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72     <H2>Clonezilla-SysRescCD</H2>
73     <H3>Documentation: Managing partitions</H3>
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98     <!-- Intro -->
99    
100 sng 37 <H2 style="margin-top: 0px;"><a name="partitions-intro"></a>Intro <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
101 sng 28
102     <p>One of the most important maintenance tasks that can only be done by using a live CD is partitioning. No operating system allows partitioning the same disk where the OS itself resides. Trying to do so is like attempting to repair a car while its engine is turned on.<br><br>
103     <!--empty line-->
104     Of course, <b>SystemRescueCD</b> contains multiple programs that are related to partitioning. Most important are <b>GParted</b> (graphical partitioning program), <b>GNU Parted</b> (text-based partitioning program), <b>fdisk</b> and <b>sfdisk</b> (partition table editors) and various filesystem tools (like <b>ntfsprogs</b> and <b>e2fsprogs</b>).<br><br>
105     <!--empty line-->
106     This page contains some theory about partitions and filesystems, advice for choosing the right filesystem and a partitioning example by using <b>GParted</b>.</p>
107    
108     <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/important.png"></td><td>
109     While partitioning, an user error or a bug can damage your partitions.<br><br>Creating a disk image of the disk to be<br>partitioned beforehand is highly recommended.
110     </td></tr></table></div>
111     <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/info.png"></td><td>
112 jyrki 170 The following pressentation has been made using<br><b>SystemRescueCD v 2.1.1</b>
113 sng 28 </td></tr></table></div>
114    
115 sng 37 <H2><a name="theory"></a>Some theory <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
116 sng 28
117     <H3><a name="partitions-partition"></a>What is a partition? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
118    
119     <p>A partition is a logical division of a hard disk created so that you can have different operating systems on the same hard disk or to create the appearance of having separate hard drives for file management, multiple users, or other purposes.</p>
120    
121     <p>In Windows, a one-partition hard disk is labelled the "C:" drive ("A:" and "B:" are typically reserved for diskette drives). A two-partition hard drive would typically contain "C:" and "D:" drives. (CD-ROM drives typically are assigned the last letter in whatever sequence of letters have been used as a result of hard disk formatting, or typically with a two-partition, the "E:" drive.).</p>
122    
123     <p>In UNIX-based systems, a partition is used to host the / (root) file system, and optionally the /opt, /usr and /home file systems. There may also be a swap partition, which doesn't host any file system.</p>
124    
125     <p>Each operatin system provides some kind of tool to create and manage partitions. Examples of such tools are <b>fdisk</b> in DOS/Windows, <b>fdisk</b>, <b>sfdisk</b> and <b>parted</b> in Linux, etc.</p>
126    
127 jyrki 81 <H3><a name="partitions-extended"></a>What is the difference between primary, extended and logical partitions? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
128 sng 28
129 jyrki 150 <p>Information about partitions is saved in so-called partition table in Master Boot Record. MBR itself is only 512 bytes in size, and only 64 bytes are reserved for partition table. That's not enough, and there are many workarounds to bypass limitations caused by the size, for example <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_block_addressing#Enhanced_BIOS" target="_blank">logical block addressing</a>. Extended partitions are another workaround.</p>
130 sng 28
131     <p>Partition table can only store information about four partitions. If one has, for example, two GNU/Linux distributions on the same disk, both of them having separate root partitions, shared /home and shared swap, the partition number limit has been hit already.</p>
132    
133     <p>A partition that is mentioned in the partition table is called primary partition. Because of the limit, one disk can only contain 1-4 primary partitions.</p>
134    
135     <p>An extended partition fixes the problem simply by containing more boot records, called Extended Boot Records (EBR). Each EBR contains information about one logical partition and, if the extended partition contains multiple logical partitions, link to the next EBR. Thus, an extended partition can contain unlimited amount of logical partitions.</p>
136    
137     <p>Extended partition contains only EBRs and logical partitions (and maybe unallocated space). Extended partition doesn't contain any filesystem and files can't be stored in it. Of course, logical partition can contain any filesystem (or be unformatted).</p>
138    
139 jyrki 80 <p>Logical partitions can always be used for storing data: any operating system can see logical partitions. GNU/Linux supports both multiple primary extended partitions and extended partitions within each other, while Windows supports only the latter. GNU/Linux distributions can be installed to logical partitions as well, but Windows requires a lot of tweaking. See <a href="http://www.goodells.net/multiboot/index.htm" target="_blank">this outdated guide</a>.</p>
140 sng 28
141     <H3><a name="partitions-lvm"></a>What is LVM? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
142    
143     <p>LVM means "Logical Volume Manager". It allows creating volume groups on top of hard drives and logical volumes within volume groups. Logical volumes are NOT the same thing as logical partitions!</p>
144    
