t=2538&amp;start=0" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=7&amp;t=2538&amp;start=0" rel="nofollow">BOOTIF</a> with SystemRescueCd-1.5.4 and more recent when you boot from pxelinux. The pxeboot loader will set BOOTIF to the name of the interface used to boot. You can then use something like <code>nameif=eth0!BOOTIF</code> if you want the boot interface to be called <code>eth0</code> on a computer with several Ethernet interfaces.
201 </li></ul>
202 <a name="Network_boot_using_PXE" id="Network_boot_using_PXE"></a><p><b><br> Network boot using PXE</b></p>
203 <p>SystemRescueCd provides several options for booting from the network using PXE.
204 These options can be combined with other network boot options such as <code>ethx</code> (cf previous section). See <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_PXE_network_booting" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_PXE_network_booting" rel="nofollow">PXE network booting</a> to get a global overview of SystemRescueCd and PXE and <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Manage_remote_windows_linux_servers_using_SystemRescueCd" class="external text" title="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_Manage_remote_windows_linux_servers_using_SystemRescueCd" rel="nofollow">Manage remote servers using PXE</a>.
205 </p><p>The second stage downloads the kernel + initramfs using DHCP/TFTP.
206 </p><p>The third stage of the PXE boot process acquires the root files system.
207 </p><p>Several protocols are available.
208 </p>
209 <ul><li><b>netboot=</b>tftp<b>://ip/path/sysrcd.dat</b>: from a TFTP server. The filesystem is loaded into memory. As a consequence computers with less than 400MB of memory won't be able to boot this way. The system will continue to work if the network is disconnected after the boot process.
210 </li><li><b>netboot=</b>http<b>://ip:port/path/sysrcd.dat</b>: from a Web server. The file system is loaded into memory. Computers with smaller memory won't be able to boot this way. The the system continues to work if the network is disconnected after the boot process.
211 </li><li><b>netboot=</b>nfs<b>://ip:/path</b>: mount an NFSv3 directory. The NFS url must be the path of the directory that contains <code>sysrcd.dat</code>. Only NFSv3 can be used, NFSv4 is not supported. NFS allows computers with smaller memory to boot SystemRescueCd from the network. After the boot process, continued network connection is required or you will loose access to the root file system.
212 </li><li><b>netboot=</b>nbd<b>://ip:port</b>: connect to an NBD server configured with <code>sysrcd.dat</code> on ip:port. NBD is easier to configure than NFS (only one TCP port involved) and it allows computers with smaller memory to boot SystemRescueCd from the network. After the boot process, the network connection continues to be required to access the root file system.
213 </li></ul>
214 <p>For information on activating <b>speakup</b>, see the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Speakup-info" title="Speakup-info">speakup info page</a>.
215 </p>
216 <a name="Options_provided_for_autorun" id="Options_provided_for_autorun"></a><p><b><br> Options provided for autorun</b></p>
217 <ul><li><b>ar_source=xxx</b>: place where the autorun are stored. It may be the root directory of a partition (<code>/dev/sda1</code>), an nfs share (<code>nfs://</code>), a samba share (<code>smb://</code>), or an http directory (<code><a target="_blank" href="" class="external free" title="" rel="nofollow"></a></code>).
218 </li><li><b>autoruns=[0-9]</b>: comma separated list of the autorun scrip to be run. For example <code>autoruns=0,2,7</code> the autorun sc <code>autorun0</code>, <code>autorun2</code>, <code>autorun7</code> are run. Use <code>autoruns=no</code> to disable all the autorun scripts with a number.
219 </li><li><b>ar_ignorefail</b>: continue to execute the scripts chain even if a script failed (returned a non-zero status)
220 </li><li><b>ar_nodel</b>: do not delete the temporary copy of the autorun scripts located in <code>/var/autorun/tmp</code> after execution
221 </li><li><b>ar_disable</b>: completely disable autorun, the simple <code>autorun</code> script will not be executed
222 </li><li><b>ar_nowait</b>: do not wait for a keypress after the autorun script have been executed.