145     <p>Volume groups can be created very flexibly: a volume group can allocate, for example, the first half of the first hard drive and the second half of the third drive. One can even create a massive volume group containing all storage he/she has.</p>
146    
147     <p>The computer sees a logical volume as a partition: logical volume can be left unformatted or contain any filesystem.</p>
148    
149     <p>LVM has many benefits: for example, if one has three hard drives 60 gigabytes each, he/she can create a 160-gigabyte partition for storing massive files and/or saving some disk space. In addition, logical volumes can be resized even when they're in use, so when creating logical volumes one doesn't need to worry if they're too small or big - if they are, he/she can resize them at any time.</p>
150    
151     <p>However, resizing a logical volume doesn't resize the filesystem in it, so using a filesystem that can be resized in use (online resizing) is recommended. Very few filesystems can be shrinked online, but most GNU/Linux filesystems (including ext3/4, ReiserFS, XFS and btrfs) can be grown online. It's generally a good idea to leave unallocated space within volume group, so logical volumes can later be grown without shrinking any other logical volume.</p>
152    
153     <p>Here come bad news for people who dualboot: Windows doesn't support LVM, it sees volume groups as unformatted partitions. If you try to access volume group within Windows, you're just prompted to format the partition. That prompt is annoying at best and dangerous at worst.</p>
154    
155     <p>More information about LVM can be found <a href="http://sunoano.name/ws/public_xhtml/lvm.html" target="_blank">here</a> (almost everything about LVM in a single page) and <a href="http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-Guide-EN-LVM2" target="_blank">here</a> (official SystemRescueCD documentation about LVM).</p>
156    
157     <H3><a name="partitions-filesystem"></a>What is a file system? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
158    
159     <p>A file system is the way in which files are named and where they are placed logically for storage and retrieval. The DOS, Windows, OS/2, Macintosh, and UNIX-based operating systems all have file systems in which files are placed somewhere in a hierarchical (tree) structure. A file is placed in a directory (folder in Windows) or subdirectory at the desired place in the tree structure.</p>
160    
161     <p>The most important difference between filesystems is operating system support. Some filesystems are supported by all modern operating systems, but especially the newest filesystems are very rarely supported. Other important limits are maximum file size, journaling support and file permission metadata support.</p>
162    
163     <p>The reason that file size limits exist is that all filesystems reserve a fixed number of bits for storing the file size. If the size of the file, in bytes, is bigger than the biggest number that can be stored in file size bits, the operating system must refuse to store the file at all in order to prevent data corruption.</p>
164    
165     <p>File permission metadata means that the filesystem stores in the metadata of the file, among other things, information about who owns the file and what different users are allowed to do with the file. That metadata is especially useful in multi-user environment because it mostly prevents users from reading each other's files. Permissions can be bypassed, however.</p>
166    
167     <H3><a name="partitions-journaling"></a>What is journaling? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
168    
169     <p>Ideally, data in a partition never corrupts. But, in the real world, there are power failures and operating system freezes. And if a computer is forcefully shut down while something is written to the drive, the write operation can't be finished. That can damage the filesystem and destroy any files in the partition.</p>
170    
171     <p>Journaling partially fixes that problem by writing most changes to the disk twice: first to a special area called journal and, after that, to the filesystem itself. If power is lost while writing to the journal was in progress, the partial change is just ignored and never committed to the filesystem itself. If power failure or OS freeze happened while writing to filesystem itself, the write operation is finished by using the information in journal.</p>
172    
173 jyrki 80 <p>Journaling is always a trade-off between reliability and performance. In fact, the ext3 and ext4 filesystems support multiple journaling modes in order to allow the user to choose the optimal compromise. The most popular choices are <b>ordered</b> and <b>writeback</b>.</p>
174 sng 28
175 jyrki 80 <p>Both modes only write metadata changes to the journal before committing them: data itself is written directly to the main filesystem. The difference between the modes is that <b>ordered</b> mode guarantees that the data is written before the change is marked as committed. The difference may sound small, but in some cases <b>ordered</b> mode causes horrible performance. In Linux 2.6.30, the default journaling mode was changed to <b>writeback</b> - and it was quickly found out that <b>writeback</b> mode may cause massive data loss. See <a href="http://forums.raiden.net/viewtopic.php?p=155912#155912" target="_blank">this forum post</a> for details. Most GNU/Linux distributions are now using <b>ordered</b> mode as the default again.</p>
176 sng 28
177 jyrki 80 <p>In addition, on SSDs (Solid State Drives) and thumb drives write speed is much slower than read speed. They also have a limited number of writing cycles, so journaling reduces their lifetime. Thus, I (Jyrki) recommend against using journaling fileystems on such drives.</p>
178    