223 </li></ul>
224 </p>
225 </div>
228 <!-- Clonezilla -->
229 <H2><a name="clonezilla"></a>Clonezilla Live boot parameters <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#boot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
230 <!-- note -->
231 <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr valign="top"><td><img src="images/info.png"></td><td>
232 The following info applies to <b>Clonezilla Live v. 1.2.8-42</b><br>
233 In case you need to get info for a more recent version of <b>Clonezilla Live</b><br>
234 please see the page "<a href="http://clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc" target="_blank">The boot parameters for Clonezilla live</a>"
235 </td></tr></table></div>
237 <p>A typical Clonezilla Live isolinux entry is:</p>
239 <p class="newcode"> kernel /live/vmlinuz1<br>
240 append initrd=/live/initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"<br>
241 ocs_live_extra_param="" ocs_live_keymap="" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang="" vga=791 nolocales</p>
242 <!--empty-line-->
243 <p>The kernel used is <b>vmlinuz</b>, and anything after the word <b>append</b> is a boot parameter.</p>
244 <!--empty-line-->
247 <p>The following info comes from the page titled <a href="http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/doc/fine-print.php?path=./99_Misc/00_live-initramfs-manual.doc#00_live-initramfs-manual.doc" target="_blank">The boot parameters for Clonezilla live</a>.</p>
249 <!-- Please do not delete these comented lines-->
250 <!-- Clonezilla documentation section. Please use "update-boot-params" script to update -->
251 <!--Clonezilla-Documentation-->
252 <div class="otherpage">Clonezilla live is based on <a target="_blank" href="http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/" >Debian live</a> with clonezilla installed. Therefore there are 2 kinds of boot parameters:
253 <ol>
254 <li>Boot parameters from live-initramfs. You can refer to this <a href="#live-initramfs">manual of live-initramfs</a>.
255 <li>Boot parameters specially for Clonezilla. All of them are named as "ocs_*", e.g. ocs_live_run, ocs_live_extra_param, ocs_live_batch, ocs_lang.
256 <ul>
257 <li>ocs_live_run is the main program to run in Clonezilla live to save or restore. or other command. Available program: ocs-live-general, ocs-live-restore or any command you write. Use the Absolute path in Clonezilla live.<br>
258 e.g. ocs_live_run="ocs-live-general"<br>
259 <font color="red">//NOTE// You might have to use "sudo" command inside your own script, or you can assign it like: ocs_live_run="sudo bash /my-clonezilla"</font><br>
260 <li>ocs_live_extra_param will be used only when ocs_live_run=ocs-live-restore (not for ocs-live-general or any other), then it will be passed to ocs-sr. Therefore these parameters are actually those of ocs-sr.<br>
261 e.g. ocs_live_extra_param="--batch -c restoredisk sarge-r5 hda"
262 <li>ocs_live_keymap is for keymap used in Clonezilla live. Man install-keymap for more details.<br>
263 e.g. ocs_live_keymap="NONE" (won't change the default layout)<br>
264 ocs_live_keymap="/usr/share/keymaps/i386/azerty/fr-latin9.kmap.gz" (French keyboard)
265 <li>batch mode or not (yes/no), if no, will run interactively.<br>
266 e.g. ocs_live_batch="no"
267 <li>ocs_lang is the language used in Clonezilla live. Available value: en_US.UTF-8, zh_TW.UTF-8... (see $DRBL_SCRIPT_PATH/lang/bash/)
268 e.g. ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8"
269 <li>ocs_debug (or ocs-debug) is for you to enter command line prompt before any clonezilla-related action is run. This is easier for you to debug.
270 <li>ocs_daemonon, ocs_daemonoff, ocs_numlk, ocs_capslk.<br>
271 Ex. for the first 2 parameters, ocs_daemonon="ssh", then ssh service will be turned on when booting. For the last 2 parameters, use "on" or "off", e.g. ocs_numlk=on to turn on numberlock when booting.