179 sng 28 <H3><a name="partitions-filesystems"></a>What are the differences between most popular filesystems? <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
180    
181     <p>The following table quickly describes the most important differences between them.</p>
182     <!--not-on-txt-->
183     <table border="1">
184     <tr>
185     <th></th>
186     <th colspan="2">Operating system support</th>
187     <th></th>
188     <th></th>
189     <th></th>
190     </tr>
191     <tr>
192     <th></th>
193     <th>Under Windows</th>
194     <th>Under GNU/Linux</th>
195     <th>Maximum file size</th>
196     <th>Journaling</th>
197     <th>Permissions</th>
198     </tr>
199     <tr>
200     <th>FAT32</th>
201     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>
202     <td style="background-color: rgb(127,255,0)">Built-in</td>
203     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">4 GB</td>
204     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No</td>
205     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No</td>
206     </tr>
207     <tr>
208     <th>NTFS</th>
209     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>
210     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,255,0)">Driver included</td>
211     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,255,0)">16 EB</td>
212     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
213     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
214     </tr>
215     <tr>
216     <th>ext2</th>
217     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">3rd party driver</td>
218     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>
219     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">16 GB-2 TB*</td>
220     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No</td>
221     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
222     </tr>
223     <tr>
224     <th>ext3</th>
225     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">3rd party driver</td>
226     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>
227     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">16 GB-2 TB*</td>
228     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
229     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
230     </tr>
231     <tr>
232     <th>ext4</th>
233 jyrki 151 <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">3rd party driver</td>
234 sng 28 <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Native</td>
235     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">16 GB-16 TB*</td>
236     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
237     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
238     </tr>
239     <tr>
240     <th>exFAT</th>
241 jyrki 80 <td style="background-color: rgb(127,255,0)">Built-in (Vista/7)**</td>
242     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,127,0)">3rd party driver</td>
243 sng 28 <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">64 ZB</td>
244     <td style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0)">No</td>
245     <td style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0)">Yes</td>
246     </tr>
247     </table>
248     <!--end-not-on-txt-->
249    
250     <!--txt-only-->
251     <pre>
252     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Operating&nbsp;system&nbsp;support
253     #############################################################################
254     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Under&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Under&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Maximum&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Journaling&nbsp;&nbsp;Permissions
255     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Windows&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;GNU/Linux&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;file&nbsp;size
256     #############################################################################
257     FAT32&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Native&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Built-in&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4&nbsp;GB&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;No&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;No
258     NTFS&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Native&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Included&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;16&nbsp;EB&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Yes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Yes
259     ext2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3rd&nbsp;party&nbsp;driver&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Native&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;16&nbsp;GB-2&nbsp;TB*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;No&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Yes
260     ext3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3rd&nbsp;party&nbsp;driver&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Native&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;16&nbsp;GB-2&nbsp;TB*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Yes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Yes
261 jyrki 151 ext4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3rd&nbsp;party&nbsp;driver&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Native&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;16&nbsp;GB-16&nbsp;TB*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Yes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Yes
262 jyrki 80 exFAT&nbsp;&nbsp;Built-in&nbsp;(Vista/7)**&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Driver&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;64&nbsp;ZB&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;No&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Yes
263 sng 28 </pre>
264     <!--end-txt-only-->
265    
266     <p>* Depends on cluster size<br>
267 jyrki 151 ** <a href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/955704" target="_blank">This update</a> adds exFAT support to Windows XP</p>
268 sng 28
269     <p>Operating system support:</p>
270    
271     <ul>
272     <li>"Native" means that the kernel supports the filesystem and the OS can boot from a partition using that FS.</li>
273     <li>"Built-in" means that the kernel supports the filesystem, but booting from a partition containing such FS is very difficult.</li>
274     <li>"Driver included" means that ntfs-3g (the driver that adds NTFS support to Linux) comes with most GNU/Linux distributions.</li>
275 jyrki 151 <li>"3rd party driver" means that a driver to add filesystem support is available, but must be downloaded and installed separately. The ext2/3/4 driver is <a href="http://www.ext2fsd.com" target="_blank">Ext2fsd</a> and the exFAT driver is <a href="http://code.google.com/p/exfat/" target="_blank">exfat</a>.</li>
276 sng 28 </ul>
277    
278 sng 37 <H2><a name="filesystems"></a>Filesystems <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
279 sng 28
280     <p>This section contains more information about most popular filesystems.</p>
281    
282     <H3><a name="partitions-fat32"></a>FAT32 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
283    
284     <p>The initial version of FAT (File Allocation Table), now referred as FAT12, was designed for floppy disks. A FAT12 partition can only be up to 32 megabytes in size. After that, PCs equipped with hard drives were introcuded by IBM and the sizes of hard drives began growing. Microsoft answered the need by developing first initial FAT16 and then final FAT16.</p>
285    
286     <p>FAT16 partition can be up to two gigabytes in size. In the middle of 1990s, that limit was becoming a problem. Microsoft pushed the limit up by updating FAT again.</p>
287    
288     <p>FAT32 was first introduced with Windows 95 OSR2. Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows 2000 and newer support FAT32 too. Linux kernel has supported FAT32 almost as long as Windows, but booting GNU/Linux from FAT32 partition is difficult and actually requires DOS to be installed in the partition as well. (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FAT_filesystem_and_Linux#Installing_Linux_on_and_booting_it_from_FAT_volumes_using_umsdos" target="_blank">more information</a>)</p>
289    
290 jyrki 150 <p>FAT32 partition can be up to two terabytes in size. There are already hard drives that exceed the limit. A single file within FAT32 partition can be up to four gigabytes in size.</p>
291 sng 28
292     <p>Because FAT32 is, in the end, based on FAT12, it has very few features. It doesn't support file permissions, hard/symbolic links, encryption, compression, alternative data streams, journaling... It lacks support for nearly anything that defines a modern filesystem. However, due to very few features, FAT32 is very fast filesystem if it's not fragmented or on a Flash-based drive. Mind you, FAT32 fragments very fast.</p>
293    
294     <p>Due to excellent operating system support, I recommend FAT32 for storing files which should be accessible in both Windows and GNU/Linux. FAT32 is also a good filesystem on Solid State Drives and thumb drives due to its performance.</p>
295    
296     <H3><a name="partitions-ext2"></a>ext2 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
297    
298     <p>Ext2 or ext2fs is the successor of extfs (extended file system). Extfs didn't support separated timestamps for access, data modification and inode modification. In order to add support for them, and make the filesystem extendable, a new filesystem had to be created.</p>
299    
300     <p>Ext2 was developed in January 1993, earlier than any other filesystem mentioned in this page.</p>
301    
302 jyrki 151 <p>Because ext2 is designed for GNU/Linux, support in Linux kernel was implemented immediately. The first Windows driver supporting ext2, <a href="http://www.ext2fsd.com" target="_blank">Ext2fsd</a> 0.01, was released on 25 January 2002. Ext2fsd works only on Windows NT operating systems starting from Windows 2000.</p>
303 sng 28
304     <p>The best property of ext2 is extensibility. The superblock contains information about which version the filesystem is (ext2, ext3 or ext4) and which extensions and features are in use. By using these pieces of information, the operating system or driver can decide whether or not mounting the partition is safe. That's the most important reason why most GNU/Linux distributions still use successors of ext2 as default filesystems.</p>
305    
306     <p>Depending on cluster size, ext2 partition can be up to 2-32 terabytes in size. File size limit is 16 GB-2 TB.</p>
307    
308     <p>Ext2 supports file permissions, both hard and symbolic links and extended file attributes. Encryption, compression and journaling are unsupported.</p>
309    
310 jyrki 151 <p>Lack of journaling support is the worst limitation of ext2. What was done in order to get rid of the limitation?</p>
311 sng 28
312     <H3><a name="partitions-ext3"></a>ext3 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
313    
314 jyrki 80 <p>Ext3, the successor of ext2, was introduced in Linux kernel on November 2001. It supports journaling, can be grown online and optionally indexes large directories.</p>
315 sng 28
316 jyrki 151 <p>Ext2fsd can mount ext3 partition as ext2. Thus, ext3 support under Windows is just as good/bad as ext2 support.</p>
317 sng 28
318     <p>Partition and file size limits are the same as in ext2: partition size limit is 2-32 TB and file size limit 16 GB-2 TB, depending on cluster size.</p>
319    