272 <li>ocs_prerun, ocs_prerun1, ocs_prerun2... is for you to run a command before Clonezilla is started. E.g. ocs_prerun="/live/image/myscript.sh". If you have more commands to run, you can assign them in the order: ocs_prerun=..., ocs_prerun1=..., ocs_prerun2=.... If more than 10 parameters, remember to use ocs_prerun01, ocs_prerun02..., ocs_prerun11 to make it in order.
273 <li>ocs_live_run_tty. This option allows you to specify the tty where $ocs_live_run is run. By default $ocs_live_run is run on /dev/tty1 only. If you want to use ttyS0, for example, add live-getty and console=ttyS0,38400n81 in the boot parameter.<br>
274 <font color=red>//NOTE//</font><br>
275 <ul>
276 <li>If "live-getty console=ttyS0,38400n81" are assigned in the boot parameters, ocs_live_run_tty will honor ttyS0, even other value is assigned to ocs_live_run_tty in boot parameter.
277 <li>It's recommended to assign ocs_lang and ocs_live_keymap in the boot parameters too.
278 </ul>
279 <li>ip, this option allows you to specify the network parameters for network card. In Clonezilla live a patched live-initramfs is used, which is different from the original live-initramfs so that you can assign DNS server, too. Its format is: ip=ethernet port,IP address, netmask, gateway, DNS. E.g. If you want to assing eth0 with IP address, netmask, gateway, DNS server, you can assign the following in the boot parameter:<br>
280 ip=eth0:<br>
281 If more than one network card, you can use "," to separate them, e.g.:<br>
282 ip=eth0:,eth1:<br>
283 <li>Besides, "live-netdev" (yes, not ocs_live_netdev) can be used when using PXE booting, you can force to assign the network device to get filesystem.squashfs. This is useful when there are two or more NICs are linked. E.g. live-netdev="eth1" allows you to force the live-initramfs to use eth1 to fetch the root file system filesystem.squashfs.
284 </ul>
285 </ol>
286 <hr>
288 With the above options, we have the following examples:
289 <ol>
290 <li>A PXE config example for you to boot Clonezilla live via PXE, and ssh service is on, the password of account "user" is assigned:<br>
291 ----------------------------------------<br>
292 label Clonezilla Live<br>
293 MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live<br>
295 kernel vmlinuz1<br>
296 append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788 fetch=tftp:// usercrypted=bkuQxLqLRuDW6 ocs_numlk="on" ocs_daemonon="ssh"<br>
297 ----------------------------------------<br>
299 The usercrypted password is created by:<br>
300 echo YOUR_PASSWORD | mkpasswd -s<br>
301 ("mkpasswd" is from package "whois" in Debian or Ubuntu. Check your GNU/Linux to see which package provides this command if you are not using Debian or Ubuntu. Replace YOUR_PASSWORD with your plain text password, and remember do not put any " in the boot parameters of live-initramfs (while it's ok for those ocs_* boot parameters), i.e. do NOT use something like usercrypted="bkuQxLqLRuDW6").<br>
302 //NOTE// If you do not assign salt to mkpasswd, the encrypted password will not be the same every time you create it.<br>
303 For more about usercrypted discussion, please check the <a href="http://lists.debian.org/debian-live/2008/10/msg00020.html" target=_blank>here</a>.