320 jyrki 151 <p>Ext3 is becoming obsolete because there is...</p>
321 sng 28
322     <H3><a name="partitions-ext4"></a>ext4 <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
323    
324     <p>Linux kernel support for ext4, the successor of ext3, was marked stable code on October 2008. Ext4 contains multiple performance and stability improvements over ext3.</p>
325    
326     <p>The most important new feature is extents. An extent is a contiguous area of storage that has been reserved for a file. When a process starts to write to a file, the whole extent is allocated even before the write operation begins. The idea is that even if the file is larger than expected, it doesn't fragment if it doesn't exceed the size of the extent.</p>
327    
328     <p>Another important improvement is larger partition size limit: an ext4 partition can be even one exabyte in size. (An exabyte is a million terabytes.) In addition, a directory within an ext4 partition can contain up to 64 000 subdirectories (instead of 32 000, as in ext2/3) and timestamps are much more accurate. The file size limit is 16 GB-16 TB, depending on cluster size.</p>
329    
330 jyrki 151 <p>Ext2fsd 0.50, released on 5 February 2011, supports ext4 and is able to mount ext4 partition even if extents are enabled. Thus, ext4 support under Windows is just as good/bad as ext2 support.</p>
331 sng 28
332 jyrki 151 <p>Due to availability of Ext2fsd 0.50 and additional features, ext4 has become the de-facto GNU/Linux filesystem. Because journaling can be disabled, it is suitable for Solid State Drives and thumb drives too.</p>
333 sng 28
334     <H3><a name="partitions-ntfs"></a>NTFS <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
335    
336     <p>At the end of 1980s, IBM and Microsoft were developing OS/2 operating system. Both companies expected OS/2 1.1, released on 1988, to be the first popular operating system having a GUI, Presentation Manager. Even though it didn't become too popular during its first years, Microsoft didn't complain: Windows 2 didn't sell any better.</p>
337    
338     <p>But on May 1990, Microsoft released Windows 3.0. Millions of copies of it were sold during its first year, and Microsoft began to believe that OS/2 had failed due to decisions of IBM. At autumn 1990, Microsoft stopped cooperating with IBM, recasted OS/2 3.0 as Windows NT and continued developing it alone, leaving IBM alone with OS/2.</p>
339    
340     <p>Windows NT was targeted for network file servers, and there were already competition, most importantly Novell NetWare and OS/2. Among other things, the filesystem of Windows NT had to be fast, space efficient and reliable.</p>
341    
342     <p>NTFS (New Technology File System) was introcuded with Windows NT 3.1. Newer versions of NTFS have been introduced with newer versions of Windows NT, and the filesystem is most likely still under development. All versions of Windows NT support NTFS, but support in Linux kernel was implemented as late as on December 2003.</p>
343    
344     <p>NTFS is still, in my opinion, the most feature-filled filesystem around. It supports file permissions, both hard and symbolic links, encryption, compression, alternative data streams, journaling... There are very few features NTFS doesn't support.</p>
345    
346     <p>Depending on cluster size, a NTFS partition can be up to 8 ZB-1 YB in size. (A zettabyte (ZB) is a milliard terabytes and a yottabyte (YB) a billion terabytes.) File size limit is 16 EB.</p>
347    
348     <p>Windows 7 can only be installed on a NTFS partition, and Vista requires a <a href="http://www.computersplace.com/install-windows-vista-on-a-fat32-partition/windows-vista" target="_blank">work-around</a> if one wants to install it on a FAT32 partition. Of course NTFS partitions can be used for data storage as well: due to features of NTFS, I recommend doing so on mechanical hard drives on Windows-only computers.</p>
349    
350     <H3><a name="partitions-exfat"></a>exFAT <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
351    
352     <p>NTFS is a great filesystem, but due to its complexity and journaling, it's not suitable for Flash-based drives. Even Microsoft itself has recommended using FAT32 on removable Flash media.</p>
353    
354     <p>However, FAT32 only allows files up to four gigabytes in size. The limit is already becoming too small, for example a DVD disc image can exceed that limit. In addition, FAT32 lacks file permission support. In order to get rid of these limitations, Microsoft took FAT from its grave and updated it one more time.</p>
355    
356 jyrki 80 <p>ExFAT (extended FAT), also known as FAT64, was introduced with Windows CE 6.0, on November 2006. Windows Vista SP1, Windows 7 and newer support exFAT too, and by installing <a href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/955704" target="_blank">this update</a> Windows XP can be extended to support exFAT as well. GNU/Linux drivers are available too, but currently none of them are both stable and free. The best option seems to be <a href="http://code.google.com/p/exfat/" target="_blank">exfat</a>, an open-source driver in beta stage.</p>
357 sng 28
358     <p>The partition and file size limits of exFAT are the same: 64 zettabytes. Another important improvement is file permission support that, oddly, is lacking in Windows Vista. In addition, a directory within an exFAT partition can contain up to 2 796 202 files (instead of 65 536, as in FAT32) and timestamps have become more accurate.</p>
359    
360     <p>No operating system can be installed to an exFAT partition, so such partitions can only be used for data storage. Due to lack of journaling and support for huge files, exFAT is a good filesystem on Solid State Drives and thumb drives that are only used within Windows Vista and/or 7.</p>