304 <br><br>
305 <li>How to put your own binary driver in Clonezilla live without modifying /live/filesystem.squashfs:
306 <ul>
307 <li>Boot clonezilla live
308 <li>Become root by running "sudo su -"
309 <li>Copy the dir lsi, which contains a precompiled kernel module matching the running kernel in Clonezilla live and a script to run it, to a working dir, e.g.: <br>
310 cp -r /live/image/lsi /home/partimag
311 <li>cd /home/partimag
312 <li>/opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-live-dev -c -s -i lsi -u lsi -x "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
313 <li>/opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-iso -s -i lsi -u lsi -x "ocs_prerun=/live/image/lsi/prep-lsi.sh"
314 <li>///NOTE/// In this example, the 2 files in dir lsi are: megasr.ko (the binary driver) and prep-lsi.sh. The contents of prep-lsi.sh:
315 <pre>
316 ------------------------
317 #!/bin/bash
318 cp -f /live/image/lsi/megasr.ko /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/
319 chown root.root /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/block/megasr.ko
320 depmod -a modprobe megasr
321 sleep 1
322 ------------------------
323 </pre>
324 </ul>
326 <li>To put your customized script with a PXE version of Clonezilla live (You have to use Clonezilla live version 1.2.2-2 or later):<br>
327 In this example, we assume (1) The IP address of your PXE server is, (2) the customized script (custom-ocs-2) is put on your PXE server's tftpd root dir (E.g. On DRBL server, the path is /tftpboot/nbi_img/. It might be different in your case if you are not use DRBL server as a PXE server).<br>
328 Therefor your pxelinux.cfg/default file is like:
329 <p>------------------------<br>
330 label Clonezilla Live<br>
332 # MENU HIDE<br>
333 MENU LABEL Clonezilla Live<br>
334 # MENU PASSWD<br>
335 kernel vmlinuz1<br>
336 append initrd=initrd1.img boot=live union=aufs noswap noprompt vga=788 ip=frommedia fetch=tftp:// ocs_prerun="busybox tftp -g -b 10240 -r custom-ocs-2 -l /tmp/custom-ocs-2" ocs_live_run="bash /tmp/custom-ocs-2" ocs_live_keymap="NONE" ocs_live_batch="no" ocs_lang="en_US.UTF-8" nolocales<br>
337 TEXT HELP<br>
338 Boot Clonezilla live via network<br>
339 ENDTEXT<br>
340 <p>------------------------<br>
341 The content of custom-ocs-2 can be like:
342 <pre>
343 ------------------------
344 #!/bin/bash
345 . /opt/drbl/sbin/drbl-conf-functions
346 . /opt/drbl/sbin/ocs-functions
347 . /etc/ocs/ocs-live.conf
349 # Load language file
350 ask_and_load_lang_set en_US.UTF-8
352 # 1. Mount the clonezilla image home.
353 # Types: local_dev, ssh_server, samba_server, nfs_server
354 prep-ocsroot -t nfs_server
356 # 2. Restore the image
357 if mountpoint /home/partimag/ &>/dev/null; then
358 ocs-sr -l en_US.UTF-8 -c -p choose restoredisk ask_user ask_user
359 else
360 [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] && $SETCOLOR_FAILURE
361 echo "Fail to find the Clonezilla image home /home/partimag!"
362 echo "Program terminated!"
363 [ "$BOOTUP" = "color" ] && $SETCOLOR_NORMAL
364 fi
365 ------------------------
366 </pre>
367 </li>
368 </ol>
369 </div>
370 <!-- End of copy/paste 3 -->
372 <H3><a name="live-initramfs"></a>live-initramfs manual <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#boot-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
374 <p>This is the manual of <a href="http://www.clonezilla.org/clonezilla-live/live-initramfs-param.php" target=_blank>live-initramfs</a>
375 <BR>
376 </p>
378 <!-- Please do not delete these comented lines-->
379 <!-- SysRescCD documentation section. Please use "update-boot-params" script to update -->
380 <!--initramfs-Documentation-->
381 <a name="live-initramfs"></a><div class="otherpage" style="overflow: auto;"><pre>
382 live-initramfs(7)
383 =================
384 :man source: 1.157.3
385 :man manual: Debian Live
387 Name
388 ----
389 live-initramfs - Debian Live initramfs hook
391 Synopsis
392 --------
393 BOOT=live
395 as kernel parameter at boot prompt.
397 Description
398 -----------
400 live-initramfs is a hook for the initramfs-tools, used to generate a initramfs
401 capable to boot live systems, such as those created by *live-helper*(7).
402 This includes the Debian Live isos, netboot tarballs, and usb stick images.
404 At boot time it will look for a (read-only) media containing a "/live"
405 directory where a root filesystems (often a compressed filesystem image like
406 squashfs) is stored. If found, it will create a writable environment, using
407 aufs, for Debian like systems to boot from.
409 You probably do not want to install this package onto a non-live system,
410 although it will do no harm.
412 live-initramfs is a fork of <a href="http://packages.ubuntu.com/casper/" target="_blank">casper</a>.
413 casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen &amp;lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
414 and Matt Zimmerman &amp;lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
416 Boot options
417 ------------
419 Here is the complete list of recognized boot parameters by live-initramfs.
421 access=*ACCESS*::
423 Set the accessibility level for physically or visually impared users. ACCESS
424 must be one of v1, v2, v3, m1, or m2. v1=lesser visual impairment, v2=moderate
425 visual impairment, v3=blindness, m1=minor motor difficulties, m2=moderate motor
426 difficulties.
428 console=*TTY,SPEED*::
430 Set the default console to be used with the "live-getty" option. Example:
431 "console=ttyS0,115200"
433 debug::
435 Makes initramfs boot process more verbose.
437 fetch=*URL*::
439 Another form of netboot by downloading a squashfs image from a given url,
440 copying to ram and booting it. Due to current limitations in busyboxs wget
441 and DNS resolution, an URL can not contain a hostname but an IP only.
443 Not working: http://example.com/path/to/your_filesystem.squashfs
444 Working:
446 Also note that therefore it's currently not possible to fetch an image from a
447 namebased virtualhost of an httpd if it is sharing the ip with the main httpd
448 instance.
450 hostname=*HOSTNAME*, username=*USER*, userfullname=*USERFULLNAME*::
452 Those parameters lets you override values read from the config file.
454 ignore_uuid
456 Do not check that any UUID embedded in the initramfs matches the discovered
457 medium. live-initramfs may be told to generate a UUID by setting
458 LIVE_GENERATE_UUID=1 when building the initramfs.
460 integrity-check::
462 If specified, an MD5 sum is calculated on the live media during boot and
463 compared to the value found in md5sum.txt found in the root directory of the
464 live media.
468 [DEVICE]:[AUTOCONF]]***::
470 Let you specify the name(s) and the options of the interface(s) that should be
471 configured at boot time. Do not specify this if you want to use dhcp (default).
472 It will be changed in a future release to mimick official kernel boot param
473 specification (e.g. ip=,:::::eth1:dhcp).
475 ip=[**frommedia**]::
477 If this variable is set, dhcp and static configuration are just skipped and the
478 system will use the (must be) media-preconfigured /etc/network/interfaces
479 instead.
481 {keyb|kbd-chooser/method}=**KEYBOARD**, {klayout|console-setup/layoutcode}=**LAYOUT**,
482 {kvariant|console-setup/variantcode}=**VARIANT**, {kmodel|console-setup/modelcode}=
483 **CODE**, koptions=**OPTIONS**::
485 Configure the running keyboard as specified, if this one misses live-initramfs
486 behaves as if "keyb=us" was specified. It will be interfered from "locale=" if
487 locale is only 2 lowecase letters as a special case. You could also specify
488 console layout, variant, code, and options (no defaults).
490 live-getty::
492 This changes the auto-login on virtual terminals to use the (experimental)
493 live-getty code. With this option set the standard kernel argument "console=" is
494 parsed and if a serial console is specified then live-getty is used to autologin
495 on the serial console.
497 {live-media|bootfrom}=**DEVICE**::
499 If you specify one of this two equivalent forms, live-initramfs will first try
500 to find this device for the "/live" directory where the read-only root
501 filesystem should reside. If it did not find something usable, the normal scan
502 for block devices is performed.
504 Instead of specifing an actual device name, the keyword 'removable' can be used
505 to limit the search of acceptable live media to removable type only. Note that
506 if you want to further restrict the media to usb mass storage only, you can use
507 the 'removable-usb' keyword.