361    
362    
363    
364     <H3><a name="annex-b-list"></a>Partition list <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#annex-b-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
365    
366     <p>The following table presents known partition types along with their IDs:</p>
367    
368     <p class="newcode" style="margin-right: 0;">&nbsp;0&nbsp;&nbsp;Empty&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;80&nbsp;&nbsp;Old&nbsp;Minix<br>
369     &nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;81&nbsp;&nbsp;Minix&nbsp;/&nbsp;old&nbsp;Linux<br>
370 jyrki 80 &nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;XENIX&nbsp;root&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Green">82&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;swap&nbsp;/&nbsp;Solaris</font><br>
371     &nbsp;3&nbsp;&nbsp;XENIX&nbsp;usr&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="Red">83&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux</font><br>
372 sng 28 &nbsp;4&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;&lt;32M&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;84&nbsp;&nbsp;OS/2&nbsp;hidden&nbsp;C:&nbsp;drive<br>
373 jyrki 80 &nbsp;<font color="Red">5&nbsp;&nbsp;Extended</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;85&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;extended<br>
374     &nbsp;6&nbsp;&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;86&nbsp;&nbsp;NTFS&nbsp;volume&nbsp;set<br>
375 sng 28 &nbsp;<font color="Green">7&nbsp;&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;87&nbsp;&nbsp;NTFS&nbsp;volume&nbsp;set<br>
376     &nbsp;8&nbsp;&nbsp;AIX&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;88&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;plaintext<br>
377     &nbsp;9&nbsp;&nbsp;AIX&nbsp;bootable&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;8e&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;LVM<br>
378     &nbsp;a&nbsp;&nbsp;OS/2&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;Manager&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;93&nbsp;&nbsp;Amoeba<br>
379 jyrki 185 &nbsp;<font color="Red">b&nbsp;&nbsp;W95&nbsp;FAT32</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;94&nbsp;&nbsp;Amoeba&nbsp;BBT<br>
380     &nbsp;c&nbsp;&nbsp;W95&nbsp;FAT32&nbsp;(LBA)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9f&nbsp;&nbsp;BSD/OS<br>
381 sng 28 &nbsp;e&nbsp;&nbsp;W95&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;(LBA)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;a0&nbsp;&nbsp;IBM&nbsp;Thinkpad&nbsp;hibernation<br>
382     &nbsp;<font color="Green">f&nbsp;&nbsp;W95&nbsp;Ext'd&nbsp;(LBA)</font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;a5&nbsp;&nbsp;FreeBSD<br>
383     10&nbsp;&nbsp;OPUS&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;a6&nbsp;&nbsp;OpenBSD<br>
384     11&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;FAT12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;a7&nbsp;&nbsp;NeXTSTEP<br>
385     12&nbsp;&nbsp;Compaq&nbsp;diagnostics&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;a8&nbsp;&nbsp;Darwin&nbsp;UFS<br>
386     14&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;&lt;32M&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;a9&nbsp;&nbsp;NetBSD<br>
387     16&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ab&nbsp;&nbsp;Darwin&nbsp;boot<br>
388     17&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;HPFS/NTFS&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;b7&nbsp;&nbsp;BSDI&nbsp;fs<br>
389     18&nbsp;&nbsp;AST&nbsp;SmartSleep&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;b8&nbsp;&nbsp;BSDI&nbsp;swap<br>
390     1b&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;W95&nbsp;FAT32&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bb&nbsp;&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;Wizard&nbsp;hidden<br>
391     1c&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;W95&nbsp;FAT32&nbsp;(LBA)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;be&nbsp;&nbsp;Solaris&nbsp;boot<br>
392     1e&nbsp;&nbsp;Hidden&nbsp;W95&nbsp;FAT16&nbsp;(LBA)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bf&nbsp;&nbsp;Solaris<br>
393     24&nbsp;&nbsp;NEC&nbsp;DOS&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;c1&nbsp;&nbsp;DRDOS/sec&nbsp;(FAT-12)<br>
394     39&nbsp;&nbsp;Plan&nbsp;9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;c4&nbsp;&nbsp;DRDOS/sec&nbsp;(FAT-16&nbsp;<&nbsp;32M)<br>
395     3c&nbsp;&nbsp;PartitionMagic&nbsp;recovery&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;c6&nbsp;&nbsp;DRDOS/sec&nbsp;(FAT-16)<br>
396     40&nbsp;&nbsp;Venix&nbsp;80286&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;c7&nbsp;&nbsp;Syrinx<br>
397     41&nbsp;&nbsp;PPC&nbsp;PReP&nbsp;Boot&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;da&nbsp;&nbsp;Non-FS&nbsp;data<br>
398     42&nbsp;&nbsp;SFS&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;db&nbsp;&nbsp;CP/M&nbsp;/&nbsp;CTOS&nbsp;/&nbsp;...<br>
399     4d&nbsp;&nbsp;QNX4.x&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;de&nbsp;&nbsp;Dell&nbsp;Utility<br>
400     4e&nbsp;&nbsp;QNX4.x&nbsp;2nd&nbsp;part&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;df&nbsp;&nbsp;BootIt<br>
401     4f&nbsp;&nbsp;QNX4.x&nbsp;3rd&nbsp;part&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;e1&nbsp;&nbsp;DOS&nbsp;access<br>
402     50&nbsp;&nbsp;OnTrack&nbsp;DM&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;e3&nbsp;&nbsp;DOS&nbsp;R/O<br>
403     51&nbsp;&nbsp;OnTrack&nbsp;DM6&nbsp;Aux1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;e4&nbsp;&nbsp;SpeedStor<br>
404     52&nbsp;&nbsp;CP/M&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;eb&nbsp;&nbsp;BeOS&nbsp;fs<br>