509 {live-media-encryption|encryption}=**TYPE**::
511 live-initramfs will mount the encrypted rootfs TYPE, asking the passphrase,
512 useful to build paranoid live systems :-). TYPE supported so far are "aes" for
513 loop-aes encryption type.
515 live-media-offset=**BYTES**::
517 This way you could tell live-initramfs that your image starts at offset BYTES in
518 the above specified or autodiscovered device, this could be useful to hide the
519 Debian Live iso or image inside another iso or image, to create "clean" images.
521 live-media-path=**PATH**::
523 Sets the path to the live filesystem on the medium. By default, it is set to
524 '/live' and you should not change that unless you have customized your media
525 accordingly.
527 live-media-timeout=**SECONDS**::
529 Set the timeout in seconds for the device specified by "live-media=" to become
530 ready before giving up.
532 {locale|debian-installer/locale}=**LOCALE**::
534 Configure the running locale as specified, if not present the live-media rootfs
535 configured locale will be used and if also this one misses live-initramfs behave
536 as "locale=en_US.UTF-8" was specified. If only 2 lowercase letter are specified
537 (like "it"), the "maybe wanted" locale is generated (like en:EN.UTF-8), in this
538 case if also "keyb=" is unspecified is set with those 2 lowercase letters
539 (keyb=us). Beside that facility, only UTF8 locales are supported by
540 live-initramfs.
542 module=**NAME**::
544 Instead of using the default optional file "filesystem.module" (see below)
545 another file could be specified without the extension ".module"; it should be
546 placed on "/live" directory of the live medium.
548 netboot[=**nfs**|**cifs**]::
550 This tells live-initramfs to perform a network mount. The parameter "nfsroot="
551 (with optional "nfsopts="), should specify where is the location of the root
552 filesystem. With no args, will try cifs first, and if it fails nfs.
554 nfsopts=::
556 This lets you specify custom nfs options.
558 noautologin::
560 This parameter disables the automatic terminal login only, not touching gdk/kdm.
562 noxautologin::
564 This parameter disables the automatic login of gdm/kdm only, not touching
565 terminals.
567 nofastboot::
569 This parameter disables the default disabling of filesystem checks in
570 /etc/fstab. If you have static filesystems on your harddisk and you want them to
571 be checked at boot time, use this parameter, otherwise they are skipped.
573 nopersistent::
575 disables the "persistent" feature, useful if the bootloader (like syslinux) has
576 been installed with persistent enabled.
578 noprompt
580 Do not prompt to eject the CD or remove the USB flash drive on reboot.
582 nosudo::
584 This parameter disables the automatic configuration of sudo.
586 swapon::
588 This parameter enables usage of local swap partitions.
590 nouser::
592 This parameter disables the creation of the default user completely.
594 noxautoconfig::
596 This parameter disables Xorg auto-reconfiguration at boot time. This is valuable
597 if you either do the detection on your own, or, if you want to ship a custom,
598 premade xorg.conf in your live system.
600 persistent[=nofiles]::
602 live-initramfs will look for persistent and snapshot partitions or files labeled
603 "live-rw", "home-rw", and files called "live-sn*", "home-sn*" and will try to,
604 in order: mount as /cow the first, mount the second in /home, and just copy the
605 contents of the latter in appropriate locations (snapshots). Snapshots will be
606 tried to be updated on reboot/shutdown. Look at live-snapshot(1) for more
607 informations. If "nofiles" is specified, only filesystems with matching labels
608 will be searched; no filesystems will be traversed looking for archives or image
609 files. This results in shorter boot times.
611 persistent-path=PATH
613 live-initramfs will look for persistency files in the root directory of a partition,
614 with this parameter, the path can be configured so that you can have multiple
615 directories on the same partition to store persistency files.
617 {preseed/file|file}=**FILE**::
619 A path to a file present on the rootfs could be used to preseed debconf
620 database.
622 package/question=**VALUE**::
624 All debian installed packages could be preseeded from command-line that way,
625 beware of blanks spaces, they will interfere with parsing, use a preseed file in
626 this case.
628 quickreboot::
630 This option causes live-initramfs to reboot without attempting to eject the
631 media and without asking the user to remove the boot media.
633 showmounts::
635 This parameter will make live-initramfs to show on "/" the ro filesystems
636 (mostly compressed) on "/live". This is not enabled by default because could
637 lead to problems by applications like "mono" which store binary paths on
638 installation.
640 silent
642 If you boot with the normal quiet parameter, live-initramfs hides most messages
643 of its own. When adding silent, it hides all.
645 textonly
647 Start up to text-mode shell prompts, disabling the graphical user interface.
649 timezone=**TIMEZONE**::
651 By default, timezone is set to UTC. Using the timezone parameter, you can set it
652 to your local zone, e.g. Europe/Zurich.
654 todisk=**DEVICE**::
656 Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the entire read-only
657 media to the specified device before mounting the root filesystem. It probably
658 needs a lot of free space. Subsequent boots should then skip this step and just
659 specify the "live-media=DEVICE" boot parameter with the same DEVICE used this
660 time.
662 toram::
664 Adding this parameter, live-initramfs will try to copy the whole read-only media
665 to the computer's RAM before mounting the root filesystem. This could need a lot
666 of ram, according to the space used by the read-only media.
668 union=**aufs**|**unionfs**::
670 By default, live-initramfs uses aufs. With this parameter, you can switch to
671 unionfs.
673 utc=**yes**|**no**::
675 By default, Debian systems do assume that the hardware clock is set to UTC. You
676 can change or explicitly set it with this parameter.
678 xdebconf::
680 Uses xdebconfigurator, if present on the rootfs, to configure X instead of the
681 standard procedure (experimental).
683 xvideomode=**RESOLUTION**::
685 Doesn't do xorg autodetection, but enforces a given resolution.
687 Files
688 -----
690 /etc/live.conf
692 Some variables can be configured via this config file (inside the live system).
694 /live/filesystem.module
696 This optional file (inside the live media) contains a list of white-space or
697 carriage-return-separated file names corresponding to disk images in the "/live"
698 directory. If this file exists, only images listed here will be merged into the
699 root aufs, and they will be loaded in the order listed here. The first entry
700 in this file will be the "lowest" point in the aufs, and the last file in
701 this list will be on the "top" of the aufs, directly below /cow. Without
702 this file, any images in the "/live" directory are loaded in alphanumeric order.
704 /etc/live-persistence.binds
706 This optional file (which resides in the rootfs system, not in the live media)
707 is used as a list of directories which not need be persistent: ie. their
708 content does not need to survive reboots when using the persistence features.
710 This saves expensive writes and speeds up operations on volatile data such as
711 web caches and temporary files (like e.g. /tmp and .mozilla) which are
712 regenerated each time. This is achieved by bind mounting each listed directory
713 with a tmpfs on the original path.
716 See also
717 --------
719 live-snapshot(1), initramfs-tools(8), live-helper(7), live-initscripts(7),
720 live-webhelper(7)
722 Bugs
723 ----
725 Report bugs against live-initramfs
726 <a href="http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs" target="_blank">http://packages.qa.debian.org/live-initramfs</a>.
728 Homepage
729 --------
731 More information about the Debian Live project can be found at
732 <a href="http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/" target="_blank">http://debian-live.alioth.debian.org/</a> and
733 <a href="http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/" target="_blank">http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/</a>.
735 Authors
736 -------
738 live-initramfs is maintained by Daniel Baumann &amp;lt;daniel@debian.org&amp;gt;
739 for the Debian project.
741 live-initramfs is a fork of <a href="http://packages.ubuntu.com/casper/" target="_blank">casper</a>.
742 casper was originally written by Tollef Fog Heen &amp;lt;tfheen@canonical.com&amp;gt;
743 and Matt Zimmerman &amp;lt;mdz@canonical.com&amp;gt;.
744 </pre>
745 </div>
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