405     53&nbsp;&nbsp;OnTrack&nbsp;DM6&nbsp;Aux3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ee&nbsp;&nbsp;EFI&nbsp;GPT<br>
406     54&nbsp;&nbsp;OnTrackDM6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ef&nbsp;&nbsp;EFI&nbsp;(FAT-12/16/32)<br>
407     55&nbsp;&nbsp;EZ-Drive&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;f0&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux/PA-RISC&nbsp;boot<br>
408     56&nbsp;&nbsp;Golden&nbsp;Bow&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;f1&nbsp;&nbsp;SpeedStor<br>
409     5c&nbsp;&nbsp;Priam&nbsp;Edisk&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;f4&nbsp;&nbsp;SpeedStor<br>
410     61&nbsp;&nbsp;SpeedStor&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;f2&nbsp;&nbsp;DOS&nbsp;secondary<br>
411     63&nbsp;&nbsp;GNU&nbsp;HURD&nbsp;or&nbsp;SysV&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;fd&nbsp;&nbsp;Linux&nbsp;raid&nbsp;autodetect<br>
412     64&nbsp;&nbsp;Novell&nbsp;Netware&nbsp;286&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;fe&nbsp;&nbsp;LANstep<br>
413     65&nbsp;&nbsp;Novell&nbsp;Netware&nbsp;386&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ff&nbsp;&nbsp;BBT<br>
414     70&nbsp;&nbsp;DiskSecure&nbsp;Multi-Boot<br>
415     75&nbsp;&nbsp;PC/IX</p>
416    
417     <p>The partitions you are most likely to see in use, are:</p>
418    
419     <ul>
420     <li><b><font color="Green">HPFS/NTFS (ID = 7)</font></b><br>
421     This is the <b>Windows XP</b> partition, also known as <b>NTFS</b></li>
422    
423 jyrki 185 <li><b><font color="Red">W95 FAT32 (ID = b)</font></b><br>
424 sng 28 This is the <b>Windows 95 - 98</b> partition<br>
425     It is used in any kind of disk and large USB devices (1 GB and more)</li>
426    
427     <li><b><font color="Green">W95 Ext'd (LBA) (ID = f)</font></b><br>
428 jyrki 80 Extended partition. It acts as a container for other partitions</li>
429 sng 28
430 jyrki 80 <li><b><font color="Red">Extended (ID = 5)</font></b><br>
431     Another extended partition type. It acts as a container for other partitions<br>
432     There is one more extended partition type (ID = 85), but Windows doesn't recognise it</li>
433    
434     <li><b><font color="Green">Linux swap / Solaris (ID = 82)</font></b><br>
435 sng 28 Swap partition, acting as <b>Virtual Memory</b><br>
436     Modern computers with 1 - 2 GB of memory may not use it at all</li>
437    
438 jyrki 80 <li><b><font color="Red">Linux (ID = 83)</font></b><br>
439 sng 28 Linux partitions, such as <b>ext2</b>, <b>ext3</b> and <b>reiserfs</b></li>
440     </ul>
441    
442    
443    
444    
445    
446    
447    
448 sng 37 <H2><a name="example"></a>Partitioning example <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H2>
449 sng 28
450     <p>This section contains a partitioning example. I simulate the following situation in a virtual machine:</p>
451    
452 jyrki 150 <p>I have two partitions in my disk: <b>/dev/sda1</b> that contains a GNU/Linux distribution, and <b>/dev/sda2</b> that is a swap partition. Here we can see the output of <b>parted</b>:</p>
453 sng 28
454 jyrki 150 <p class="newcode">root@sysresccd /root % parted -l<br>
455     Model: ATA VBOX HARDDISK (scsi)<br>
456     Disk /dev/sda: 2097MB<br>
457     Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B<br>
458     Partition Table: msdos<br>
459 sng 28 <br>
460 jyrki 150 Number&nbsp;&nbsp;Start&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;End&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Size&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Type&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;File&nbsp;system&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Flags<br>
461     &nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;32.3kB&nbsp;&nbsp;1679MB&nbsp;&nbsp;1679MB&nbsp;&nbsp;primary&nbsp;&nbsp;ext4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;boot<br>
462     &nbsp;2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1679MB&nbsp;&nbsp;2097MB&nbsp;&nbsp;418MB&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;primary&nbsp;&nbsp;linux-swap(v1)<br>
463 sng 28 <br>
464 jyrki 150 <br>
465     Warning: Unable to open /dev/sr0 read-write (Read-only file system).&nbsp;&nbsp;/dev/sr0 has been opened read-only.<br>
466     Error: /dev/sr0: unrecognised disk label<br>
467     <br>
468     Error: /dev/fd0: unrecognised disk label</p>
469 sng 28
470     <p>Now I'm going to install another distribution on the same disk. First of all, I need one more partition, because only one distro can be installed on one partition. In addition, I want to separate /home to its own partition in order to be able to share it between distributions.</p>
471    
472     <p>Because the whole disk is already allocated, I must shrink at least one existing partition in order to create new partitions. I'll shrink both of them to half (<b>/dev/sda1</b> from 1,6 gigabytes to 800 megabytes, and <b>/dev/sda2</b> from 400 MB to 200 MB). In addition, I'll move <b>/dev/sda2</b> right next to <b>/dev/sda1</b> to keep the partitions in order.</p>
473    
474     <p>But how many partitions there will be in total? One, two, three... four! Phew, I was near to paint myself into a corner. If I created only primary partitions, I'd be unable to create any more partitions on the disk. Thus, I'll create an extended partition instead and two logical partitions within it. Then I'll be able to create more logical partitions later if required.</p>
475    
476     <p>There is one more challenge: moving /home to a separate partition. It's very easy to move the folder itself, but the distro in <b>/dev/sda1</b> will surely be confused if it doesn't find /home when it boots next time. Thus, I must edit its <b>/etc/fstab</b> and configure it to mount the /home partition automatically - before booting the distro itself.
477    
478     <p>Now there are only two decisions left: the numbers and sizes of the new partitions. I decide to install the new distro to <b>/dev/sda5</b> and move /home to <b>/dev/sda6</b>. Let <b>/dev/sda5</b> be 800 megabytes and <b>/dev/sda6</b> 200 MB in size.</p>
479    
480     <p>Now it's time to boot into <b>SystemRescueCD</b>. Graphical mode is required this time.</p>
481     <img src="images/systemrescuecd.png">
482     <p>I close the terminal and open <b>GParted</b> by clicking the third icon in the bottom pane.</p>
483     <img src="images/gparted-00.png">
484     <p>I right-click the partition <b>/dev/sda1</b> and select <b>Resize/Move</b>.</p>
485     <img src="images/gparted-01.png">
486     <p>I enter 799 MB as the new size, click the <b>Free Space Following (MiB)</b> combo box and press <b>Resize/Move</b>.</p>
487     <img src="images/gparted-02.png">
488     <p>I right-click now <b>/dev/sda2</b> and select <b>Resize/Move</b>.</p>
489     <img src="images/gparted-03.png">
490     <p>I enter 0 MB as preceding free space and 200 MB as partition size, click the <b>Free Space Following (MiB)</b> combo box and press <b>Resize/Move</b>.</p>
491 jyrki 170 <img src="images/gparted-03a.png">
492     <p>I read the warning. As the swap partition doesn't contain /boot (or any files, for that matter), I just click <b>OK</b>.</p>
493 sng 28 <img src="images/gparted-04.png">
494     <p>I right-click the unallocated area and select <b>New</b>.</p>
495     <img src="images/gparted-05.png">
496 jyrki 82 <p>I select <b>Extended Partition</b> as the partition type. The size was already 1000 megabytes (the maximum) and as said, an extended partition doesn't contain any filesystem. I click <b>Add</b>.</p>
497 sng 28 <img src="images/gparted-06.png">
498     <p>I right-click the unallocated area within the extended partition and select <b>New</b>.</p>
499     <img src="images/gparted-07.png">
500 jyrki 82 <p>I choose the ext4 filesystem and enter 799 MB as the partition size. After that, I click first the <b>Free Space Following (MiB)</b> combo box and then <b>Add</b>.</p>
501 sng 28 <img src="images/gparted-08.png">
502     <p>I right-click the remaining unallocated space and select <b>New</b> one more time.</p>
503     <img src="images/gparted-09.png">
504 jyrki 170 <p>I choose the ext4 filesystem again. The partition size setting was already 199 megabytes (the whole available space), so I just press <b>Add</b>.</p>
505 sng 28 <img src="images/gparted-10.png">
506     <div align="center"><table class="note" border="0" cellpadding="20"><tr><td valign="top"><img src="images/important.png"></td><td>
507     The next step is to commit the changes.<br><br>After that some operations, for example<br>partition deletion, can no longer be undone.
508     </td></tr></table></div>
509     <p>Finally I commit the changes by pressing the rightmost icon in the main bar.</p>
510     <img src="images/gparted-11.png">
511     <p>After <i>slowly</i> reading the warning, I confirm my decisions by pressing <b>Apply</b>.</p>
512     <img src="images/gparted-12.png">
513     <p><b>GParted</b> begins to commit the changes...</p>
514     <img src="images/gparted-13.png">
515     <p>...and when everything is done, it shows me this window that I close.</p>
516     <img src="images/gparted-14.png">
517     <p>Then I can see the brand new partitions.</p>
518    
519     <H3><a name="partitions-home"></a>Moving /home <span class="hideprint">[<a href="#partitions-top" title="go to top of the page">^</a>]</span></H3>
520    
521     <p>I close <b>GParted</b> and launch <b>Terminal</b> by pressing the second icon in the bottom pane.</p>
522    
523     <p>I create directories as mount points:</p>
524    
525     <p class="newcode">mkdir /mnt/sda1<br>
526     mkdir /mnt/sda6</p>
527    
528     <p>Then I mount the partitions:</p>
529    
530     <p class="newcode">mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/sda1<br>
531     mount /dev/sda6 /mnt/sda6</p>
532    
533 jyrki 82 <p>I copy the directory to the new partition:</p>
534 sng 28
535 jyrki 82 <p class="newcode">cd /mnt/sda1<br>
536     rsync -aAPSX home/ /mnt/sda6</p>
537 sng 28
538 jyrki 82 <p>I move the original directory out of my way and create a new directory in place of it:</p>
539    
540     <p class="newcode">mv home home-old<br>
541     mkdir home</p>
542    
543 sng 28 <p>After that, I unmount /dev/sda6, because it no longer needs to be mounted:</p>
544    
545 jyrki 82 <p class="newcode">umount /dev/sda6</p>
546 sng 28 <img src="images/terminal.png">
547     <p>Now I close <b>Terminal</b> and launch <b>Geany</b> by pressing the fourth icon in the bottom pane.</p>
548     <img src="images/geany-00.png">
549     <p>I select <b>File</b> -> <b>Open</b>.</p>
550     <img src="images/geany-01.png">
551     <p>I press <b>File System</b> and navigate to folder <b>/mnt/sda1/etc</b>.</p>
552     <img src="images/geany-02.png">
553     <p>I double-click the file <b>fstab</b>.</p>
554     <img src="images/geany-03.png">
555     <p>I add the following line:</p>
556    
557     <p class="newcode">/dev/sda6&nbsp;/home&nbsp;ext4&nbsp;defaults&nbsp;0&nbsp;2</p>
558    
559     <p>Finally, I select <b>File</b> -> <b>Save</b>.</p>
560     <img src="images/geany-04.png">
561 jyrki 82 <p>It's a good idea to reboot the computer now and check if the distribution in <b>/dev/sda1</b> still works. If yes, the /home-old directory can be removed and the disk is ready for the new distro.</p>
562 sng 28
563    
564     </div>
565     <div id="footer">
566     <p>Copyright: &#169; <a href="mailto:&#115;&#110;&#103;&#064;&#104;&#101;&#108;&#108;&#117;&#103;&#046;&#103;&#114;?subject=About Clonezilla-SysRescCD v "myVersion"">Spiros Georgaras</a>, 2007-2010<br /><br/>
567     Hosted by <a href="http://www.hellug.gr" target="_blank" title="Hellenic Linux User Group">HEL.L.U.G.</a></p>
568     </div>
569     </div>
570     </body>
571     </html>

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